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Call No. 2^01 62^1 to Accession No. 

This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below* 

















by Printed and Hound by 

J. MANX & Co., CuicAflo. UKO. M. Hiu, Co., CHICAGO. 


IN preparing these volumes I have had the aid of skilful 
co -laborers, to whom I owe an expression of warmest thanks 
Rev. Leonard Woolsey Bacon, D.D., Rev. E. C. Towne, Rev. 
Walter M. Barrows, D.D., Prof. George S. Goodspeed and Mr. 
Clyde W. Votaw, of the Chicago University, Mr. Frederic 
Perry Noble, and Mr. Kiretchjian of Constantinople. In con- 
ducting the Parliament I was aided by friends whose fidelity I 
gratefully remember Bishop Keane, Dr. Momerie, Dr. 
George Dana Boardman, Dr. Hirsch, Rev. L. P. Mercer, Dr. 
S. J. Niccolls, Dr. W. C. Raberts, Dr. F. M. Bristol, Rev. A. J. 
Lewis, Bishop Arnett, Rev. Augusta J. Chapin, D.D., Mr. 
Theodore F. Seward, Rev. George T. Lemmon, my indefatiga- 
ble Secretary, Mr. William Pipe, Rev. Jenkin Lloyd-Jones, 
and Mr. Mcrwin-Marie Snell. That I have been able to give 
so much strength to this work is due to the kindness of the 
Elders and people of my own beloved Church. To them I 
desire to offer my loving and heartfelt thanks. Lasting grat- 
itude is due to those who have helped me in preparing for 
the Parliament, or in securing the worthy publication of its 
proceedings. My best obligations must be expressed to 
President Charles C. Bonney, Mrs. Henrotin, Mr. H. N. Hig- 
inbotham, President of the Columbian Exposition, to Mr. A, 
C. Bartlett, Mr. Daniel H. Burnham, Mr. Marshall Field, 
Mr. James W. Ellsworth, Mr. O. S. A. Sprague, Mr. Byron 
L. Smith, Mr. M. D. Wells, Mr. John B. Sherman, Mr 
William E. Hale, Mr. Jay C. Morse, Mr. John Davidson, Mr 
Edward E. Ayer, Mr. Andrew Onderdonk, Mr. William Deer- 
ing; to the gentlemen of the Lakeside Press, to Col. Henry 
L. Turner and Mr. Schiller Hosford of the Parliament Pub 
lishing Company. The Parliament of Religions was made 
possible only by a world- wide cooperation with the Gen 


eral Committee. This record of gratitude would not be 
complete if I did not remember among others Rev. E. M. 
Wherry, D.D., of Chicago, Dr. A. P. Happer, Dr. Miller of 
Madras, Dr. Timothy Richard of Shanghai, Dr. Washburn of 
Constantinople, Prof. Alexander Tison and the Rev. Zitsuzen 
Ashitsu of Japan, Hon. D. Naoroji of London, Prof. Max 
Miiller of Oxford, Count d'Alviella of Brussels. 1 have 
had assistance also from Chaplain Allen Allensworth, of the 
United States Army, and from Mr. Clarence E. Young, Secre- 
tary of the World's Congress Auxiliary. It is a pleasure here 
to record gratefully the names of friends who extended hospi- 
tality to the members of the Parliament or who aided in enter- 
taining them Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Bartlett, Mr. and Mrs. E. 
W. Blatchford, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin 
Hughitt, Mr. and Mrs. A. A. Sprague, Mr. John B. Drake, 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Lyon, Mr. and Mrs. George H. Laflin, 
Mr. H. M. Sherwood, Mrs. Win. H. Swift, Mrs. L. C. Paine 
Freer, Dr. S. J. McPherson, Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Hamill, Mrs. 
H. M. Wilmarth, Mrs. Flora Fisher, Mrs. John Angus, Mrs. 
Henry Corwith, and others. I wish also to mention my obliga- 
tions to the reporters and editors of the Chicago newspapers. 
The press of this city, furnishing from forty-five to sixty 
columns of daily reports, helped to widen the interest in the 
Parliament which has reached such a vast extent. And now 
as this work goes forth, may it bring back pleasing and sacred 
memories to those who stood in loving fellowship on the plat- 
form of a common humanity during the Parliament, and may 
it carry a multitude of blessings, hope, inspiration, enlighten- 
ment and renewed devotion to the highest things, to all those 
whp faithfully work and patiently wait for the Kingdom of 
God on earth ! 


CHICAGO, Nov. 17, 1893. 




COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, - - - Frontispiece. 

MURDOCK, - - ^ - - - - - 821 






SEPTEMBER 14, - - - - - - - 853 



CEYLON, -----.-- 867 

A BUDDHIST SHRINE, ...... 875 





HOOD, i. INVOCATION, ..... 899 








SIR WILLIAM DAWSON, LL.D., F.R.S., .... 945 

REV. H. R. HAWEIS, LONDON, ..... 951 


GOD, INDIA, - - - - - - - 959 

REV. B. FAY MILLS, ..... 965 

SWAMI VlVEKANANDA, - -, - - - 973 

BRAHMAN PUNDITS, ...... 979 

COUNT A. BERNSTORFF, ...... 987 









ELY, DR. J. A. S. GRANT (BEY), i 1029 

His HOLINESS POPE LEO Xlll., - .... 1035 




TEMPLE, ---... 1063 






AARON M, POWELL, - - - -- - -1113 













THE REV. DR. W. M. BARROWS, .... I2 o3 






























PROF. THOS. RICHEY, D.D., ..... 1385 






REV. MARY B. G. EDDY, ...... 1431 

MONKEY TEMPLE, BENARES, - - - - - 1439 



SPRENG, ....... 1451 



MAGILL, ....... i^^o 

Miss JEANNK SORARJI, _--.-- 1469 

M. E.), ....... I479 


PECK, ROGERS, (M. E.), - 1485 
LEM), ....... I49 i 


HOGFELDT, HULTMAN, (SWED. Ev. MlSS. CoV.), - I 51 5 





SUSAN B. ANTHONY, ...... 1533 


MRS. POTTER PALMER, ...... 1567 








IZATION. By Prof. D. G. LYON, Harvard University, Pages 817-828 

Right Rev. SHAKU SOYEN, Japan. - * Pages 829-831 

FISHER, Yale University. - Pages 832-841 

TER, Oxford University. ----- Pages 842-849 

St. Louis. - ------- Pages 850-860 


Pages 862-880 

Rev. JOHN J. KEANE, D.I)., Washington. - - Pages 882-888 


Boston Highlands. - ----- Pages 890-893 


High Priest of the Southern Buddhist Church of Ceylon. Pages 894-897 

Bombay. - Pages 898-920 


SCOTT, INDIA. - ------ Pages 921-925 

Castle, England. - - .... Pages 926, 927 


Pages 928-934 

MULLER, Oxford University. - Pages 935, 936 

University. .---.--- Pages 938-941 


Pages 942-946 



Music, EMOTION AND MORALS, By the Rev. Dr. HAWEIS, London. 

Pages 947-950 

DWIGHT, M.D., LL.D., Harvard University. - Pages 950-956 


LIFE? By President SYLVESTER F. SCOVEL, D.D. Pages 956-960 

LANDIS, D.D., Ph.D., Dayton. - t - - Pages 960-968 

HINDUISM. By SWAMI VIVKKANANDA. - - - Pages 968-978 


Pages 978-98 1 

the REV. Dr. GEORGE E. POST, Beirut. - - Pages 982-983 

D.D., Oberlin. Pages 984-986 


Pages 986-989 


Pages 989-996 


Pages 997-1000 

WRIGHT, Cambridge, Mass. - - Page 1002 

Rev. IDA C. HULTIN, Moline, Illinois. - - Pages 1003-1005 

RELIGION AND Music. By Prof. WALDO S. PRATT. Pages 1005-1008 

FORD HOWELL TOY, Harvard University. - - - Pa^es 1009-101 1 

PECTS. By President KOZAKI, Doshisha University. Pages 1012 1015 

Dr. D. J. KENNEDY, Somerset, Ohio. Pages 1016-1018 



By Prof. F. G. PEABODY, Harvard University. - - Pages 1024-1030 

G. SPENCER, Providence. Pages 1030-1031 

DESTITUTE. By CHARLES F. DONNELLY, Boston. Pages 1032-1036 

WOMEN OF INDIA. By Miss JEANNE SORABJI, Bombay. Pages 1037-1038 

BUDDHA. By the Right Rev. ZITZUZEN ASHITZU, Japan. Pages 1038-1040 


CONRAD VON ORELLI, Basel. - Pages 1041-1045 

RUSSELL MOHAMMED WEBB. - - - Pages 1046-1052 


Pages 1052-1056 


versity of Wisconsin. - w - - - Pages 1056-1061 

DERSON, D.D. University of Chicago. - - Pages 1061-1064 

RELIGION AND LABOR. By the Rev. JAMES M, CLEARY. Pages 1065-1067 

TON GLADPEN, D.D., Columbus, Ohio. - - - - Pages 1068-1070 
the Rev. JOSEPH COOK, LL.D., Boston. - ... Pages 1072-1075 

CRIME AND ITS REMEDY. By the Rev. OLYMPIA BROWN. Pages 1076-1078 


FLETCHER, Cambridge, Mass. .... Pages 1078-1079 

of Chicago. - Pages 1080-1083 

DAR. - - Pages 1083-1091 

HAWORTH. Pages 1093-1100 

THE ETHICS OF ISLM. Quotations from the Koran by the Rev. Dr. 
GEORGE E. POST, Beirut. Pages 1096-1099 

ADDRESSES of Bishop B. W. ARNETT and the lion. J. M. ASHLEY. 

Pages 1101-1104 

SLATTERY, Baltimore. Pages 1104-1106 

By the Hon. JOHN W. HOYT. - Pages 1107-1108 

WOMEN. By AARON M. POWKLL. - - - Pages 1108-1109 

WILJJAMS MOMERIE, D.D., London. . - - Pages 1110-1112 

cago. Pages 1114-1115 

University. Pages 1116-1120 

New York. ...."... Pages 1 120-1 122 

the Rev. HENRY H. JESSUP, D.D., Beirut. - Pages 1122-1126 

OHANNES CHATSCHMUYAN. - Pages 1126-1128 


Pages 1128-1130 

New York. - Pages 1130-1132 

Petersburg!*. - - - -" - - Pages 1134-1136 


AMERICA'S DUTY TO CHINA. By President W. A. P. MARTIN, Imperial 
Tung-Wen College, Peking. .... Pages 1137-1144 

TOLERATION. By Prof. MINAS TCHKRAZ, London. Pages 1145, 1146 

Paris. - Pages 1146-1148 

WELL, Elizabeth, New Jersey. .... Pages 1148-1150 

Rabbi 11. BERKOWIJZ, D.I)., Philadelphia. - Pages 1150, 115*1 

AMERICA. By Prof. THOMAS O'GORMAN. - Pages 1152-1157 

DAVID JAMES BURRELL, New York. - - Pages 1157-1161 

K. CARROLL, New York. Pages 1162-1165 

don. - Pages 1166-1172 

Bangalore. ------- Pages 1172-1178 

Tien -tsin, West China. - Pages 1 179-1191 

New York. - - - -~ - - Pages 1192-1201 

II. FREMANTLE, Canon of Canterbury, - - Pages 1201-1209 

THE Civic CHURCH. By Mr. W. T. STEAD, London. Pages 1209-1215 

versity, Waterville, Maine. .... Pages 1215-1220 

SEND, Boston University. ... - Pages 1220-1222 

Esq., Bombay. ...... Pages 1222-1226 

Bombay. ....... Pages 1226-1229 

A WHITE LIFE FOR Two. By Miss F. E. WILLARD. Pages 1230-1234 


Pages 1234-1236 

F. E. CLARK. - - Pages 1237-1242 

OTHER RELIGIONS. By Prof. W. C. WILKINSON., Pages 1243-1249 


Pages 1250-1251 

JAMES S. DENNIS, New York. .... Pages 1252-1258 

IGNADOS. - Pages 1258 1261 


the REV. G. BONET-MAURY, Paris. - - - Pages 1261-1264 

By the Rev. JOHN GMEINER, St. Paul. - Pages 1265-1266 

WOOLLEY, Geneva, 111. Pages 1268-1269 

TRAST AND OF LIKENESS. By the Rev. R. A. HUME. Pages 1269-1276 


KIRETCHJIAN, Constantinople. - ... Pages 1276-1279 

yama. Pages 1279-1283 

CHRISTIANITYWHAT is IT? By Rev. J. T. YOKOI. Pages 1283-1284 


CHRISTIANITY. By II. DHARMAPALA, Ceylon. - Pages 1288-1290 


GIRO KAWAI, Japan. Pages 1290-1293 



GORDON, of the Doshisha School, Kyoto. - - Pages 1293-1296 

Bankok, Pages 1296-1297 

Rev. A. CONSTANTIAN, Constantinople. - - Pages 1298-1300 

TOMLINS, Chicago. Pages 1302-1303 

Chicago. Pages 1304-1308 

Carleton, Nebraska. - * Page 1308 

YEN. Pages 1309-1312 

ALGER, Boston. Pages 1312-1315 

F. G, S. - - - - - - - - Pages 1316-1325 


Pages 1325-1327 

Rochester. Pages 1327-1330 

Washington, Pages 1331-1338 

BOARDMAN, Philadelphia. .... Pages 1338-1346 



PRISE. Opening Address by Mr. MERVVIN-MARIE SNELL, Chairman. 

Page 1347 

J. A. S. GRANT (BEY) A.M., M.D., LL.D. - - Pages 1348 1349 

Shanghai. Pages 1350-1353 

ZOROASTRIANISM. By the Parsees of Bombay. - Pages 1353-1354 

TAOISM: A Prize Essay. - Pages 1355- 1358 

G. PATON. ' Pages 1358-1360 

Prof. LEON MARILLIER, Paris. Page 1361 

KIDDER, PH.D. -----.-*- page 1362 

ALBERT REVILLE, D.I)., Paris - Pages 1363-1367 

REVILLE, Lecturer at the Sorhonne, Paris. - Pages 1367 1369 

THE DEV DHARM. By a Member of the Mission. - Pages 1369 1370 

Pages 1374-1375 


By S. PARTHASARATHY AIYANGAR, Madras. - Pages 1376 1378 

"TiEN-CHU " FOR Goo. By Dr. HENRY BLOOGETT. Pages 1378-1380 



RICHEY, New York. Pages 1383-1390 

MANSFIELD. Paper by the Rev. MILES GRANT. - Pages 1391-1392 


GEORGE C. LORIMER, Boston. . . . Pages 1397-1402 









[This report belongs among those of the Interdenominational Congresses ] 


HOWE. Pages 1453 1456 

CONGRESS OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS (Orthodox). - Pages 1456-1457 

CONGRESS OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS (Hicksite). Pages 1457- 1400 

J. G. KIRCHER, Chicago. Pages 1460 1461 

THE JEWISH CONGRESS (Inc. JEWISH WOMEN). - - Pages 1461-1467 











THE THEOSOPHICAL CONGRESS. .... Pages 1517-1522 



THE UNIVKRSALIST CONGRESS. - - - Pages 1531-1535 


CONGRESS OF MISSIONS. Pages 1536-1549 

SUNDAY REST CONGRESS. Pages 1549-1553 






INDEX. Page 1590 



THE EIGHTH DA Y Continued. 



In this glad Columbian year, when all the world is rejoicing with us, 
and in this hall, consecrated to the greatest idea of the century, I could 
perform no task more welcome than that to which I have been assigned, the 
task of paying a tribute based on history. I shall use the word "Jew" not 
in the religious but in the ethnic sense. In so doing the antithesis to Jew is 
not Christian, but non-Jew or Gentile. The position of the Jews in the 
world is peculiar. They may be Englishmen, German, American, and, as 
such, loyal to the land of their birth. They may or may not continue to 
adhere to a certain phase of religion. Bur they cannot avoid being known 
as the scattered fragments of a nation. Most of them are as distinctly 
marked by mental traits and by physiognomy as is a typical Englishman, 
German, or Chinaman. 

The Jew, as thus described, is in our midst an American, and has all 
reasons to be glad which belong to the community at large, but his unique 
position to-day and his importance in history justify the inquiry, whether he 
may not have special reasons for rejoicing in this auspicious year. 

I. Such ground for rejoicing is seen in the fact that the discovery and set- 
tlement of America was the work of faith. Columbus believed in the exist- 
ence and attainableness of that which neither he nor his fellows had ever 
seen. Apart from his own character and his aims in the voyage of discov- 
ery, it was this belief that saved him from discouragement and held his 
bark true to its western course. What though he found somethfng greater 
than he sought, it was his belief in the smaller that*made the greater dis- 
covery possible. 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 

52 817 


What is true of the discovery is true of the settlement of America. This 
too was an act of faith. The colonists of Chesapeake and Massachusetts 
Bays left the comforts of the Old World, braved the dangers of sea, and cold 
and savage populations, because they believed in something which could be 
felt, though not seen, the guidance of a hand which directs the destiny of 
individuals and of empires. 

Now the Jews, as a people, stand in a preeminent degree for faith. 
They must be judged not by those of their number who in our day give them- 
selves over to a life of materialism, but by their best representatives and by 
the general current of their history. At the fountain of their being they place 
a man whose name is the synonym of faith. Abraham, the first Jew, nurtured 
in the comforts and refinements of a civilization whose grandeur is just begin- 
ning to find due appreciation, hears an inward, compelling voice, bidding him 
forsake the land of his fathers and go forth, he knows not whither, to lay in 
the distant West the foundations of the empire of faith. The hopes of the 
entire subsequent world encamped in the tent of the wanderer from Ur of 
Chaldaea. The migration was a splendid adventure, prophetic of the great 
development of it which was the beginning. 

What was it but the audacity of faith which in later times enabled an 
Isaiah to defy the most powerful army in the world, and Jeremiah to be firm 
to his convictions in the midst of a city full of enemies ? What but faith 
could have held together the exiles in Babylon and could have inspired 
them once more to exchange this home of ease and luxury for the hardships 
and uncertainties of their devastated Palestinian hills ? It was faith that 
nerved the arm of the Maccabees for their heroic struggle, and the sublimity 
of faith when the dauntless daughter of Zion defied the power of Rome. 
The brute force of Rome \yon the day, but the Jews, dispersed throughout 
the world, have still been true to the foundation principle of their history. 
They believe that God has spoken to the fathers and that he has not forsaken 
the children, and through that belief they endure. 

II. A second ground for Jewish rejoicing to-day is that America in its 
development is realizing Jqjvish dreams. 

A bolder dreamer than the Hebrew prophet the world has not known, 
He reveled in glowing pictures of home and prosperity and brotherhood in 
the good times which were yet to be. The strength of his wing as poet is 
seen in his ability to take these flights at times when all outward appear- 
ances were a denial of his hopes. It was not the prosperous state whose 
continuance he foresaw, but the decaying state, destined to be shattered, 
then buried, then rebuilt, to continue forever. It was not external power, 
but external power in alliance with inward goodness, whose description 
called forth his highest genius. His dream, it is true, had its temporal and 
its local coloring. His coming state, built on righteousness, was to be a 
kingdom, because this was the form of government with which he was 
familiar. Th? s$B,t of this empire was to be Jerusalem, and his patriot 


could have made no other choice. We are now learning to distinguish the 
essential ideas of a writer from the phraseology in which they find expres- 
sion. A Jewish empire does not exist, and Jerusalem is not the mistress of 
the world. And yet the dream of the prophet is true. A home for the 
oppressed has been found, a home where prosperity and brotherhood dwell 
together. Substitute America for Jerusalem and a republic for a kingdom, 
and the correctness of the prophet's dream is realized. Let us examine the 
details of the picture. 

I. The prophet foresees a home. In this he is true to one of the 
marked traits of his people. Who has sung more sweetly than the Hebrew 
poet of home, where every man shall " sit under his vine and under his fig- 
tree, and none shall make them afraid ; " where the father of a large family 
is like the fortunate hunter, whose quiver is full of arrows; where the 
children are likened to olive plants around the father's table, and where a 
cardinal virtue of childhood is honor to father and mother ? And where 
shall one look to-day for finer types of domestic felicity than may be found 
in Jewish homes ? Or, taking the word home in its larger sense, where 
shall one surpass the splendid patriotism of the Hebrew poet exile : 

"If I forget thee, () Jerusalem, 
Let my right hand forget her cunning. 
Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, 
If I remember thee not ; 
If I prefer not Jerusalem, 
Above my chief joy." 

Yet notwithstanding this love of a local habitation the Jew has been for 
many cruel centuries a wanderer on the face of the earth. The nations 
have raged, the kings of the earth have set themselves and the rulers have 
taken counsel together, and the standing miracle of history is that the Jew 
has not been ground to powder as between the upper and the nether mill- 

But these hardships are now, let us hope, near their end. This young 
republic has welcomed the Jew who has fled the oppression of the Old 
World. Its constitution declares the equality of men, and experience 
demonstrates our power to assimilate all comers who desire to be one with 
us. Here thought and its expression are free. Here is the restful haven 
which realizes the prophet's dream. Not the Jew only, but all the oppressed 
of earth may here find welcome and home. The inspiring example of 
Columbia's portals always open to the world is destined to alleviate the ills 
and check the crimes of man against man throughout all lands. And wh^t 
though here and there a hard and unphilanthropic soul would bolt Colum- 
bia's doors and recall her invitation or check her free intercourse with 
nations? This is but the eddy in her course, and to heed these harsh 
advices she must be as false to her own past as to her splendid ideal. 
Geary exclusion acts and some of the current doctrines of protective tariff 
are as un-American as they are i 


2. But the Jewish dream was no less of prosperity than of home. Amer- 
ica realizes this feature of the dream to an extent never seen before. Where 
should one seek for a parallel to her inexhaustible resources and her phe- 
nomenal material development ! And no element of the community has 
understood better than the Jewish to reap the harvests which are ever tempt- 
ing the sickles of industry. Jewish names are numerous and potent in 
the exchanges and in all great commercial enterprises. The spirit that 
schooled itself by hard contact with Judaean hills, that has been held in 
check by adversity for twenty-five centuries, shows in this free land the 
elasticity of the uncaged eagle. Not only trade, but all other avenues of 
advance, are here open to men of endowments, of whatsoever race and 
clirne. In journalism, in education, in philanthropy, the Jews will average 
as well as the Gentiles, perhaps better, while many individual Jews have 
risen to an enviable eminence. 

3. A third feature in the Jewish dream, an era of brotherhood and good 
feeling, is attaining here a beautiful realization. 

Nowhere have we finer illustrations of this than in the attitude toward 
the Jews of the great seats of learning. The oldest and largest American 
university employs its instructors without applying any tests of race or relig- 
ion. In its faculty Jews are always found. To its liberal feast of learning 
there is a constant and increasing resort of ambitious Jewish youth. Har- 
vard is, of course, not peculiar in this regard. There are other seats of 
learning where wisdom invites as warmly to her banquet halls, and notably 
the great Chicago University. The spectacle at Harvard is, however, 
specially gratifying, because there seems to be prophetically embodied in her 
seal, "Christo et Kcclesitf" an acknowledgment of her obligations to the 
Jew, and a dedication of her powers to a Jewish carpenter and to a Jewish 

4. The era of brotherhood is also seen in the cooperation of Jew and 
Gentile to further good causes. To refer again, by permission, to Harvard 
University, one of its unique and most significant collections is a Semitic 
Museum, fostered by many friends, but chiefly by a Jew. And it is a pleas- 
ure to add here that one of the great departments of the library of Chicago 
University has been adopted by the Jews. Although taxed to the utmost 
to care for their destitute brethren who seek our shores to escape Old 
World persecutions, the Jews are still ever ready to join others in good 
works for the relief of human need. If Baron Hirsch's colossal benefac- 
tions distributed in America are restricted to Jews, it is because this philan- 
thropist sees in these unfortunate refugees the most needy subjects of bene- 

5. But' most significant of all is the fact that we are beginning to 
understand one another in a religious sense; When Jewish rabbis are 
invited to deliver religious lectures at great Universities, arid when Jewish 
congregations welcome Columbian addresses from* Christian ministers, 








seem to have made a long step towards acquaintance with one another. 
The discussion now going on among Jews regarding the adoption of Sun- 
day as the day of public worship, and the Jewish recognition of the great- 
ness of Jesus, which finds expression in^ synagogue addresses such things 
are prophecies whose significance the thoughtful hearer will not fail to per- 

Now what is ttfe result of this close union, of which I have instanced a 
few examples, in learning, in philanthropy, and in affairs religious ? Is it 
not the removal of mutual misunderstandings ? So long as Judaism and 
American Christianity stand aloof, each will continue to ascribe to the other 
the vices of its most unworthy representatives. But when they meet and 
learn to know one another, they find a great common standing-ground. 
Judging each by its best, each can have for the other only respect and good 

The one great exception to the tenor of these remarks is in matters 
social. There does not exist that free intercourse between Jews and non- 
Jews which one might reasonably expect. One of the causes is religious 
prejudice on both sides, but the chief cause is the evil already mentioned, of 
estimating Jews and non-Jews by the least worthy members of the two classes. 
The Jew who is forced to surrender all his goods and flee from Russian 
oppression, or who purchases the right to remain in the Czar's empire by a 
sacrifice of his faith, can hardly be blamed if he sees only the bad in those 
who call themselves Christians. If one of these refugees prospers in America 
and carries himself in a lordly manner, and makes himself distasteful even 
to the cultivated among his co-religionists, can it be wondered at that others 
transfer his bad manners to other Jews ? But let Jew and non-Jew come to 
understand one another, and the refinement in the one will receive its full 
recognition from the refinement in the other. Acquaintance and a good 
heart are the checks against the unthinking condemnation by classes. 

III. A third and main reason why the Jew should rejoice in this Colum- 
bian year is that American society is, in an important sense, produced and 
held together by Jewish thought. 

The justification of this assertion forces on us the question, What has the 
Jew done for civilization ? 

First of all he has given us the Bible, the Scriptures, old and new. It 
matters not for this discussion that the Jews, as a religious sect, have never 
given to the books of the New Testament the dignity of canonicity. It suf- 
fices that those books, with one, or possibly two, exceptions, were written by 
men of Jewish birth. 

I. And where shall one go, if not to the Bible, to find the noblest liter- 
ature of the soul ? Where shall one find so well expressed as in he Psalms 
the longing for God and the deep satisfaction of his presence ? Where 
burning indignation against wrong-doing more strongly portrayed than in 
the prophets ? Where such a picture as the Gospels give of love that con- 


sumes. itself in sacrifice ? The highest hopes and moods of the soul reached 
such attainment among the Jews two thousand years ago that the interven- 
ing ages have not yet shown one step in advance, 

2. Viewed as a hand-book of ethics the Bible has a power second only 
to its exalted position as a classic of -the soul. The " Ten Words,' 1 though 
negatively expressed, are in their second half an admirable statement of the 
fundamental relations of man to man. Paul's eulogy of love is an unmatched 
masterpiece of the foundation principle of right living. The adoption of the 
Golden Rule by all men would banish crime and convert earth into a paradise . 

3. The characters depicted in the Bible are in their way no less effective 
than the teachings regarding ethics and religion. Indeed, that which is so 
admirable in these characters is the rare combination of ethics and religion 
which finds in them expression. In Abraham we see hospitality and faith 
attaining to adequate expression. Grant, if you will, the claim that part of 
the picture is unhistorical. Aye, let one have it who will, that such a person 
as Abraham never existed at all. The character, as a creation, does as much 
honor to the Jew who conceived it as the man, if real, does to the race to 
which he belonged. Moses is the pattern of the unselfish, state-building 
patriot, who despised hardships because "he endured as seeing Him who is 
invisible," Jeremiah will forever be inspiration to reformers whose lot is 
cast in degenerate days. Paul is the synonym of self-denying zeal, which 
can be content with nothing less than a gigantic effort to carry good news to 
the entire world. 

And Jesus was a Jew. How often is this fact forgotten, so completely 
is he identified with the history of the world at large ! We say to ourselves 
that such a commanding personality is too universal for national limitations. 
We overlook perchance the Judaean birth and the Galilean training. Far 
be it from me to attempt an estimate of the significance of the character and 
work of Jesus for human progress. Nothing short of omniscience could per- 
form such a task. My purpose is attained by reminding myself and others 
anew of the nationality of him whom an important part of the world has 
agreed to consider the greatest and best of human kind. 

, I do not forget that the Jews have not yet, in large numbers, admitted 
the greatness of Jesus, but this failure may be largely explained as the effect 
of certain theological teachings concerning his person, and of the sufferings 
which Jews have endured at the hands of those who bear his name. But 
in that name, and that personality rightly conceived, there is such potency to 
bless and to elevate, that I can see no reason why Jesus should not become 
to the Jews the greatest and most beloved of all thek illustrious teachers. 

' Viewing the Bible as a whole, as a library of ethics, of religion, of ethi- 
cal-religious character, its influence on language, on devotion, on growth in 
a hundred directions exceeds all human computation. 

Along with the Sacred Writings have come to the race, through the 
Jews, certain great doctrines. 


Foremost of these is the belief in one God. Greek philosophy, it is true, 
was also able to formulate a doctrine of monotheism, but the monotheism 
which has perpetuated itself is that announced by Hebrew seer and not by 
Greek philosopher. Something was wanting to make the doctrine -more than 
a cold formula, and that something the Jew supplied. It is the phase of 
monotheism which he attained that has commended itself to the peoples of 
Europe and America, to the teeming millions of Islajn, and whose adoption 
by the remaining nations of earth is more than a pious hope. 

This God, who is one, is not a blind force, working on lines but half 
defined, coming to consciousness only as he attains to expression in his uni- 
verse, but he is a wise architect whose devising all things are. The 
heavens declare his glory, and the firmament showeth his handiwork. 

His government is well ordered and right. Chance and fate have here 
10 place. No sparrow falls without him. The very hairs of your head are 
numbered. Righteousness is the habitation of his throne. Shall not the 
Judge of all the earth do right? 

This one God, maker and governor of all things, is more, he is our 
Father. Man is created in his image, man's nostrils set vibrating with the 
divine breath. The prayer of all prayers begins: "Our Father." What 
infinite dignity and value does this doctrine place upon the human soul ! 
From God we come and his perpetual care we are. How this conviction 
lifts men above all pettiness and discouragement ! Am I his co-worker 
with him on lines which he has pre-ordained? Then mine the joyful task to 
work with zeal in the good cause whose sure success is seen by him though 
not by me. 

If God be our Father, then are we brothers? The convenient distinctions 
among men, the division of men into classes, are all superficial, all based on 
externals. In essence men are one. If we be all brothers, then brotherly 
duties rest upon us all. Due recognition of our brotherhood would stay the 
act or thought of wrong, and open in every heart a fountain of love. Broth- 
ers ! then will I seek the Father's features in every face and try to arouse 
in every soul the consciousness of its lofty kinship. 

The immortality of the soul, though not distinctively a Jewish belief, is 
implied in much of the Old Testament, is clearly announced in Daniel, is 
well defined in the centuries preceding our era, and in the New Testament 
is often stated and everywhere esteemed. This doctrine was rescued by the 
monotheism of the Jew from the grotesque features and ceremonies which 
characterized it among the Babylonians, the Egyptians and the Greeks. The 
spiritual genius of the Jew, while asserting unequivocally the fact, and empha- 
sizing the moral significance, has wisely abstained from an expression of 
opinion regarding a thousand details. 

By the side of these great doctrines concerning God, his fatherhood, 
man's brotherhood, the soul, its dignity and immortality, we must place yet 
another, the Jewish conception of the golden age. This age to him is not 


past but future. He had, it is true, his picture of Eden, that garden of God 
where the first man held free converse with his maker. But this picture is 
not of Jewish origin. It came from Babylon, and never succeeded in mak- 
ing a strong impression on the national thought. The Old Testament 
scarcely refers to it outside of the narrative in Genesis. In view of the 
emphasis given to the story by later theologies, the reserve in the New 
Testament is likewise most significant. The reason is t clear. The age of gold 
is yet to be. Prophet and apostle and apocalyptic seer vie with one another 
in describing the glory of renewed humanity in the coming kingdom of 
God. The Jew cannot fasten his thought on a shattered fortune. Th^ 
brilliant castle which he is yet to build is too entrancing to his vision. There 
is here no place for tears over the remote past, but only a fond looking for- 
ward and working toward the dawn of the day of righteousness and of 

IV. I have spoken of our indebtedness to the Jew for the Bible and its 
great doctrines. We are under no less obligations for certain great institu- 

1. Whence comes our day of rest, one in seven, this beneficent provision 
for recreation of man and beast, this day consecrated by the experience of 
centuries to good deeds and holy thoughts ? We mtet with indications of a 
seven-day division of time in an Assyrian calendar tablet, but we are able 
to assert definitely by a study of the Assyrian and Babylonian commercial 
records that these people had nothing which corresponded to the Jewish Sab- 
bath, the very name of which means rest. The origin of the Sabbath may 
well have to do with the moon's phases. But the Jew viewed the day with 
such sacredness that he makes its institution coeval with the work of. cre- 
ation. From him it has become the possession of the western world, and its 
significance for our well-being, physical, moral and spiritual, is vaster than 
can be computed. 

2. I have spoken already of Jesus as a Jew* Then is the religion which 
bears his name a Jewish institution ? It has elements which are not Jewish ; 
it has passed into the keeping of those who are not Jews. But its earliest 
advocates and disciples, no less than its founder, were Jews. Not only so, 
but these all considered Jesus, his teaching and the teaching concerning him, 
as the culmination of the Hebrew development, the fulfillment of the Hebrew 
prophets' hope. 1 Many causes have wrought together to ensure the victory 
which Christianity has won in this world. But those who are filled with its 
true spirit and who are thoughtful can never forget its Juduean origin, 

3. To the same source we must likewise trace institutional Christianity, 
the church. The first church was at Jerusalem. The first churches were 
among devout Jews dispersed in the great Gentile centers of population. 
The ordinances of the church have an intimate connection with Jewish relig- 

iThe greatest expounder of Christianity writes to the Romans that they have been 
grafted into the olive stock of which the Jews were branches by nature* 


ious usages. In the course of a long development other elements have crept in. 
But in her main features the church bears ever the stamp of her origin. 
The service is Jewish. We still read from the Jewish Psalter, we still sing 
the themes of Psalmist and apostle, the aim of the sermon is still to rouse 
the listener to the adoption of Jewish ideas ; we pray in phraseology taken 
from Jewish Scriptures. Our Sunday schools have for their prime object 
acquaintance with Jewish writings. Our missions are designed to tell men 
of God's love as revealed to them through a Jew. Our church and Chris- 
tian charities are but the embodiment of the Golden Rule as uttered by a 

4. It may furthermore be fairly said that the Jew, through these writings, 
doctrines and institutions, has bequeathed to the world the highest ideals of 
life. On the binding and the title-page of its books the Jewish Publication 
Society of America has pictured the lamb and the lion lying down together 
and the child playing with the asp, while underneath the picture is written 
the words, "Israel's mission is peace." The picture tells what Israel's 
prophet saw more than twenty-five centuries ago. The subscription tells 
less than the truth. Israel's mission is peace, morality and religion ; or 
better still, Israel's mission is peace through morality and religion. This 
the nation's lesson to the world. This the spirit of the greatest characters 
in Israel's history. To live in the same spirit, in a word, to become like 
the foremost of all Israelites this is the highest that any man has yet 
ventured to hope. 

I have catalogued with some detail, though by no means with fullness, 
Jewish elements in our civilization. In most cases I have passed no judg 
ment on these elements. If one were disposed to inquire into their value, 
he might answer his question by trying to conceive what we should be 
without the Bible, its characters, doctrines, ethics, institutions, hopes, and 
ideals. To think these elements absent from our civilization is impossible, 
because they have largely made us what we are. Not more closely inter- 
locked are the warp and woof of a fabric than are these elements with all 
that is best and highest in our life and thought. If the culture of our day 
is a fairer product than that of any preceding age, we cannot fail to see 
how far we are indebted for this to the Jew. 

My purpose TiaS not been to inquire by what means the little nation of 
Palestine attained to its unique eminence. Some will say it was by a reve- 
lation made to them alone, others that they were fortunate discoverers, and 
yet others would explain it all by the spell, "development." Be one or all 
these answers true, the Deity can reveal himself only to the choice souls 
who have understanding for the higher thought ; discovery is made only by 
those who recognize a new truth when it floats into the field of vision ; 
development is only growth and differentiation from germs already existing. 
Why should Israel develop unlike any other pefople, why discover truth hid- 
den from others, why become receptacles for revelation higher than any 



attained elsewhere ? This is one of the mysteries of history, but the mys- 
tery can in no wise obscure the fact. ^ 

However, explained or unexplained, the Jewish role in history belongs 
to the most splendid achievements of the human race. Alas, that these 
achievements are so often forgotten ! Forgotten by the Jew himself, when 
he devotes his powers to the problems of to-day with such intensity as to be 
indifferent to his nation's^ past. Forgotten by those among whom he lives 
when they view him as an alien, and when in the enjoyment they fail to rec- 
ognize the source of some of their greatest blessings. It is not alone the 
land which was discovered by Columbus, but the entire world owes to the 
Jew a debt of gratitude which never can be paid. 

A practical closing question forces itself on our attention. The great 
r51e in history was played by this people while it had a national or semi- 
national existence. At present the Jews are separated from the rest of the 
community mainly by certain religious observances. Is the Jew of to-day 
worthy of the glorious past of his people, and is he entitled to any of the 
consideration which impartial history must accord to his ancestors ? An 
affirmative answer, if it can be given, ought to do something to remove 
prejudices which yet linger among us, and to alleviate the fortunes of the 
Jew in lands less liberal than our own. 

The ancient Jew was a man of persistence and of moral and spiritual 
genius. His modern brother is not lacking in either genius or persistence. 
His persistence and power to recuperate have saved him from annihilation. 
His genius shows itself chiefly in matters of finance, in the ability to turn 
the most adverse conditions into power. In literature, art, music, philosophy, 
he is of the community at large, averaging high, no doubt, but with nothing 
distinctive. In the world's markets, in commerce and trade, he distances 

The extent to which he educates his children, and helps his poor to 
become self-supporting, and the very small percentage which he furnishes to 
the annals of crime, give to him a high character for morality. The Monte- 
fiores, Hirschs, Emma Lazaruses, Jacob Schiffs and Felix Adlers show what 
power and spirit of benevolence and reform still belong to the Jew. It would 
perhaps be too much to demand further great religious contributions from 
this people. But it can hardly be that a people of such glory in the past and 
of such present power shall fail to attain again to that eminence in the 
highest things for which they seem to be marked out by their unique history. 




If we open our eyes and look at the universe, we observe the sun and 
moon, and the stars on the sky ; mountains, rivers, plants, animals, fishes 
and birds on the earth. Cold and warmth come alternately ; shine and rain 
change from time to time without ever reaching an end. Again, let us 
close our eyes and calmty reflect upon ourselves. From morning to even- 
ing, we are agitated by the feelings of pleasure and pain, love and hate ; 
sometimes full of ambition and desire, sometimes called to the utmost 
excitement of reason and will. Thus the action of mind is like an endless 
issue of a spring of water. As the phenomena of the external world are 
various and marvelous, so is the internal Attitude of human mind. Shall 
we ask for the explanation of these marvelous phenomena ? Why is the 
universe in a constant flux ? Why do things change ? Why is the mind 
subjected to constant agitation ? For these Huddhism offers only one expla- 
nation, namely, the law of cause and effect. 

Now let us proceed to understand the nature of this law, as taught by 
Buddha himself : 

1. The complex nature of cause. 

2. An endless progression of the causal law. 

3. The causal law, in terms of the three worlds. 

4. Self-formation of cause and effect. 

5. Cause and effect as the law of nature. 
First, the complex nature of cause. 

A certain phenomenon cannot arise from a single cause, but it must have 
several conditions; in other words, no effect can arise unless several causes 
combine together. Take for example the case of a fire. You may say its 
cause is oil or fuel ; but neither oil nor fuel alone can give rise to a flame. 
Atmosphere, space and several other conditions, physical or mechanical, are 
necessary for the rise of a flame. All these necessary conditions combined 
together can be called the cause of a flame. This is only an example for the 
explanation of the complex nature of cause ; but the rest may be inferred. 

Secondly, an endless progression of the causal law. A cause must be 
preceded by another cause, and an effect must be followed by another 
effect. Thus if we investigate the cause of a cause, the past of a past, by 
tracing back even to an eternity we shall never reach the first cause. The 
assertion that there is a first cause, is contrary to the fundamental principle 
Coypright, 1893, by J. H. B. 




of nature, since a certain cause must have an origin in some preceding cause 
of causes, and there is no cause which is not an effect. From the assump- 
tion that a cause is an effect of a preceding cause which is also preceded by 
another, thus, ad infiniturn, we infer that there is no beginning in the uni- 
verse. As there is no effect which is not a cause, so there is no cause which 
is not an effect. Buddhism considers the universe as no beginning, no end. 
Since, even if we trace back to an eternity, absolute cause cannot be found, 
so we come to the conclusion that there is no end in the universe. As 
the waters of rivers evaporate and form clouds, and the latter changes its 
form into rain, thus returning once more into the original form of waters, the 
causal law is in a logical circle changing from cause to effect, effect to 

Thirdly, the causal law, in terms of three worlds, namely, past, present 
and future. 

All the religions apply, more or less, the causal law in the sphere of 
human conduct, and remark that the pleasure and happiness of one's future 
life depend upon the purity of his present life. But what is peculiar to 
Buddhism is, it applies the law not only to the relation of present and future 
life, but also past and present. As the facial expressions of each individ- 
ual are different from those of others, men are graded by the different 
degrees of wisdom, talent, wealth and birth. It is not education, nor 
experience alone, that can make a man wise, intelligent and wealthy, but it 
depends upon one's past life. What are the causes or conditions which, 
produce such a difference ? To explain it in a few words, I say, it owes its 
origin to the different quality of actions which we have done in our past 
.life, namely, we are here enjoying or suffering the effect of what we have 
done in our past life. If you closely observe the conduct of your fellow- 
beings, you will notice that each individual acts different from the others. 
From this we can infer that in future life each one will also enjoy or suffer 
the result of his own actions done in this existence. As the pleasure and 
pain of one's present actions, so the happiness or misery of our future world, 
will be the result of our present action. 

Fourthly, self-formation of cause and effect. 

We enjoy happiness and suffer misery, our own actions being causes ; 
in other words there is no other cause than our own actions which make us 
happy or unhappy. 

Now let us observe the different attitudes of human life ; one is happy 
and others feel unhappy. Indeed, even among the members of the same 
family we often notice a great diversity hi wealth and fortune. Thus vari- 
ous attitudes of human life can be explained by the self -formation of cause 
and effect. There is no one in the universe but one's self who rewards or 
punishes him. The diversity in future stages will be explained by the same 
doctrine. This is termed in Buddhism the "self-deed and self-gain" or 
" self-make ami self-reggive." Heaven and hell are self-made, God did 


not provide you with a hell, but you yourself. The glorious happiness of 
future life will be the effect of present virtuous actions. 

Fifthly, cause and effect as the law of nature. 

According to the different sects of Buddhism more or less different 
views are entertained in regard to the law of causality, but so far they agree 
in regarding it as the law of nature, independent of the will of Buddha, and 
still more of the will of human beings. The law exists for eternity, 
without beginning, without end. Things grow and decay, and this is caused 
not by an external power but by an internal force which is in things them- 
selves as an innate aptitude. This internal law acts in accordance with the 
law of cause and effect, and thus appear immense phenomena of the 
universe. Just as the cteck moves by itself without any intervention of any 
external force, so is the progress of the universe. 

We are born in the world of variety; some are poor and unfortunate, 
others are wealthy and happy The state of variety will be repeated again 
and again in our future lives. But to whom shall we complain of our misery ? 
To none but ourselves! We reward ourselves; so shall we do in our future 
life. If you ask me who determined the length of our life, I say, the law 
of causality. Who made him happy and made me miserable ? The law of 
causality. Bodily health, material wealth, wondciful genius, unnatural suf- 
fering are the infallible expressions of the law of causality which governs 
every particle of the universe, every portion of human conduct. Would you 
ask me about the Buddhist morality ? I reply, in Buddhism the source of 
moral authority is the causal law. Be kind, be just, be humane, be honest, 
if you desire to crown your future ! Dishonesty, cruelty, inhumanity, will 
condemn you to a miserable fall ! 

As I have already explained to you, our sacred Buddha is not the cre- 
ator of this law of nature, but he is the first discoverer of the law who led 
thus his followers to the height of moral perfection. Who shall utter a word 
against him who discovered the first truth of the universe, who has saved and 
will save by his noble teaching, the millions and millions of the falling human 
beings ? Indeed, too much approbation could not be uttered to honor his 
sacred name ! 


In saying that Christianity is an "historical religion/ 5 more is meant of 
course than that it appeared at a certain date in the world's history. This 
is true of all the religions of mankind, except those which grew up at times 
prior to authentic records, and sprang up through a Spontaneous, gradual 
process. The significance of the title of this pa*per is that, in distinction 
from every system of religious thought or speculation, like the philosophy of 
Plato or of Hegel, and from every religion which consists exclusively, or 
almost exclusively, like Mohammedanism, of doctrines and precepts, Chris- 
tianity incorporates in its very essence facts or transactions on the plane of 
historical action. These are not accidents, but are fundamental in the 
religion of the Gospel. The preparation of Christianity is iridissolubly 
involved in the history of ancient Israel, which comprises a long succession 
of events. The Gospel itself is in its foundations made up of historical 
occurrences, without which, if it does not dissolve into thin air, it is trans- 
formed into something quite unlike itself. Moreover, the postulates of the 
Gospel, or the conditions which make its function in the world of mankind 
possible and rational, are likewise in the realms of fact, as contrasted with 
theoretic conviction or opinion. , 

We can best illustrate and confirm the foregoing remarks, by referring 
to a passage in one of the writings of the great Christian Apostle, Saint Paul. 
It stands at the beginning of the fifteenth chapter of his First Epistle to the 

The state of the Corinthian Church, distracted as it was by controver- 
sies upon the relative merits of the teachers from whom they had received 
the Gospel, was the occasion which led St. Paul to bring out in bold relief 
the essential principles of Christianity. These would put to flight all radical 
errors, and at the same time cast into the shade minor topics of contention. 
A due regard to fundamental truth would quell dissension. The apostle 
begins the passage with announcing his intention to describe the Gospel 
which he had preached to the Corinthians, which they had embraced, in 
which they stood, and with which all their hopes were connected ; unless, 
indeed, to believe the Gospel was a vain thing, an idea that none would for 
a moment admit. After this preface, he proceeds to give a formal statement 
of that which constitutes the Gospel, and the point which challenges atten- 
tion is this, that the Gospel, as Paul here describes it, is made up of a series 
of facts. It is the story of Jesus Christ, of his cle^th aq4 resurrection. An4 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 





H- 1 






all the proofs to which he makes allusion are also matters of fact. These 
circumstances in the Saviour's life were " according to the Scriptures " that 
is, in agreement with the predictions of the Old Testament. They are 
vouched for by witnesses, and the grounds of their credibility are stated. 
Not only James and Peter and the other apostles were still alive, but the 
greater part of the five hundred disciples who were in the company of Jesus 
after his resurrection were also living and could be appealed to. And, 
finally, he himself had been suddenly converted from bitter enmity, by a 
specific occurrence, by seeing Jesus, and had set about the work of a teacher 
not of his own motion but by the Saviour's express command a command 
to which he was not disobedient. Into this part of the passage, however, 
which touches on the evidence that satisfied Paul of the historical reality of 
the death and resurrection of Jesus, we need not here enter. We simply 
remark that the nature of these proofs accords with the whole spirit of the 
passage. It is more the contents of the Gospel as here given, than the 
peculiar character of the evidence for the truth of it, that at present calls for 
consideration. Christianity is distinctly set forth as a religion of facts, but 
be it observed that in asserting that Christianity is composed of facts, we do 
not mean to deny it to be a doctrine and a system of doctrine. These facts 
have all an import, a significance, which can be more or less perfectly 
defined. That Christ was sent into the world is not a bare fact ; but he was 
sent into the world for a purpose, and the ends of his mission can be stated. 
The death of Jesus has certain relations to the divine administration and to 
ourselves. Thus, in the passage referred to, it is said, " He died for our 
sins," or to procure for us forgiveness. And so of all the facts of the Gospel 
they have a theological meaning. The benefit which flows from them 
corresponds to the character and situation of men, and this condition in 
which we are placed is one that can be described in plain propositions. 
"Sin" is not some unknown thing, we cannot tell what; but is "the trans- 
gression of the law ; " and the meaning of law and the meaning of transgres- 
sion can be explained. 

Nor is there any valid objection to saying that the Gospel is a system 
of doctrine. These truths of which we have just given examples are not 
isolated and disconnected from each other, but they are related to one 
another. If we are unable in all cases to combine them and adjust their 
relations, if there are gaps in the structure not filled out, parts even that 
appear to clash, the same is true of almost every branch of knowledge. The 
physiologist, the chemist, the astronomer, will confess just this imperfection 
in their respective sciences. For who, for example, will pretend that he 
understands the human body so thoroughly that he has nothing to learn and 
no difficulties to explain ? If all human knowledge is defective, and if, in 
every department of research, barriers are set at some point to the progress 
of discovery, how unreasonable to cry out against Christian theology, 
because the Bible does not reveal everything, and because everything that 


the Bible does reveal is not yet ascertained. In affirming, then, that the 
Gospel is preeminently a religion of facts, there is no design to favor in the 
slightest degree the sentimental pietism or the indifference to objective 
truth, whatever form it may take, which would ignore theological doctrine, 

But there is a sort of explanation and a sort of science which men, 
especially in these days, are prune to demand, which, from the nature of the 
case, is impossible ; and the state of mind in which this demaid originates 
is a fatal disqualification for receiving, or even for* comprehending, the 
Gospel. There is a disposition to overlook this grand peculiarity of Chris- 
tianity, that whatever is essential and most precious in it lies in the sphere 
of spirit of freedom. We are taken out of the region of metaphysical 
necessity and placed among personal beings and among events which find 
their solution, and all the .solution of which they are capable, in the free 
movement of the will and affections. To seek for an ulterior cause can 
have no other result than to blind us to the real nature of the phenomena 
which we have to explain. In order to present the subject in a clear light, 
let me ask the hearer to reflect for a moment on the nature of Bin. Look 
at any act, whether committed, by yourself or another, which you feel to be 
iniquitous. This verdict, with the self-condemnation and shame that attend 
it, implies that no good reason can be given for such an act. Much more do 
they imply that it forms no part of that natural development and exercise 
of our faculties over which we have no control. It is an act -a free act 
a breaking away from reason and law, having no cause behind the sinner's 
will, and admitting of no further explication. Do you ask why one sins ? 
The only answer to be given is that he is foolish and culpable. You strike 
upon an ultimate fact, and if you will not stay by that fact, but will 
endeavor to make it rational or inevitable, you must deny morality, deny 
that sin is sin and guilt is guilt, and pronounce the simple belief in personal 
responsibility a delusion. What we have here said of a single act of 
wrong doing holds good, of course, of morally evil habits and principles. 

Suppose, again, an act of love and self-sacrifice, A man resolves to 
give up his life for a righteous cause, or a woman like Florence Nightingale 
forsakes her pleasant home for the discomforts and exposures of a soldiers' 
hospital. What shall be said of these actions ? Why, plainly, you have 
done with the explanation when you eome back to that principle of free 
benevolence to the noble and loving heart from which they spring. To 
make them links in some necessary process by which they no longer 
originate, in the full sense of the word, in a free preference lying in a sphere 
apart from natural development and inevitable causation, would be an insult 
to the soul itself. * 

Or, take a benevolent act of another kind, the forgiveness of an injury. 
A man whom you have grievously injured magnanimously foregoes his 
right to exact the penalty, though if he were to exact it you would have no 
right to complain. His forgiveness is an act, the beauty of which is due to 


its being a free resolve on his part, a willing gift, a voluntary love. The 
supposition of an exterior cause which reduces this act to a mere effect of 
organization or mental constitution, or anything else, destroys the very 
thing which you take in hand to explain. And the same consequence 
would follow if the injury which calls forth pardon were resolved into some- 
thing besides an unconstrained, inexcusable, unreasonable, and in this case, 

unaccountable act. 


So that, in the sphere of spirit, we come to facts in which we have to 
rest, there being no further science conceivable. Here the bands of neces- 
sity which we find in the material world, and up to a certain point in the 
operations of the human mind, have no place. We do not account for 
events here as in the material world by going back to forces which evolve 
them and laws which necessitated them. Enough that here has been a 
choice to sin, there has been a holy will, and there a love that flinches from 
no sacrifice. Our solutions are, to use technical language, moral, not meta- 
physical. We have to do, not with puppets moving about under the pres- 
sure of a blind compulsion, bat with personal beings, endued with a free, 
spiritual nature. 

The preceding remarks will suggest our meaning when we affirm that 
Christianity is a religion of facts. We may even go back of the method of 
solution to the first truth of religion that of God, the Creator. To give 
existence to the world was the act of a personal being, who was not con- 
strained to create, but freely put forth his power, being influenced by motives, 
such as his desire to communicate good and increase the sum of blessedness. 
The existence of the world is a fact which admits of no further explication, 
and he who seeks to go behind the free will of God in quest of some ante- 
rior force out of which he fancies the world to have been derived, lands in 
a dreary pantheism, satisfying neither his reason nor his heart. 

But let us come to the Gospel itself. The starting-point is in a fact 
concerning our character and condition the great fact of sin, or 
alienation from fellowship with God. Refuse to look upon sin in this light, 
just as the unperverted conscience looks upon it, and the Gospel has no 
longer any intelligible purpose. Unless sin brings a separation from God 
with whom we ought to be in fellowship and in union with whom is our 
true life, there is no significance in the Gospel. Here, then, we begin not 
with an abstract theory or first truth of philosophy, but with a naked fact, 


which memory and consciousness testify to. Sin is something done. It is 
a hard fact to be compared to the existence of a disease in the human frame, 
whose pains are felt in every nerve. And sin, be it observed, is not a part 
of the healthy process of life, but of the process of death. To presume to 
think of it as a necessary, normal transition-point to the true life of the 
soul is to annihilate moral distinctions at a single stroke. 

And what is salvation, regarded as the work of God ? It is a work. It 
is not a form of knowledge, but is a deed emanating from the love of God. 


It is an act of his love. " God so loved the world that he gave his only- 
begotten Son." Christ is a gift to the world. lie teaches, to be sure, but 
he also goes about doing good, and rises from the dead, opening by what 
he does a way of reconciliation with God. The method of salvation is not 
by a philosophical theorem, but in a living friend of sinners, suffering in 
their behalf and inviting them to a fellowship with himself. It is the 
reconciliation of an offender with the government who& laws he has broken, 
and with the Father whose house he has deserted. 

In like manner the reception of the Gospel is not by the knowing fac- 
ulty, moving through a process of thought. It is rather an act of the will 
and heart. It is the acceptance of the gift. Repentance toward God and 
faith in our Lord Jesus Christ are each an act ; as much so as repentance 
for a wrong done to an earthly friend and trust in his forgiveness. What is 
repentance ? To cease to do evil and begin to do well ; to cease to live to 
ourselves, and to begin to live to God, And what is faith ? It is an act of 
confidence by which we commit ourselves to another to be saved by him. 

When you witness the rescue of a drowning man who is struggling in 
the waves by some one who goes to his assistance, you do not call this a 
philosophy. Here is not a series of conceptions evolved one from another 
and resting on some ultimate abstraction ; but here are life and action. There 
was distress and extreme peril and fear on the one side, with no means of 
self-help ; there was compassion, courage, self-sacrifice on the part of him 
who did the good deed. And the metaphysics of the matter ends when you 
see this. So it is with Christianity, though the knowledge of it is preserved 
in a book. It is not, properly speaking, a philosophy. On the contrary, it 
is made up of the actions of personal beings, and of the effect of these upon 
their relations to each other. There is ill-desert, there is love, there is sac- 
rifice, there is trust and sorrow for sin. The story of the alienation of a son 
from an earthly parent, of his penitence and return, of his forgiveness and 
restoration to favor, is a parallel to the realities which make up Christianity. 

The Gospel being thus the very opposite of a speculation, being histor- 
ical in its very foundations, being simply, as the term imports, the good 
news of a fact, everything depends on our regarding it from the right point 
of view. For if we expect to find in the Bible that which the Bible does 
not profess to furnish, and to get from Christianity that which Christianity 
does not undertake to provide, we shall almost infallibly be misled. Let us 
suppose, for example, that a person conies to the Bible, having previously 
persuaded himself that the verdict of conscience and the general voice of 
mankind, respecting moral evil, are mistaken. There has been no such jar 
in the original creation as the doctrine of sin implies. There is no such 
perversion of the soul from its true destination and true life, no such viola- 
tion of law, as is assumed. But there is nothing save the regular unfold- 
ing of human nature passing through various stages of progress according 
to the primordial design. It seems strange that any one who has looked 


into his own heart and looked out for a moment upon the world, can hold 
such a notion as this. Yet the disbelief which presents itself in the garb 
of philosophy at the present day, plants itself on this theory, that the system 
of things, or the cause of things, as we experience it and behold it, is the 
ideal system. There has been no trangression in the proper sense, but only 
an upward movement from a half-brute existence to civilization and 
enlightenment, the last step of advancement being the discovery that sin is 
not guilt, but a point of development, and that evil really is good. And the 
forms of unbelief which do not bring forward distinct theories generally 
approximate more or less nearly to the view just mentioned. The effect 
upon the mind of denying the simple reality of sin, as it is felt in the con- 
science, is decisive. One who embraces such a speculation can make noth- 
ing of Christianity, but must either reject it altogether, or lose its real 
contents in the effort to translate them into metaphysical notions of his own. 
A living God, a living Christ, with a heart full of compassion, offering for- 
giveness, calling to repentance and his redemption, can have no signifi- 
cance. What call for divine interposition in a system already ideally 
perfect, with all its harmonies undisturbed ? Why break in upon a strain of 
perfect music ? Why give medicine to them who arc not ill ? They that 
arq whole need not a physician. How evident that the failure to recognize 
sin as a perverse act proceeding from the will of the creature, incapacitates 
one from receiving Christianity! 

Now suppose the case of a person who abides by the plain and well- 
nigh inevitable declarations of his conscience respecting good and evil, and 
the utter hostility of one to the other. He has committed sin. His mem- 
ory recurs in part to the occasions. Every clay adds to the number of his 
transgressions. His motives have not been what they ought to be. A 
sense of unworthiness weighs him down, and separates him, as he feels, 
from fellowship with every holy being, He is not suffering so much from 
lack of knowledge. He needs light, it may be, but he has a profounder 
want, a far deeper source 6f. distress. He desires something to be done for 
him to restore his spiritual integrity and take him up to another plane where 
he can find inward peace. It is just like the case of a child who has fallen 
under the displeasure of a parent and under the stings of cortscience. The 
want of the soul in this situation is life. The cry is : " O wretched man 
that I am, who shall deliver me !" We will not stop to inquire whether 
this state of feeling represents the truth or not ; but suppose it to exist, 
how will a sinner, thus feeling, come to the Bible or to the Gospel ? He is 
not concerned to explain the universe and enlarge the bounds of his knowl- 
edge by exploring the mysteries of being. He feels that no intellectual 
acquisition would give him much comfort, that none could be of much 
value, as long as this canker of sin and guilt is within. He craves no illu- 
mination of the intellect. At least, this desire is subordinate. But how 
shall this burden be taken from the spirit ? How shall he come to peace 




with God and with himself ? It is a bread of life that he longs for. 
Nothing can satisfy him in the least that does not correspond to his neces- 
sities as a moral being, lie needs no argument to prove to him that he is 
not what he was made to be, and tha't his misery is his fault. To him 
Christianity, announcing redemption through Jesus Christ, God's love to 
sinners and his method of justifying the ungodly, is adapted, and is, there- 
fore, likely to be welqome. As sin is a deed, so it is natural that redemp- 
tion should be. As sin breaks the original order, so it is natural to expect 
that the system will be restored from without. A penitent sinner is pre- 
pared to meet God in Christ, reconciling the world to himself ; and this fact 
is sweeter and grander in his views than all philosophies which profess, 
whether truly or falsely, to gratify a speculative curiosity. Were it his chief 
desire to be a knowing man he would feel differently, but his intense and 
absorbing desire is to be a good man. 

It is not strange that among Protestants there should imperceptibly 
spring up the false view concerning the Gospel, on which I have commented. 
We say truly that the Bible, the Bible, is the religion of Protestants. Our 
attention is directed to the study of a book. A one-sided intellectual bent 
leads to the idea that the sole or the principal office of Christ is that of a 
teacher. He does not come to live and die and rise again, and unite us to 
himself and to God, imparting a new principle of moral and spiritual life to 
loving, trusting souls ; but he comes to teach and explain. If this be so, the 
next step is to drop him from consideration as a person and to fasten the 
attention on the contents of his doctrine ; and who shall say that this step is 
not logically taken ? As the intellectual element obtains a still stronger 
sway, the interest in his doctrine is merely on the speculative side. Histori- 
cal Christianity, with its great and moving events, and the august Personage 
who stands in the center, disappear from view and naught is left but a resi- 
duum of abstractions a perversion and caricature of Gospel ideas. This 
proceeding may be compared to the course of one who should endeavor to 
resolve the American Revolution into an intellectual process. Redemption 
is made up of events as real as the battles by which independence was 
achieved. We need some explanation of the purport of those battles and 
their bearing on the end which they secure. And so in the Bible, together 
with the record of what was done by God, there is given an inspired interpre- 
tation from the Redeemer himself, and from those who stood near him on 
whom the events that secured salvation made a fresh and lively impression. 
The import of these events is set forth. And the conditions of attaining cit- 
izenship in this new state or kingdom of God, which is provided through 
Christ, are defined. 

From the views which have been presented, perhaps it is possible to see 
the foundations on which Christians hereafter may unite, and also how the Gos- 
pel will finally prevail over mankind. If redemption, looked at as the work of 
God, is thus historical, consisting in a series of events which culminates in our 


Lord's resurrection and the mission of the Holy Ghost, the first thing is that 
these events should be believed. Now Christianity does not profess to be a 
demonstration, but taking all things into consideration, the evangelical his- 
tory, in its leading essential points, is established by proofs as near to a 
demonstration as we can reasonably expect, or as actually exists in respect 
to the most important occurrences of that time. There is no defect of proof 
and no room for disbelief, unless there is a settled prepossession against 
the supernatural and against any near contact of God with the affairs of this 
world. May we not expect, then, leaving out of view the special providence 
of God in connection with the progress of the Gospel, that the fagts of the 
Christian religion will become not only a part of universally acknowledged 
truth, but also that they will enter, so to speak, into the historical conscious- 
ness of mankind, exerting their proper influence and speaking forth their 
proper lesson, in the mind and habitual recollection of the race. And 
as to the second part of the Gospel, the inspired interpretation of these 
events, or the doctrinal part of the Bible, this interpretation is not an arbi- 
trary or forced one. Though given by inspiration to guard against human 
blindness and error, it is nevertheless perfectly rational. It is, and will one 
day be seen to be, the natural, nay, the only possible meaning of God's work of 
redemption. And this interpretation, as the sacred writers give it, will be 
spontaneously associated with the historic events to which it is attached. So 
that Christianity, in both fact and doctrine, will become a thing perfectly 
established, as much so, in our mind and feeling, as are now the transactions 
of the American Revolution, with the import and results that belong to them. 
It is every day becoming more evident that the facts of Christianity cannot 
be dissevered from the Christian system of doctrine ; that the one cannot be 
held while the other is renounced ; thai if the doctrine is abandoned the 
facts will be denied. So that the time approaches when the acknowledg- 
ment of the evangelical history, eariymg with it, as it will, a faith in the 
scriptural exposition of it, will be a sufficient bond of union among Chris- 
tians, and the church will return to the apostolic creed of its early days, wfiich 
recounts in epitome the/ac/s of religion. 

"The proposed Parliament strikes me as an inspiration. Unique in concep- 
tion it must prove profitable in its outcome. To have the earnest advocates 
of each system present its characteristic features and set forth its claims to 
acceptance will afford an opportunity for the study of comparative religions, 
such as the world has never seen, and I am fully persuaded that this line of 
investigation will give a lirger and a more intelligent basis fr>r the prosecu- 
tion of mission work. 

In such a Parliament it ought to be a comparatively easy task to so 
present the incomparable excellence of the Christian system that ^it should 
stand forth demonstrably as the power of God unto Salvation.' 1 /vVr>. D. A\ 
r^ 2).2). 




The Congress which I have the honor to address in this paper is a 
unique assemblage. It could not have met before the nineteenth century ; 
and no country in the world possesses the needful boldness of conception 
and organizing energy save the United States of America. History does 
indeed record other endeavors to bring the religions of the world into line. 
The Christian Fathers of the fourth century credited Demetrius Phalereus, 
the large-minded librarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about 250 B. C., with 
the attempt to procure the sacred books not only of the Jews, but also of the 
Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, 
Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians, and Greeks. 1 

The great Emperor Akbar (the contemporary of Queen Elizabeth), 
invited to his court Jews, Christians, Mohammedans, Brahmans, and Zoroas- 
trians. lie listened to their discussions, he weighed their arguments, until 
(says one of the native historians) there grew gradually, as the outline on a 
stone, the conviction in his heart that there were sensible men in all relig- 
ions. Different, indeed, is this from the curt condemnation by the English 
lexicographer, Samuel Johnson, a hundred years ago 2 in which he said: 
"There are two objects of curiosity, the Christian world and the Moham- 
medan world. All the rest may be considered barbarous." 

This Congress meets, I trust, in the spirit of that wise old Sufi who 
wrote, "One is born a Pagan, another a Jew, a third a Mussulman. The 
true philosopher sees in each a fellow-seeker after God." With this con- 
viction of the sympathy of religions, I offer some remarks founded on the 
study of the world's sacred books. 

I will not stop to define a sacred book, or distinguish it from those 
which, like the Imitatio Christi^ the Thcologia Germanica^ or the Pilgrim's 
Progress, have deeply influenced Christian thought or feeling. It is enough 
to observe that the significance of great collections of religious literature 
cannot be overestimated. As soon as a faith produces a scripture^ *. e. 9 a 
book invested with legal or other authority, no matter on how lowly a scale, 
it at once acquires an element of permanence. Such permanence has both 

* Euseb. Chron., ed Scaliger, p. 66, a ; Epiphan. De Pond, et Mensura, 9* 
a Mat?, note, Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Dr. Birkbeck Hill, IV, p. 199. 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



advantages and dangers. First of all, it provides the great sustenance for 
religious affection ; it protects a young and growing religion from too rapid 
change through contact with foreign influences : it settles a base for future 
internal development ; it secures a certain stability ; it fixes a standard of 
belief ; consolidates the moral type. It has been sometimes argued that if 
the Gospels had never been written, the Christian Church, which existed for 
a generation ere they were composed, would still hav& transmitted its orders 
and administered its sacraments, and lived on by its great traditions. But 
where would have been the image of Jesus enshrined in these brief records? 
How could it hav^ sun k into the heart of nations and served as the impulse 
and goal of endeavor, unexhausted in Christendom after eighteen centuries? 
The diversity of the religions of Greece, their tendency to pass into one 
another, the ease with which new cults obtained a footing in Rome, the decline 
of any vital faith during the last days of the Republic, supply abundant illus- 
trations of the religious weakness of a nation without scriptures. On the 
other hand, the dangers are obvious. The letter takes the place of the 
spirit, the transitory is confused with the permanent, the occasional is made 
universal, the local and temporal is erected into the everlasting and abso- 

Second. The sacred book is indispensable for the missionary religion. 
Even Judaism, imperfect as was its development in this direction, discovered 
this, as the Greek version of the Seventy made its way along the Mediter- 

Take the Koran from Islam, and where would have been its conquering 
power ? Read the records of the heroic labors of the Buddhist mission- 
aries, and of the devoted toil of the Chinese pilgrims to India in search of 
copies of the holy books ; you may be at loss to understand the enthusiasm 
with which they gave their lives to the reproduction of the disciples of the 
great vehicle ; but you will see how clear and immediate was the perception 
that the diffusion of the new religion depended on the translation of its 

And now, one after another, our age has witnessed the resurrection of 
ancient literatures. Philology has put the key of language into our hands. 
Shrine after shrine in the world's great temple has been entered ; the songs 
of praise, the commands of law, the litanies of penitence, have been fetched 
from the tombs of the Nile, or the mounds of Mesopotamia, or the sanctuaries 
of the Ganges. The Bible of humanity has been recorded. What will it 
teach us ? I desire to suggest to this Congress that it brings home the need 
of a conception of revelation unconfined to any particular religion, bul 
capable of application in diverse modes to all. Suffer me to illustrate this 
very briefly under three heads : 
I. Ideas of Ethics. 
II. Ideas of Inspiration. 

IIL Ideas of Incarnation. 


I. IDEAS OF ETHICS. The sacred books of the world are necessarily 
varied in character and contents. They spring from very different grades of 
development. Race, climate, social circumstances, the conflict of offending 
religious tendencies, forced into action and reaction by historic relations, 
these, and a thousand other conditions, contribute to mold these differences. 
Hence the stress falls with shifting emphasis on elements of ritual, of 
mythology, and of religion proper. Yet no group of scriptures fails to recog- 
nize in the long run the supreme importance of conduct. Here is that which 
in the control of action, speech, and thought, is of the highest significance 
for life. This consciousness sometimes lights up even the most arid wastes 
of sacrificial detail. " Attendance on that sacred fire," it is said in the Brah- 
mana of a Hundred Paths? "means (speaking) truth; whosoever speaks the 
truth, acts as if he sprinkled that lighted fire with ghee." 

When it is remembered that " the true " is the Vedic category for " the 
good," that truth in fact implies righteousness, the aphorism of the Brahman 
teacher Arufla Aupavesi, " Worship above all is truthfulness," 2 receives a 
fuller meaning. Real devotion demands first of all right living. When 
the conditions of right living are examined in the light of different faiths, a 
growing harmony is discovered among them. All nations do not pass 
through the same stages of moral evolution within the same periods, or 
mark them by the sam$ crises. The development of one is slower, of another 
more swift. One people seems to remain stationary for millenniums, another 
advances with each century. But in so far as they have both consciously 
reached the same moral relations, and attained the same insight, the ethical 
truth which they have gained has the same validity. Enter an Egyptian 
tomb of the century of Moses' birth, and you will find that the soul as it 
came before the judges in the other world was summoned to declare its 
innocence in such words as these: 4< I am not a doer of what is wrong, I am 
not a robber, I. am not a murderer, I am not a liar, I am not unchaste, I am 
not the causer of others' tears." (Margin, Book of the Dead, cxx.) Is the 
standard of duty here implied less noble than that of the Decalogue ? Are 
we to depress the one as human, and exalt the other as divine ? More 
than five hundred years before Christ the Chinese sage, Lao-tsze, bade his 
disciples ** Recompense injury with kindness ; " and at the same great era, 
faithful in noble utterance, Gotama, the Buddha said, " Let man overcome 
anger by liberality, and the liar by truth." (Marginal note : Dhammapada, 


Is this less a revelation of a higher ideal than the injunction of Jesus, 
" Resist not evil, but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other also?" The fact surely is that we cannot draw any partition 
line through the phenomena of the moral life, and affirm that on one side lie 
the generalizations of earthly reason, and on the other the declarations of 

* I. H. a, 19. 


heavenly truth. The utterances in which the heart of man has embodied 
its glimpses of the higher vision, are not all of equal merit, but they must 
be explained in the same way. The moralists of the Flowery Land even 
before Confucius, were not slow to perceive this, though they could not 
apply it over so wide a range as that now open to us : " Heaven in giving 
birth to the multitudes of the people, to every faculty and relationship 
affixed its law. The people possess this normal virtue." (Marginal note, 
Shi King) III. iii 6.) 

In the ancient records gathered up in the Shu King, the Duke of Chow 
related (V. xviii. 4) how Hea would not follow " the leading of Shang Ti " 
(Supreme Ruler or God). u In the daily business of life and the most com- 
mon actions, " wrote the commentator, " we feel as it were an influence 
exerted on the intelligence, the emotions and the heart. Even the most 
stupid are not without their gleams of light." 

This is the leading of Ti and there is no place where it is not felt. 
(Marginal note : Legge, Notions of the Chinese, etc. p. 101.) The modern 
ethical theory, in the forms which it has assumed at the hands of Butler, 
Kent and Martineau, recognizes this element. 

Its relation to the whole philosophy of religion will no doubt be dis- 
cussed by other speakers at this Congress. 

Suffer me in brief to state my conviction that the authority of conscience 
only receives its full explanation when it is admitted that the difference 
which we designate in forms of " higher " and " lower," is not of our own 
making. It issues forth from our nature because it has been first implanted 
within it. It is a speech to our souls of a loftier voice, growing clearer and 
more articulate as thought grows wider and feeling more pure. It is in fact 
the witness of God within us; it is the self-manifestation of his righteous- 
ness; so that in the common tjrms.of universal moral experience lies 
the first and broadest element of Revelation. 

But may we not apply the same tests, the worth of belief, the genuine- 
ness of feeling, to more special cases ? If the divine life shows itself forth 
in the development of conscience, may it not be traced also in the slow rise 
of a nation's thought of God, or in the swifter response of nobler minds to 
the appeal of heaven ? The fact is that man is so conscious of his weakness, 
that in his earlier days all higher knowledge, the gifts of language and let- 
ters, the discoverers of the crafts, the inventions of civilization, poetry and 
song, art, law, philosophy, bear about them the stamp of the superhuman. 
"From thee," sang Pindar (nearest of Greeks to Hebrew prophecy), "cometh 
all high excellence to mortals. " (Marginal note, Isthm. ii. 6.) Such love 
is in fact the teaching of the unseen, the manifestation of the infinite in our 
mortal ken. 

II. IDEAS OF INSPIRATION. If this conception of Providential guid- 
ance be true in the broad sphere of human intelligence, does it cease to be 
true in the realm of religious thought ? Read one of the Egyptian hymns 


laid in the believer's coffin ere Moses was born : " Praise to Amen-Ra, 
the good God beloved, the ancient of heavens, the oldest of the earth, lord 
of eternity, Maker Everlasting. He is the causer of pleasure and light, 
maker of grass for the cattle and of fruitful trees for man, causing the fish 
to live in the river, and the birds to fill the air, lying awake when all men 
sleep to seek out the good of his creatures. We woiship thy spirit who 
alone hast made us : we whom thou hast made thank thee that thou hast 
given us birth, we giVe thee praises for thy mercy to us." (Marginal note, 
Records of the Pasf, ii., pp. 129-133, condensed.) 

Is this less inspired than a Hebrew Psalm ? Study that antique record 
of Zarathustra in the Gathas which all scholars receive as tl e oldest 
part of the Zend Avesta ; (Marginal note, Sacred Books of the East, xxxi., 
p. 100) does it not rest on a religious experience similar in kind to that of 
Isaiah ? Theologies may be many, yet religion is but one. It was after 
this truth that the Vedic seers were groping when they looked at the varied 
worship around them, and cried, " They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, 
sages name variously him who is but one ;" (Marginal note, Rig Veda, i., 
164, 46) or again, "The sages in their hymns give many forms to him who is 
but one." It was this essential fact with which the early Christians were 
confronted as they saw that the Greek poets and philosophers had reached 
truths about the being of God not all unlike those of Moses and the 
prophets. Their solution was worthy of the freedom and universality of the 
spirit of Jesus. They were for recognizing and welcoming truth wherever 
they found it, and they referred it without hesitation to the ultimate source 
of wisdom and knowledge, the Logos, at once the minor thought and the 
uttered Word of God. The martyr Justin affirmed that the Logos had 
worked through Socrates, as it had been present in Jesus ; (Margin, First 
Apology, 5) nay, with a wider outlook he spoke of the seed of the Logos 
implanted in every race of man. (Margin, Second Apology, 8.) In vir- 
tue of this fellowship, therefore, all truth was revelation and akin to Christ 
himself. He said, " Whatsoever things were said among all men, are the 
property of us Christians." (Marginal note, Second Apology, 13.) The 
Alexandrian teachers shared the same conception. The divine intelligence 
pervaded human life and history, and showed itself in all that was best in 
beauty, goodness, truth. " The way of truth was like a mighty river, ever 
flowing, and as it passed it was ever receiving fresh streams on this side and 
that." (Marginal note, Clement of Alexandria, Strom, i., 5). Nay, so clear 
in Clement's view, was the work of Greek philosophy, that he not only 
regarded it like Law and Gospel as a gift of God, but it was an actual cove- 
nant as much as that of Sinai," (Marginal note, Strom, vi., 8), possessed of 
its own justifying power ; or following the great generalization of St. Paul. 

" The law was a tutor to bring the Jews to Christ/' Clement added 
that philosophy wrought the same heaven-appointed service for the Greeks. 
(Marginal note ; Strom, i. 5.) 



May we not use the same great conception over other fields of the his- 
tory of religion ? In all ages," affirmed the author of the Wisdom of Solo- 
mon, "wisdom entering into holy souls maketh them friends of God and 
prophets." So we may claim in its widest application^the saying of Moham- 
med : " Every nation has a quarter of the heavens (to which they turn in 
prayer), it is God who turneth them towards it. Hasten then emulously 
after good wheresoever ye be, God will one day bring you all together." 
(Marginal note, Koran (Rodwell) ii, 144.) 

We shall no longer, then, speak, like a distinguished Oxford professor, 
of the " three chief false religions, Brahmanism, Buddhism, Islam." (Mar- 
ginal note, Sir Monier Williams, Indian Wisdom, introd. p. xxxvi., 3d 
ed.) In so far as the soul discerns God, the reverence, adoration, trust, 
which constitute the moral and spiritual elements ot its faith, are in fact 
identical through every variety of creed. They may be more or less clearly 
articulate, less or more crude and confused or pure and elevated, but they 
are in substance the same. 

"In the adoration and benedictions of righteous men," said the poet of 
the Masnavi-i-Ma'navi, " the praises are mingled into one stream ; all the 
vessels are emptied into one river, because he that is praised is in fact only 
one. In this respect all religions are only one religion." (Marginal note, 
Winfield's translation, p. 139.) 

III. IDEAS OF INCARNATION. Can the same thought be carried one 
step farther? If inspiration be a world-wide process, unconfmed by specific 
limits of one people or one book, may the same be said of the idea of incar- 
nation? The conception of incarnation has many forms, and in different 
theologies serves various ends. But they all possess one feature in common. 
Among the functions of the manifestation of the divine man is instruction ; 
his life is in some sense or other a mode of revelation. Study the various 
legends belonging to Central America, of which the beautiful story of the 
Mexican Quetzalcoatl may be taken as a type the virgin-born one, who 
inaugurates a reign of peace, who establishes arts, institutes beneficent 
laws, abolishes all human and animal sacrifices, and suppresses war they 
all revolve around the idea of disclosing among men a higher life of wisdom 
and righteousness and love, which is in truth an unveiling of heaven. Or 
consider a much more highly developed type, that of the Buddhas in Theis- 
tic Buddhism, as the manifestation of the self-Existent Everlasting God. 
Not once only did he leave his heavenly home to become incarnate in his 
mother's womb. " Repeatedly am I born in the land of the living* . . . 
And what reason should I have to manifest myself ? When men have 
become unwise, unbelieving, ignorant, careless, then I, who know the course 
of the world, declare ' I am So-and-So,' and consider how I can incline 
them to enlightenment, how they can become partakers of the Buddha 
nature," (Marginal note, Lotus of the Good Law, xv. 7, 22-3). To become 



partakers of the divine nature is the goal i\Jso of the Christian believer, (2 
Peter i., 4). 

But may it not be stated as already implicitly a present fact ? When 
St. Paul quoted the words of Aratus on Mars Hill, "For we also are his 
offspring/' did he not reeogni/e the sonship of man to God as a universal 
truth ? Was not this the meaning of Jesus when he bade his followers pray, 
"Our Father who art in Heaven"? Once more Greekwisdom may supply 
us with a form for our thought. That Logos of God, which became flesh and 
dwelt in Christ, dwelt, so Justin tells us, in Socrates as, well. Was its purpose 
or effect limited to those two f Is there not a sense in which it appears in all 
men ? If there is a " true light which lighteth every man that cometh into 
the world," will not every man as he lives by the light, himself also show 
forth God ? The word of God is not of single application. It is boundless, 
unlimited. For each man as he enters into being, there is an idea in the 
divine mind (may we not say in our poor human fashion ?) of what God 
means him to be. That dwells in every soul, and reali/ing itself not in 
conduct only but in each several highest forms of human endeavor, it is 
the fountain of all lofty thought, it utters itself through the creations of 
beauty in poetry and art, it prompts the investigation of science, it guides the 
inquiries of philosophy. There are so many kinds of voices in the world, 
and no kind is without signification. So many voices i So many words ! 
each soul a fresh word, with a new destiny conceived for it by God, to be 
something which none that has preceded has ever been before ; to show 
forth some purpose of the Divine being just then and there which none else 
could make known. 

Thus conceived, the history of religion gathers up into itself the history 
of human thought and life. It becomes the story of God's continual revel- 
ation to our race. However much we mar and frustrate it, in this revela- 
tion each one of us may have part. Its forms may change from age to age ; 
its institutions may rise and fall ; its rites and usages may grow and decline. 
These are the temporary, the local, the accidental ; they are not the essence 
which abides. To realize the sympathy of religions is the first step towards 
grasping this great thought. May this Congress, with its noble representa- 
tives of so many faiths, hasten the day of mutual understanding, when God 
by whatever name we hallow him, shall be all in all ! 



The human mind uses three words to shelter and house all its ideas 
These are nature, man, and God. All ideas of the material universe are put 
into the word nature. All ideas of humanity are lodged in the word man. 
All ideas of the unseen, the infinite, the eternal, are domiciled Fn the word 

The realms for which these terms stand are so vast and so difficult of 
access, that the human race, after thousands of years of thought and effort, 
has been able only partially to explore and settle them. 

So deep and abiding, however, has been the conviction that the differ- 
ent orders of existence denominated by these words, are real, that ideas of 
them, as Kant has well said, have been the presuppositions of all thinking. 

Ideas of the self, the not-self, and of the unity that transcends and includes 
the two are the necessary and fundamental preconditions of all thought. 
These ideas entered as strands into the thread of the first thought man ever 
had, and are found to be the constituent elements of the last thought of the 
most advanced philosopher Without a self, of course no thought is possible. 
A self without a not-self finds nothing to think about. With a self some- 
where and a not-self somewhere else, bound by no unity of which the two are 
expressions, held together by no unity of which the two are correlatives, 
there could be no thought again. A self utterly foreign to a not-self, a self 
with no origin common to a not-self, a self with absolutely nothing in it con- 
responding to anything in a not-self could have no possible commerce the 
one with the other. 

Relation between two things is the fundamental condition of commerce 
between them. Two dependent relatives are themselves the indisputable 
proof of an independent unity of origin and source. Man the self is depend- 
ent, and nature the not-self is dependent. History witnesses to constant and 
permanent relations between the two; hence, by the very necessities of 
thought we are driven to assume the reality of God, the unity upon which the 
two depend, and of whose thought the two are expressions. A chicken could 
make no scratches on the ground with its foot that man could read. A 
chicken puts no mind in the prints of its feet for the mind of man to inter- 
pret. Man can decipher the strange letters on an Egyptian obelisk because 
the letters embody mind, and mind common to all men. Man can read nature 
because it contains mind, and mind common to his own mind. Therefore 
the mind embodied in nature and the mind active in man can come together, 
because they both are expressions of one infinite mind. 



As all thinking begins with ideas which presuppose the existence of 
nature, man and God, so all thinking continues, and will ever continue to 
carry in solution the same ideas. Mr. Spencer himself maintains that the 
infinite is the ultimate unity to which all things must be referred, and that 
the consciousness of it underlies all our knowledge, and of course he would 
admit that there could be no thought without the ideas of the objective world 
and of our own subjective life being presupposed. Hence it will be found 
that all problems which have come before the mind for solution have clus- 
tered about the ideas of nature, man and God. 

Religion and philosophy in all ages have busied themselves about solv- 
ing and explaining the mysteries which hang about the self, the not-self and 
the unity which includes the two. 

The value of any religion or philosophy will be determined in the futuie 
by the solution which it gives to the problems which surround these funda- 
mental ideas of human thought and experience. The philosophy or the relig- 
ion that claims the problems which surround these realms to be insoluble will 
have no lasting place in the growing thought of the human race. The sure 
and steady progress made by ages of painstaking thought and consecrated 
living, toward clearing things up, have constantly deepened and widened the 
conviction among men, that tHe problems brought befoie the mind by the 
words, nature, man, and (Joel, are not insoluble. As long as the search for 
gold in the Rocky Mountains is rewarded by somfc grains in the ore, the 
search will be kept up till all the mountains are explored. Of nothing is 
there more settled and abiding conviction, among the people who live on the 
earth to-day, than of the fact that the search for truth in the past has been 
sufficiently rewarded to warrant men in keeping up the search. Thus, as 
never before, students are digging into the heart of the earth, observing its 
dips and upheavals; they are ga/Jng into the heavens, counting its stars, 
photographing their faces, and analy/ing their contents ; they are traveling 
over the earth, observing man as the facts of him come to light in his com- 
merce, his law, his crime, his insanity, and his enterprise ; they are investi- 
gating the religious element in human nature, classifying its manifestations, 
its age-long search for the unseen, its craving for the infinke ; and knowledge 
is increasing as never before. The boundaries of the known are being 
enlarged, and nothing is necessary to the enlargement of those boundaries 
forever but industry in the search for truth and loyalty to its increasing 

While ideas of nature, man, and God ; ideas of the not-self, the self, and 
of the unity that includes the two are presupposed in the first thought of the 
primitive man, it is not to be supposed that these ideas are consciously held, 
or held in any articulate or developed sense. At first they are inchoate, 
merely float in the mind in a mixed and undifferentiated way. 

As long as the ideas of nature, man and God, which, according to Kant, 
are the presuppositions of all thinking are mixed in the mind without definition 


and without distinction, civilization is impossible. Confusion within will 
reappear as confusion without. 

Not only must thescT factors of thought be defined and separated the one 
from the other, but each must receive its proper emphasis and hold the place 
in the mind to which its objective existence entitles it. 

In the philosophy of India too much is made of God. The idea of him 
is pressed to such illimitable and attenuated transcendence, that with equal 
truth anything or nothing can be predicated of him. 

In the system of Confucius too much is made of man. Ideas of the 
infinite above him and of the finite world below him are not clearly grasped 
or defined, and because of this man fails to find his proper place, and lives 
on in the world without the help that belongs to him from above or below. 

In the thought of Henry Thomas Buckle the boundaries of nature are 
widened till but little room is left for man and God. 

In the theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau man is emphasized to a point of 
independence out of all proportion to his dependent and relative nature. 

In the English deism of the eighteenth century God was represented as 
what Carlyle calls an almighty clockmaker, the world as a machine, and 
men as so many atoms related to one another mechanically, like the grains 
of wheat in the same heap. In this system none of the factors of thought 
was suppressed. It failed because it did not correspond to the real nature 
of the facts. No such a God and no such a world and no such men existed 
as English deism talked about. 

In one respect, then, all religions and all philosophies are on a level. 
They all seek a solution to the problems which hang around the same facts. 
They are all faced by the same nature, with its matter and its force ; by 
the same man, with his weakness, his sorrow, his fear, his ignorance, his 
death; by the same great Being who surrounds and includes all things and 
who receives names from all peoples corresponding to their conceptions of 
him. What man seeks and has always sought is such a philosophy or syn- 
thesis of the facts of nature, of man and of God, as harmonizes him with 
himself, with his world, and with the \>eing he calls God. The conviction 
haunts him like the pulse-beats of his own heart that such a synthesis is for 
him. All history, all jJhilosoph^ % and all religion witness to his age-long 
attempts to find such a synthesis, and to rest and work in it and through it. 
We call Christ the reason of the universe because he brings to thought 
such a synthesis of nature, man and God, as harmonizes human life with 
itself and with the facts of nature and God. Christianity is not a religion 
constructed by the human reason, but is such a religion as reason sees to be 
in line with the facts of existence, Man is a thinker and needs truth; he is 
under the necessity of acting and -needs law ; he has a heart and needs some- 
thing to love ; he is weak and needs strength. But Christianity does not sim- 
ply bring to man a system of truth, for he is more than a thinker ; or a sys- 
tem of ethics^ for he needs more than something to do ; or a wealth of emotion, 












for he needs more than satisfaction for his heart; or inexhaustible sup- 
plies of strength, for he needs more than help in his weakness ; these are 
brought, combined and harmonized in the unity of a perfect life. A separate 
system of truth, or a separate theory of ethics, or a separate supply of 
strength is not what man needs. His want can only be matched when these 
come together, arranged in the harmony of a complete life. Cosmology is 
not enough, anthropqjogy is not enough, theology is not enough. Whatman 
needs is to find cosmology, anthropology and theology flowing in the blood 
and beating in the heart, and thinking in the mind, and acting in the will of 
a life like his own. He needs to see once the germs of hope and strength and 
aspiration which he feels in his own nature realized in a life lived under the 
same conditions with which he stands face to face. Theories he has found 
abounding in all poetry, philosophy and theology, his cry has been for the 
sight of one demonstration, not only thought out, but suffered out, willed out, 
lived out. Such a- demonstration men believed they saw nearly two thousand 
years ago. 

Whatever may be thought as to their probably being mistaken, one thing 
is conceded : the facts of Christ's life and death and resurrection and ascension 
underlie western civilization, and have been the potent factors in its creation. 
If the men made a mistake who supposed they saw in Christ the fulfillment 
of all prophecy, the harmony of all truth, the perfection of all righteousness, 
the solution of all problems^ and the sum of all beauty, then we think with 
perfect truth it may be said, this is the most marvelous mistake in all his- 
tory, for following the light of this mistake men have come to the most 
enlightened an<T rational civilization of ancient or modern timfcs. 

Christ owes the unrivaled place he holds to-day among the sons of men 
to the fact that he did not come simply explaining, or teaching or philoso- 
phizing, or theorizing, or poetizing, but came solving the problems man saw 
in nature, in himself, and in God, by living them out. 

The mysteries which men had sought to clear up by thinking, he cleared 
up by his living, and when the contradiction of sinners became so great he 
could proceed along the ordinary methods of living no further, he submitted 
himself to death, and arising from the grave gave to men the essence of all 
truth, the results of all righteousness, the fruits of all love, and the secret of 
all time and eternity. 

The antithesis of the finite and the infinite which underlies all thought 
and life has, by the incarnation, its two terms united in the fact of a won- 
drous personality. By the incarnation the ideas which, according to Kant, 
are presupposed in all thinking, come together and are harmohized in the 
concrete unity of an individual life. This lifts human knowledge from the 
poverty-stricken level to which the mechanical-philosophers placed it to the 
permanence and dignity of an organic and everlasting reality. By the cruci- 
fixion, men are taught the secret of reciprocity, of association, and of universal 
brotherhood. This tragic event in the life of Christ helps men to see that 


they are so come together in associations and states by the death of the local, 
provincial, carnal, isolated self, and that the life of the church or the state is 
hot made up of the aggregation of a multitude of breathing, animated units, 
>but of one lite pulsating through all. Not of one life that swamps and swal- 
lows up the individual life, but rather that returns to each individual for the 
little life he gives up the great life of the whole. This meets the conditions 
of man's nature, for single, isolated, individual, unrelated, he is not human 
at all. He finds his own life only when he, dies to his self-contained and 
self-included life. Each individual in a great city gets a larger life by con- 
ceding selfish, individual, local rights to the good of the whole, than he would 
if each had his own way and his own street. Life in a city would not be 
possible if each person did not concede some of the kind of rights a savage 
in the woods is supposed to have, for the common good and order of all. To 
undertake, to live in a city with each man having his so called rights, as a 
savage has in the woods, would not result in freedom, but in chaos and death. 
The death of Jesus Christ teaches that the life of each man is to be conse- 
crated to the public good. Because of his attempt to bring men into the 
order he*Saw as necessary to their well-being he was crucified. 

By his incarnation Christ united the two terms found in the antithesis 
of an infinite past and a finite present. By his resurrection he united in a 
historic fact the two terms found in the antithesis of an infinite future and a 
finite present, and by his ascension he gave triumph and undying hope to life. 

Let us now approach this question in a different way. When we look 
carefully into the matter we find that environments influence their objects, 
and objects in turn affect their environments. So events and their environ- 
ments mutually influence one another. In this way we arrive at the concep- 
tion of causality, and causality is a deeper fact than either time or spare. 
In order that a cause may send a stream of influence over to an effect there 
must be space, and there must be time. But before a cause can express 
itself in an effect, it must separate the power by the aid of which it makes 
the expression from itself, and thus we are led to the insight of self-cause, 
self separation and self-activity. A self-causative, self-active omnipotent 
energy is the deepest thing and the first thing in the universe. This is the 
principle .which is presupposed in all causation, all time, all space and all 
experience. Here wa have the unity that includes the self and the not-self. 
Nor is this an abstract, barren, empty, sterile unity, corresponding to the 
transcendent, pure being of the Hindus. It is a dynamic, self-active, self- 
relative unity, that includes within itself the wealth of all worlds, of all intel- 
ligence, of all life, and of all love. Being self-causative, it is the subject 
that causes and the object that is caused. Being self-active, it is cause and 
effect in a living, intelligent unity. The complete form of self-activity, self- 
causation, and self-ielation is self-consciousness. Self-consciousness con- 
tains within itself the subject that thinks and the object that is thought and 
also the identity of subject and object in a living, intelligent personality. 


But it has been in accordance with the conviction of all deep philoso- 
phy and theology that what an absolutely perfect being thinks must, 
because it is thought, exist. That is, with an absolutely perfect being 
thinking and willing are the same. If what an absolutely perfect being 
thought did not at the same time come to exist, than we would have him 
thinking one thing and willing another, or we would be under the necessity 
of supposing that he had thought or fancies that he did not realize. 

It is also in accordance with the insight of the deepest philosophy and 
theology that the thought of an absolutely perfect being must be as abso- 
lute and perfect as the being who thinks it. 

This is why the Hindus say that the world is an illusion. They say 
that an absolutely perfect being could not produce an imperfect world. A 
world seems to be before them. It was not created by a perfect being. 
Hence its existence is not real, and life is not real. So their conception 
leads them to seek Nirvana, which as a state or condition is as near uncon- 
sciousness as it can be, not to be absolute annihilation. Christian philos- 
ophy and theology meet this necessity of thought by admitting that an 
absolutely peifect being does not directly create an imperfect world. In 
the New Testament Scriptures the Son or the second person in the Trinity 
is represented as creating the world. " The worlds were framed by the 
Word of God," St. John says. "In the beginning was the Word." " All 
things were made by him." " He was in the world, and the world was 
made by him, and the world knew him not." In the first verses of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews it is said that God "hath in these last days spoken 
to us by his Sou . . . by whom also he made the worlds." It is the 
Son who is spoken of as "upholding all things by the word of his power." 

In the absolute self-consciousness of God there arc subject and object 
and the identity of subject and object in one divine personality. But it is 
necessary that what the absolute subject thinks must be, and must also be 
as perfect as the absolute subject. It is necessary also that the absolute 
subject and the absolute object must be one. 

So in the divine self-consciousness the absolute subject is Father, and 
the thought of the Father, or the absolute object, is the Son. But as the 
Son is as perfect as the Father, it is necessary that what he thinks must be 

In God as Father the idea of transcendence is met, and thus we have 
the truth of monotheism ; in God the Son, the idea of an indwelling God is 
met, and we have the truth of polytheism. In God the Spirit, the idea of 
God pervading the world is matched, and we have the truth of pantheism. 
Here we have a conception that enables us to hold on to the oneness of 
God and the trinity of God, without an abstract and barren monotheism 
from which nothing can come? or a polytheism that degrades God, or a pan- 
theism that diffuses God to the obliteration of all distinctions. 

Here" we have a Trinity, not such as wouid be constituted by three 


judges in a court; or by three things imagined under sensible forms. The 
relations between three such judges or three such sensible things would be 
mechanical and accidental, not absolute and essential. The Trinity of 
the Christian Church is not simply the aggregation of three individuals, or 
the unity of three mathematical points. The Trinity revealed -in the 
Christian Scriptures is such as makes a concrete unity through and by 
means of difference. Thisf Trinity makes a unity, the distinguishing feat- 
ure of which is "fullness 11 and not emptiness. It is a Trinity constitutive 
of a real, experimental and knowable unity. God is revealed in the Scrip- 
tures as intelligence, life and love, and the living process of each is triune. 
The terms of a self, \\rtiose living function is intelligence, are three : subject, 
object, and the organic identity of the two. The terms of such- a self are 
necessarily three, and yet its nature is necessarily one. 

If God is intelligent he is triune, because the process of intelligence is 
triune. There cannot be mind without self-consciousness and the object of 
the eternal self-consciousness is the eternal Logos, who is the full and com- 
plete expression of the eternal mind. Hut the eternal mi fid does not go into 
his own object, which is the Logos, without a return to himself as subject. 
It is only in the going out and the coining back that self-consciousness is 
complete. If the eternal mind were to go out from himself as subject to 
himself as object, and never return, he would not be conscious of himself as 
object or as subject. The movement of mind, whether infinite or finite, is as a 
process described, when we say it constantly goes out from itself and as con- 
stantly returns to itself. In this way continuity and identity are maintained. 
The whole act of self-consciousness is as a process eternally complete in a 
non-temporal now. 

Time or space is not necessary to the complete act of self -conscious- 

If time or space were to come between the two terms of self-conscious- 
ness, the subject and the object, identity and personality would be forever 
destroyed. This is true of God and man. In so far as a finite person is 
self-conscious, he lives in eternity. Time and space condition events and 
objects, but not self-consciousness. Self-consciousness is the living function 
of non-temporal and non-spatial spirit. 

According to Kant, ideas of nature, man and God are presupposed in 
all thinking. A deeper truth is that the idea of a triune personal God is 
presupposed in all thinking. Herbert Spencer says : " Amid the mysteries 
which grow the more mysterious the more they are thought about, there will 
remain the one absolute certainty, that man stands in the presence of an 
infinite and eternal energy from which all things proceed. 11 

In Mr Spencer's view, then, an infinite and eternal and inscrutable 
energy is the presupposition of all thinking. The view held by the Chris- 
tian Church, that puts a personal and intelligent God where Mr. Spencer 
puts an inscrutable energy, is more rational, and more in line with the facts 



of existence. In this view we can get the world out of God without panthe- 
ism, and man out of God, without polytheism, and., man, self-asserting and, 
fallen, back to God, in accordance with monotheism. This gives us a God 
of love, giving himself in his Son, and* coming back to himself through the 
Spirit, with a redeemed race to share his love. This gives us an eternal 
procession with meaning and reason and purpose in it. 

This furnishes us jvith a conception of God fhat accounts for the relig- 
ious aspirations of the human race. We find men everywhere, in all ages 
and under all climes, feeling after God. Man is religious to the bottom of 
him and to the top of him and to all intents and purposes of him. The 
religious grooves are those the most deeply worn in his nature, and this is 
because he is more thoroughly religious than he is anything else. Looking 
at the mind of God passing out into the Son, or the second person in the 
Trinity, and then through the Son into man as the highest and last finite 
expression of divine thought, we are able to understand why he is religious. 
We see that the fundamental structure of him, the invisible framework of 
him, the ideal plan and pattern of him is Christian. We see in him a divine 
potency, and the nature of the eternal Christ capsulate in his heart. Being 
the ultimate finite expression of the Son's thought, and being endowed with 
the universal nature of the Son, man is the highest thing under heaven next 
to God. Thus he is religious to the very roots and core of him. And the real 
function of man in all time, and through all eternity, is the realization and 
out-filling of the universal nature which he receives as the highest creation 
of the Triune God. 

This view accounts for the irrepressible conviction which man has had 
in all his history that he is immortal, or capable of eternal growth. For 
immortality is nothing but everlasting growth an^l living progress. I low 
can we account for the permanent, if sometimes vague, belief of his immor- 
tality, unless we suppose he possesses an infinite depth of root and resource? 
Did he not somehow, feel himself in connection with vital and infinite spirit- 
ual resources;* the idea and hope of immortality would have perished out of his 
mind ages ago. As the highest expression of the thought of the Son of 
God, and as the recipient of the nature and spirit of the Son of God, we see 
that he has an infinite depth of derivation and an affluence of resource com- 
mensurate with the illimitable nature of God himself. This fact of man's 
derivation is thfe only one large enough to account for the fact of his relig- 
ious consciousness. St. Paul had a view of this truth when, in speaking of 
believers, he called them, " heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ," and 
when, in writing to the Ephesians* he said again, " Till we all come .... 
unio a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of 
Christ. How could one ever come to the measure of the stature of the full- 
ness of Christ, if he did not have the nature of Christ? A nature lower or 
inferior would not be susceptible of such measure of fullness. 

This doctrine helps us again to account for the two poles of man's 


moral and intellectual consciousness. Human nature has a dual constitu- 
tion. It is the unity of two principles, a principle of thought and will, 
and a principle of truth and right. As a physical being he is dual. The 
subjective side of his physical self is hunger, the objective side of his physi- 
cal nature is food. Now before he can live as a physical being the hunger 
and the food must come together. 

As an intellectual being he is dual ; as a subjegt he is intellect, as an 
object he is truth. Before there can be intelligence and knowledge the 
intellect and truth must come together. As moral he is dual. As abstract 
will he is subject, and as abstract law he is object. Now, before he becomes 
a moral person the will and the law must come together. The objective 
side of man's physical nature is provided for him outside of himself in the 
food he eats. The objective side of man's intellectual nature is provided 
for him outside of himself in the Holy Spirit, who is to guide into all truth. 

The objective side of man's moral nature is provided for him outside 
of himself in the Holy Spirit, also, who discloses the law that is to fulfill 
all righteousness. 

Now on his subjective side, man feels he is free, but on his objective 
side he feels he must obey. I low is he to be Iree and obedient at the same 
time ? When we remember that the nature of man is a reproduction of the 
nature of the Son of God, and that the Holy Spirit proceeding from the 
Father and the Son, flows out into humanity to enlighten, to quicken, to 
convince of sin, and then to renew, to regenerate and to organize into the 
Christian Church, we shall see that the truth the Spirit presents to man's 
intellect is adapted to it as food is to his hunger, and that the law, which the 
Spirit stimulates and urges man to obey, is the law of his own nature. So 
that in thinking the truth into which the Spirit guides him, and in willing 
the right to which the Spirit urges him, man is thinking his own truth and 
willing his own law that is, he is thinking and willing in accordance with 
his own nature. Thus only in speaking truth and willing right is he free. 
Thinking other than what is true, he gets into contradiction with himself 
and his environment. Willing other than what is right, he brings himself 
into subjection and finally into chaos. 

The Holy Spirit is the personality who pervades and directs the desti- 
nies of the Christian Church. Hence man finds his universal, immortal, 
essential, spiritual and objective self represented in the Holy Spirit. In 
the Holy Spirit is the high, universal, corporate life of man. In living the 
life of the Spirit he lives the life of his nobler self. 

This doctrine accounts for the order and gradual ascent from lower to 
higher we note in nature. We see atoms, minerals, plants, animals and 
men, going by regular steps from bottom to top. Forces are found on 
these separate planes adapted to the manipulation of the objects found on 
each. All this seems to be according to an order of thought. And so it is. 
The Son in thinking of himself as eternally derived from the Father thought 


of himself at first as pure passivity, as purely in his relation to the first 
person of the Trinity, and not as active and absolute at all. The move- 
ment of his thought was thus through all stages of imperfection, or finite- 
ness, up to man, where his universal and active nature asserts itself in the 
creation of a being with a nature like his own, and thus in the image of 
God. On the lower planes of nature, among atoms and minerals and plants 
and animals the work of the Holy Spirit is not recognized, Because atoms, 
minerals, etc., are not conscious. The operation of the Spirit here is 
defined by such terms as gravity, chemical affinity, electricity, etc. When 
the plane of manhood is reached the presence of the Spirit is recognized as 
that of a personal and conscious presence. It is because of the presence of 
Lhis all-pervading persona! Spirit that each man recognizes thfc thoughts 
and deeds which go from his own life as right or Wrong. 

And in the last place this doctrine gives u? the meaning 5 of the struggle, 
conflict, pain, which are apparent everywhere throughout the realm of 
nature and human life. The optimism of Leibnitz and the pessimism 
of Schopenhauer had no foundation in the deep truth of things. When we 
consider the mind of God moving out into the Son and from the Son into 
the finite world and into the Holy Spirit who fills and animates the finite 
world, and above the world organizes the Christian Church, we see the 
whole movement as a procession. This view of it makes it dynamic and 
living, not static and dead. While such a procession involves action, 
struggle, conflict, pain and anguish, it is all for a purpose. The groans 
of nature become birth pangs, and the conflict in the human world is 
incidental to the effort of nobler forms of life to get born. March winds 
are borne with more patience and resignation when it is remembered that 
they are incidental to the birth of summer. 

The entrance of the divine procession into the limitations of time and 
space is advertised by the storm and stress, the ceaseless clash and strife 
which begins among the atoms. This struggle is kept up through all 
stages of organization, until when we reach the plane of human life it is 
expressed in cries and wails, in tragedies, epics, litanies, which become the 
most interesting part of human literature. 

Into this struggle comes the Son of Man and Son of God. He 
meets it, endures it, and conquers it, and is crucified, and his crucifixion is 
the culmination of the process of trial and storm and strife, which began 
with the atoms and continued through the whole course of nature. When 
Christ comes up from the dead, then the truth of the ages gets defined, 
that through suffering and denial and. crucifixion is the way to holiness and 
everlasting life. From thenceforth a redeemed humanity becomes the 
working hypothesis and the ideal of the race. Then it comes to be seen 
that the whole movement of God looks to the organization of the human 
race in Jesus Christ, the reason, the Logos, the plan, and the ideal frame- 
work of the universe. 


" nil I'\K1 I\\II,M <>! Ktl.ll.IDSS ll\s \< nil M I. \ si, n MM.I -UOKK IN BRINGING 



Ancient India, twenty-five centuries ago, was the scene of a religious 
revolution, the greatest the world has ever seen. Indian society at this time 
had two large and distinguished religious foundations the Sramanas and 
the Brahmanas. Famous teachers arose and with their disciples went among 
the people preaching and converting them to their respective views. The 
air >vas full of a coming spiritual struggle, hundreds of the most scholarly 
young men of noble families (Kulaputta) leaving their homes in quest of 
truth, ascetics undergoing the severest mortifications to discover a panacea 
for the evils of suffering, young dialecticians wandering from place to place 
engaged in disputations, some advocating scepticism as the best weapon to 
fight against the realistic doctrines of the day, some a life of pessimism as 
the nearest way to get rid of existence, some denying a future life. It was 
a time of deep and many-sided intellectual movements, which extended 
from the circles of Brahmanical thinkers far into the people at large. The 
sacrificial priest was powerful then as he is now. 1 le was the mediator 
between God and man. Monotheism of the most crude type, from fetich- 
ism and animism and anthropomorphic deism to transcendental dualism, was 
rampant. So was materialism, from sexual Epicureanism to transcendental 
Nihilism. In the words of Dr. Oldenberg, " When dialectic scepticism began 
to attack moral ideas, when a painful longing for deliverance irom the 
burden of being was met by the first signs of moral decay*. Buddha 


". . . The Saviour of the World, 
Prince Siddhdrtha styled on Earth, 
In Earth and Heavens and Hells incomparable, 
All-honored, Wisest, Best, most Pitiful 
The Teacher of Nirvina and the Law." 

Sir Edwin Arnold's "Light of Asia" 

The Dawn of a Neiv Era. Oriental scholars, who had begun their 
researches in the domain of Indian literature, in the beginning of this cen- 
tury, were put to great perplexity of thought at the discovery made of the 
existence of a religion called after Buddha, in the Indian philosophical 
books. Sir William Jones, H. H. Wilson, and Colebrooke wer^ embar- 
rassed in being unable to identify him. Dr. Marshman, in 1824, said 
that Buddha was the Egyptian Apis, and Sir William Jones solved the prob- 
lem by saying that he was nc\ other than the Scandinavian Woden. But in 
June, 1837, the whole of the obscure history of India and Buddhism was 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



made clear by the deciphering of the rock-cut edicts of Asoka the Great, 
in Girnar and Kapur-da-giri, by that lamented archaeologist, James 
Prinsep; by the translation of the Pali Ceylon History into English, by 
Turnour; by the discovery of Buddhist MSS. in the temples of Nepal, Cey- 
lon, and other Buddhist countries. In 1844, the " first rational, scientific 
and comprehensive account of the Buddhist religion " was published by the 
eminent scholar, Eugene Burnouf. The key to the hidden archives of this 
great religion was presented to the people of Europe by this great scholar, 
and the inquiry since begun is being carried on by the most thoughtful men 
of the day. 

Infinite is the wisdom of the Buddha ; boundless is the love of Buddha 
to all that lives, say the Buddhist scriptures. Buddha is called the Maha- 
Karunika, which means tfte "All-Merciful Lord who has compassion on all 
that lives." To the humati mind Buddha's wisdom and mercy is incompre- 
hensible. The foremost and greatest of his disciples, the blessed Sariputta, 
even he has acknowledged that he could not gauge the Buddha's wisdom 
and mercy. Professor Huxley, in his recent memorable lecture on "Evolu- 
tion and Ethics," delivered at Oxford, speaking of Buddha, says: "Gautama 
got rid of even that shade of a shadow of permanent existence by a metaphysical 
tour de force of great interest to the student of philosophy, seeing that it sup- 
plies the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's well-known idealist argument, 

. . It is a lemarkable indication of the subtlety of Indian speculation 
that Gautama should have seen deeper than the greatest of modern ideal- 
ists." The tendency of enlightened thought of the clay all the world over is 
not towards theology, but philosophy and psychology. The bark of the- 
ological dualism is drifting into danger. The fundamental principles of 
evolution ^nd monism are being accepted by the thoughtful. 

History is repeating itself. Twenty-five centuries ago India witnessed 
an intellectual and religious revolution which culminated in the overthrow 
of monotheism, priestly selfishness, and the establishment of a synthetic 
religion, a system of life and thought which was appropriately called 
Dhawma Philosophical Religion. All that was good was collected from 
every source and embodied therein, and all that was bad discarded. The 
grand personality who promulgated the Synthetic Religion is known as 
BUDDHA. For forty years he lived a life of absolute purity, and taught a 
system of life and thought, practical, simple, yet philosophical, which makes 
man the active, intelligent* compassionate, and unselfish man to realize 
the fruits of holiness in this life on this earth. The dream of the visionary, 
the hope of the theologian, was brought into objective reality. Speculation 
in the domain of false philosophy and theology ceased, and active altruism 
reigned supreme. 

Five hundred and forty-three years before the birth of Christ, the great 
being was born in the Royal Lumbini Gardens in the City of Kapila- 
vastu. His mother was Mdy&, the Queen of Rajd Sudohodana of the So'lai 


Race of India. The story of his conception and birth, and the details of 
his life up to the twenty-ninth year of his age, his great renunciation, his 
ascetic life, and his enlightenment under the great Bo tree at Buddha Jayd, 
in Middle India, are embodied in that incomparable epic, The Light of Asia, 
by Sir Edwin Arnold. I recommend that beautiful poem to all who appre- 
ciate a life of holiness and purity. 

Six centuries before Jesus of Nazareth walked over the plains of Galilee 
preaching a life of holiness and purity, the Tath&gata Buddha, the enlight- 
ened Messiah of the World, with his retinue of Arhats, or holy men, 
traversed the whole peninsula of India with the message of peace and holi- 
ness to the sin<-burdened world. Heart -stirring were the words he spoke to 
the first five disciples at the Deer Park, the hermitage of Saints at Benares. 

His First Message. "Open ye your ears, () Bhikshus, deliverance 
from death is found. 1 teach you, I preach the Law. If ye walk according 
to my teaching, ye shall be partakers in a short time of that for which sons 
of noble families leave their homes, and go to homelessness the highest 
"end of religious effort : ye shall even in this present life apprehend the truth 
itself and see it face to face." And then the exalted Buddha spoke thus : 
" There are two extremes, O Bhikshus, which the truth-seeker ought not to 
follow : the one a life of sensualism, which is low, ignoble, vulgar, 
unworthy and unprofitable ; the other the pessimistic life of extreme ascetic- 
ism, which is painful, unworthy and unprofitable. There is a Middle Path, 
discovered by the Tathdgata the Messiah a path which opens the eyes 
and bestows \understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher 
wisdom, to full enlightenment, to eternal peace. This Middle Path, which 
the TathAgata has discovered, is the noble Eight-fold Path, viz.: Right 
Knowledge- -the perception of the Law of Cause and Effect, Right Think- 
ing, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Profession, Right Exertion, Right 
Mindfulness, Right Contemplation. This is the Middle Path which the 
Tathdgata has discovered, and it is the path which opens the eyes, bestows 
understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to per- 
fect enlightenment, to eternal peace. 1 ' 

Continuing his discourse, he said : " Birth is attended with pain, old age 
is painful, disease is painful, death is painful, association with the unpleasant 
is painful, separation from the pleasant is painful, the non-satisfaction of 
one's desires is painful, in short, the coming into existence is painful. This 
is the Noble Truth of suffering. 

" Verily it is that clinging to life which causes the renewal of existence, 
accompanied by several delights, seeking satisfaction now here, now there 
that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving 
for a continuity of individual existences, or the craving for annihilation. 
This is the Noble Truth of the origin of suffering. And the Noble Truth of 
the cessation of suffering consists in the destruction of passions, the destruc- 
tion of all desires, the laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, 


the harboring no longer of this thirst. And the Noble Truth which points 
the way is the Noble Eight-fold Path/ 1 This is the foundation of .the King- 
dom of Righteousness, and from that center at Benares, this message of peace 
and love was sent abroad to all humanity : " Go ye, O Bhikshus and wander 
forth for the gain of the many, in compassion for the world for the good, for the 
gain, for the welfare of gods and men. Proclaim, () Bhikshus, the doctrine 
glorious. Preach ye a life of holiness, perfect and pure. Go then through every 
country, convert those not converted. Go therefore, each one traveling alone 
filled with compassion. Go, rescue* and receive. Proclaim that a blessed 
Buddha has appeared in the world, and that he is preaching the Law of 

The essence of the vast teachings of the Buddha is : 

The entire obliteration of all that is evil. 

The perfect consummation of all that is good and pure. 

The complete purification of the mind. 

The wisdom of the ages embodied in the Three Pitakas the Sutta, 
Vinaya, Abhidhamma, comprising 84,000 discourses, all delivered by Buddha 
during his ministry of forty-five years. To give an elaborate account of this 
great system within an hour is not in the power of man. 

Buddha in a discourse called the " Bramajdla Sutta," enumerates sixty- 
two different religious views held by the sectarians. 

After having categoiically explained these diffeicnt systems Buddha con- 
tinues : "Brethren, these believers hold doctrines inspecting the past, or 
respecting the future, and meditating on previous events or those on which 
are in futurity, declare a variety of opinions respecting the* past and futuie 
in sixty-two modes. 

" These doctrines are fully understood by the Tathdgata Buddha, he knows 
the causes of their being held and the experiences upon which they are 
founded. He also knows other things far more excellent than these; but 
that knowledge has not been derived from sensual impressions, lie with 
knowledge, not derived from the impiessions on the senses, is fully acquainted 
with that by which both the impressions and their causes become extinct, 
and distinctly perceiving the production, the cessation, the advantages, the 
evils and the extinctions of the sensations, he is perfectly free, having no 
attachments. Brethren, these doctrines of Buddha are profound, difficult to 
be perceived, hard to be comprehended, tranquilizing, excellent, not attaina- 
ble by reason, subtle and worthy of being known by the wise. These the 
Tathdgata (Buddha) has ascertained by his own wisdom and publicly makes 
them known. But the teachings of the other believers are founded on ignor- 
ance, their want of perception, their personal experience, and on the fluctuat- 
ing emotions of those who are under the influence of their passions. 

44 Brethren, all these modes of teaching respecting the past or the future, 
originate in the sensations experienced by repeated^ impressions made on 
the six organs of sensitiveness, on account of these sensations desire is 



produced, in consequence of desire an attachment to the desired objects, on 
account of this attachment reproduction in an existent state, in consequence 
of this reproduction of existence, birth ; in consequence of birth are produced 
disease, death, sorrow, weeping, pain, grief and discontent." * 

A systematic study of Buddha's doctrine has not yet been made by the 
Western scholars, hence the conflicting opinions expressed by them at various 
times. The notion once held by the scholars that it is a system of material- 
ism has been exploded. The Positivists of France found it a positivism ; 
Buchner and his school of materialists thought it was a materialistic system ; 
agnostics found in Buddha an agnostic, and Dr. Rhys Davids, the eminent 
Pali scholar, used to call him the " agnostic philosopher of India ; " some 
scholars have found an expressed monotheism therein ; Arthur Lillie, another 
student of Buddhism, thinks it a theistic system ; pessimists identify it with 
Schopenhauer's pessimism, the late Mr. Buckle identified it with pantheism 
of Fichte ; some have found in it a monism ; and the latest dictum of Prof. 
Huxley is that it is an idealism supplying " the wanting half of Bishop 
Berkeley's well-known idealist argument." 

In the religion of Buddha is found a comprehensive system of ethics, 
and a transcendental metaphysic embracing a sublime psychology. To the 
simple-minded it offers a code of morality, to the earnest student a system of 
pure thought. But the basic doctrine is the self-purification of man. Spirit- 
ual progress is impossible for him who does not lead a life of purity and 
compassion. The rays of the sunlight of truth enter the mind of him who is 
fearless to examine truth, who is free from prejudice, who is not tied by the 
sensual passions and who has reasoning faculties to think. One has to be an 
atheist in the sense employed by Max Muller : " There is an atheism which 
is unto death, there is another which is the very life-blood of all truth and 
faith. It is the power of giving up what, in our best, our most honest 
moments, we know to be no longer true ; it is the readiness to replace the 
less perfect, however dear, however sacred it may have been to us, by the 
more perfect, however much it may be detested, as yet, by the world. It is 
the true self -surrender, the true self-sacrifice, the truest trust in truth, the 
truest faith. Without that atheism, no new religion, no reform, no reforma- 
tion, no resuscitation would ever have been possible ; without that atheism, 
no new life is possible for any one of us." 

The strongest emphasis has been put by Buddha on the supreme 
importance of having an unprejudiced mind before we start on the road of 
investigation of truth. Prejudice, passion, fear of expression of one's con- 
victions and ignorance are the four biases that have to be sacrificed at the 

To be born. as a human being is a glorious privilege. Man's dignity 
consists in his capability to reason and think and to live up to the highest 
ideal of pure life, of calm thought, of wisdom without extraneous interven- 
tion. In the Saimanna phala Sutta, Buddha says that man can enjoy in 











\* :4 f:$$^ml 



this life a glorious existence, a life of individual freedom, of fearlessness and 
compassionateness. This dignified ideal of manhood may be attained by the 
humblest, and this consummation raises him above wealth and royalty. 
" He that is compassionate and observes the law is my disciple," says 

Human Brotherhood. This forms the fundamental teaching of Bud- 
dha; universal love and sympathy with all mankind and with animal 
life. Everyone is enjoined to love all beings as a mother loves her only 
child and takes care of it, even at the risk of her life. The realization of the 
idea of brotherhood is obtained when the first stage of holiness is reached ; 
the idea of separateness is destroyed, and the oneness of life is recognized. 
There is no pessimism in the teachings of Buddha, for he strictly enjoins on 
his holy disciples not even to suggest to others that life is not worth living. 
On the contrary, the usefulness of life is emphasized for the sake of doing 
good to self and humanity. 

Religion Characteristic of Humanity. From the first worshiping savage 
to the highest type of humanity, man naturally yearns after something higher; 
and it is for this reason that Buddha inculcated the necessity of self-reliance 
and independent thought. To guide humanity in the right path a Tathdgata 
(Messiah) appears from time to time. 

The Theism of Buddhism. Speaking of Deity in the sense of a Supreme 
Creator, Buddha says that there is no such being. Accepting the doctrine 
of evolution as the only true one, with its corollary, the law of cause and 
effect, he condemns the idea of a creator and strictly forbids inquiry into it 
as being useless. But a supreme god of the Brahmans and minor gods are 
accepted ; but they are subject to the law of cause and effect. This supreme 
god is all love, all merciful, all gentle, and looks upon all beings with equa- 
nimity, and Buddha teaches men to practice these four supreme virtues. 
But there is no difference between the perfect man and this supreme god of 
the present world-period. 

Evolution as Taught by Buddha. The teachings of the Buddha on 
this great subject are clear and expansive. We are asked to look upon 
the cosmos " as a continuous process unfolding itself in regular order in 
obedience to natural laws. We see in it all, not a warring chaos restrained 
by the constant interference from without of a wise and beneficent external 
power, but a vast aggregate of original elements, perpetually working out 
their own fresh redistribution in accordance with their own inherent ener- 
gies. He regards the cosmos as an almost infinite collection of material 
atoms animated by an almdst infinite sum-total of energy " which is called 
Akdsa. We do not postulate that man's evolution began from the proto- 
plasmic stage ; but we are asked not to speculate on the origin of life, on 
the origin of the law of cause and effect, etc. So far as this great law is 
concerned we say that it controls the phenomena of human life as well 
as those of external nature. The whole knowable universe forms one 


undivided whole, a"monon." (See Haeckel, Evolution of Man, Vol. ii. f 

P- 45S-) 

Importance of a serious study of all systems of Religion, Buddha 
promulgated his system of philosophy after having studied all religions ; 
and in the Brahmajdla Sutta sixty-two creeds are discussed. In the 
Kalama Sutta , Buddha says, " Do not believe in what ye have heard ; do 
not believe in traditions, because they have been handed down for many 
generations ; do not believe in anything because it is rumored and spoken 
of by many ; do not believe merely because the written statement of some 
old sage is produced ; do not believe in conjectures ; do not believe in that 
as truth to which you have become attached by habit ; do not believe merely 
on the authority of your teachers and elders ; after observation and analysis, 
when it agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and gain of one 
and all, then accept it and live up to it." (Anguttara Ni&dya.) 

Moral Teachings of Buddha. To the ordinary householder who>e 
"highest happiness consists in being wealthy here and a heaven hereafter 
Buddha inculcated a simple code of morality. The student of Buddha's 
religion abstains from destroying life, he lays aside the club and the weapon, 
he is modest and full of pity, he is compassionate and kind to all creatures 
that have life. He abstains from theft, and he passes his life in honesty 
and purity of heart. He lives a life of chastity and purity. He abstains 
from falsehood and injures not his fellow-man by deceit*. Putting away 
slander he abstains from calumny. He is a peace-make!, a speaker of 
words that make for peace. Whatever word is humane, pleasant to the ear, 
lovely, reaching to the heart such are words he speaks. He abstains from 
harsh language. He abstains from foolish talk. He abstains from intoxi- 
cants and stupefying drugs. 

The Higher Moralitv.- -The advanced student of the religion of Buddha 
when he has faith in him thinks : " 'Full of hindrances is household life, a 
path defiled by passion : free' as the air is the life of him who has renounced 
all worldly things. How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home to 
live the higher life in all its fullness, in all its purity, in all its perfection ! 
Let me then cut off my hair and beard, let me clothe myself in orange-col- 
ored robes, and let me go forth from a household life into the homeless state. 1 

" Then before long, forsaking his portion of wealth, forsaking his circle 
of relatives, he cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the orange- 
colored robes and he goes into the homeless state. Then he passes a life 
self-restrained according to the Rules of the Order of the Blessed Ones ; 
uprightness is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those things he 
should avoid, he encompasses himself with holiness in word and deed, he 
sustains his life by means that are quite pure : good is his conduct, guarded 
the door of his senses, mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether happy. 1 ' 

The Low and Lying Arts. The student of pure religion abstains from 
earning a livelihood by the practice of low and lying arts, viz.; alldivina* 


tion, interpretation of dreams, palmistry, astrology, crystal-gazing, prophe- 
sying, charms of all sorts. 

Universal Pity. Buddha says: "Just as a mighty trumpeter makes 
himself heard in all the four directions without difficulty ; even so of all 
things that have life, there is not one that the student passes by or leaves 
aside, but regards them all with mind set free, and deep-felt pity, sympathy, 
and equanimity. He lets his mind pervade the whole world with thoughts 
of Love." 

The Realization of the Unseen. To realize the unseen is the goal of the 
student of Buddha's teachings, and such a one has to lead an absolutely 
pure life. Buddha says : " Let him fulfill all righteousness, let him be 
devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not 
drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let 
him be much alone. Fulfill all righteousness for the sake of the living and 
for the sake of the beloved ones that are dead and gone." 

Psychic Experiments. Thought transference, thought reading, clair- 
audience, clairvoyance, projection of the sub-conscious self, and all the 
higher branches of psychical science that just now engage the thoughtful 
attention of the psychical researchers, are \\ithin the reach of him who fulfills 
all righteousness, who is devoted to solitude and contemplation. 

The Common Appanage of all Good Men. Charity, observance of moral 
rules, purifying the mind, making others participate in the good work that 
one is doing, cooperating with others in doing good, nursing the sick, giving 
gifts to the deserving ones, hearing all that is good and beautiful, making 
others learn the rules of morality, accepting the law of cause and effect. 

Prohibited Employments. Slave dealing, sale of weapons of warfare, 
sale of poisons, sale of intoxicants, sale of flesh these are the lowest of all 
low professions. 

Five Kinds of Wealth. Faith, pure life, receptivity of the mind to all 
that is good and beautiful, liberality, wisdom those who possessed these 
five kinds or wealth in their past incarnations are influenced by the teach- 
ings of Buddha. 

Universalism of Buddha's Teachings. Buddha says: " He who is 
faithful and leads the life of a house-holder, and possesses the following four 
(Dhannnas) virtues : Truth, justice, firmness, and liberality such a one does 
not grieve when passing away. Pray ask other teachers and philosophers 
far and wide whether there is found anything greater than truth, self- 
restraint, liberality, and forbearance." 

The ttipil and Teacher. The pupil should minister to his teacher. He 
should rise up in his presence, wait upon him, listen to all that he says 
with respectful attention, peiform the duties necessary for his personal 
comfort, and carefully attend to his instruction. 

The teacher should Show affection to his pupil ; he trains him in virtue 
and good manners, carefully instructs him, imparts unto him a knowledge 


of the sciences and wisdom of the ancients, speaks well of him to friend* 
and relations and guards him trom danger. 

The Honorable Man. The honorable man ministers to his friends and 
relatives by presenting gifts, by courteous language, by promoting them as 
his equals, and by sharing with them his prosperity. They should watch 
over him when he has negligently exposed himself and guard his property 
when he is careless, assist him in difficulties, stand by him and help to pro- 
vide for his family. 

The Master and Servant. The master should minister to the wants of 
his servants and dependents. Me assigns them labor suitable to their 
strength, provides for their comfortable support ; he attends to them in sick- 
ness ; causes them to partake of any extraordinary delicacy he may obtain, 
and makes them occasional presents. And the servants should manifest 
their attachment to the master ; they rise before him in the morning and 
retire later to rest ; they do not purloin his property ; do their work cheer- 
fully and actively, and are respectful in their behavior towards him. 

Religious Teachers and Laymen.--lL\\ religious teachers should mani- 
fest their kind feelings toward them ; they should dissuade them from vice, 
excite them to virtuous acts; being desirous of promoting the welfare of all, 
they should instruct them in the things they had not previously learned ; 
confirm them in the truths they had received and point out to them the 
way to heaven. 

The laymen should minister to the teachers by respectful attention 
manifested in their words, actions and thoughts ; and by supplying them 
their temporal wants and by allowing them constant access to themselves. 

In this world, generosity, mildness of speech, public spirit and court- 
eous behavior are worthy of respect in all circumstances, and will be valuable 
in all places. 

If these be not possessed the mother will receive neither honor nor 
support from the son, neither will the father receive respect or honor. 

The Mission of the Buddha. BUDDHA says : " Know that from time to 
time a Tathdgata is born into the world, fully enlightened, blessed and 
worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the 
world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, a teacher of gods and men, 
a blessed Buddha. He by himself thoroughly understands and sees, as it 
were, face to face, this universe, the world below with all its spirits, and the 
worlds above and all creatures, all religious teachers, gods and men, and he 
then makes his knowledge known to others. The truth doth he proclaim 
both in its letter and its spirit, lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, 
lovely in its consummation ; the higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity 
and in all its perfectness." 

The Attributes of Buddha. -i. He is absolutely free from all passions, 
commits no evil, eve in secrecy, and is the embodiment of perfection; he is 
above doing anything wrong. 


2. Without a teacher by self-introspection he has reached the state of 
supreme enlightenment. 

3. By means of his divine eye he looks back to the remotest past and 
future, knows the way of emancipation, is accomplished in the three great 
branches of divine knowledge and has gained perfect wisdom. He is in 
possession of all psychic powers, is always willing to listen, full of energy, 
wisdpm and Dhyana. 

4. He has realized eternal peace of Nirvdna and walks in the perfect 
path of virtue. 

5. He knows the three states of existences. 

6. He is incomparable in purity and holiness. 

7. He is teacher of gods and men. 

8. He exhorts gods and men at the proper time according to their indi- 
vidual temperaments. 

9. He is the supremely enlightened teacher and the perfect embodi- 
ment of all the virtues he preaches. 

The two characteristics of the Buddha are wisdom and compassion. 

Buddha's Disciples. Buddha says : "He who is not .generous, who is 
fond of sensuality, who is distressed at heart, who is of uneven mind, who is 
not reflective, who is not of calmnynd, who is discontented at heart, who has 
no control over his senses such a disciple is far from me though he is in 
body near me." 

The Compassionaleness Shown by Buddhist Missionaries. Actuated by 
the spirit of compassion, the disciples of Buddha have ever been in the fore- 
front of missionary propaganda. The whole of Asia was brought under the 
influence of the Buddha's law. Never was the religion propagated by force, 
not a drop of blood has ever been spilt in the name of Buddha. The 
shrines of Sakya Muni are stainless. The following story is interesting as 
it shows the nature of the Buddhist missionaries. Punna, the Bhikshu, 
before he was sent on his mission to preach to the people of Sunaparanta 
was warned by Buddha in the following manner : " The people of Sunapa- 
ranta are exceedingly violent. If they revile, what will you do ?" 

" I will make no reply." 

"And if they strike you ? " 

"I will not strike in return." 

" And if they try to kill you ? " 

" Death is no evil in itself, many even desire it, to escape from the van- 
ities of life; but I shall take no steps either to hasten or to delay the time of 
my departure." 

The Ultimate Goal of Man. The ultimate goal of the perfected man is 
eternal peace. To show humanity the path on which to realize this state of 
eternal peace, Buddha promulgated the noble eight-fold path. The,Nirv&na 
of Buddha is beyond the conception of the ordinary mind. Only the per- 
fected man realizes it* It transcends all human thought. Caught in the 


vortex of evolution man undergoes change and is constantly subject to birth 
and death. The happiness in the highest heaven comes some day to an end. 
This change, Buddha declared, is sorrowful. And until you realize Nirv&na 
you are subject to birth and death. Eternal changefulness in evolution 
becomes eternal rest. The constantly dissipating energy is concentrated in 
Nirvanic life. There is no more birth, no more death. It is eternal peace. 
On earth the purified, perfected man enjoys NirvAna, and after the dissolu- 
tion of the physical body there is no birth in an objective world. The gods 
see him not, nor does man. 

The Attainment of Salvation. It is by the perfection of self through 
charity, purity, self-sacrifice, self-knowledge, dauntless energy, patience, truth, 
resolution, love and equanimity, that the goal is realized. The final consum- 
mation is Nirvana. 

The Glorious Freedom of Self the last words of Buddha.- " Be ye lamps 
unto yourselves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake yourself to no exter- 
nal refuge. Hold fast to the truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the 
the truth. Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. Learn ye 
then, O Bhikshus, that knowledge have 1 attained and have declared unto 
you, and walk ye in it, practice and increase, in order that this path of holi- 
ness may last and long endure, for the blessing of many people to the relief 
of the world, to the welfare, the blessing, the joy of gods and men. O 
Bhikshus, everything that cometh into being changeth. Strive on unceas- 
ingly for the consummation of the highest ideal. " 

The Spread of the Keligion oj Humanity. Two thousand one hundred' 
years ago the whole of Asia came under the influences of the scepter of one 
emperor and he was truly called Asoka, the delight of the gods. His glory 
was to spread the teachings of the Buddha throughout the world by the force 
of love, and indeed nobody could say that he had failed. His only son and 
daughter were made apostles of the gentle creed; and, clad in the orange- 
colored robes, they went to Ceylon, converted the king and established 
Buddhism there. For the first time in the history of civilization the brother- 
hood of Humanity is recogni/ed, different nations accept one living 
truth, virtue is enthroned. It was a proud achievement, unprecedented 
in history since the dawn of civilization. Pure religion recognizing no Deity 
finds welcome everywhere. There is a grandeur inherent in it, for it does not 
want to appeal to the selfishness of man. When the human mind reaches a 
higher stage of development, the conception of a Deity becomes less grand. 
Nearly three hundred millions of people of the great empire of Asoka embrace 
a system of pure ethics ; a social polity is for the first time enunciated. The 
king sees much that is sinful in the destruction of animals, and therefore " one 
must not kill any living animal/' He declares that at the time when the 
edict is engraved " three animals only are killed for the royal table, two pea 
fowls and a gazelle. Even these three animals will not be killed in future. 
Everywhere in his empire, and in the neighboring kingdoms, such as Greece, 


etc., the king has provided medicines of two sorts, medicines for men and medi; 
cines for animals. Whenever useful plants, either for men or for animals, 
were wanting they have been imported and planted. And along public roads 
wells have been dug for the use of animals and men. It is good and pioper 
to render dutiful service to one's father and mother, to friends, to acquaint- 
ances and relations ; it is good and proper to bestow alms on religious 
teachers and students of religion, to respect the life of living beings, to avoid 
prodigality and violent language.' 7 

" Thanks to the instructions of the religion spread by the king, there 
exist to-day a respect for living creatures, a tenderness towards them, a 
regard for relations and for teachers, a dutiful obedience to father and 
nfother, and obeisance to aged men, such as have not existed for centuries. 
The teaching of religion is the most meritorious of acts, and there is no 
practice of religion without virtue." 

"The practice ot virtue is difficult, and those who practice virtue per- 
form what is difficult. Thus in the past there were no ministers of religion ; 
but I have created ministers of religion. They mix with all sects. They 
bring comfort to him who is in fetters." 

"The king ardently desires that all sects may live in all places. All 
of them equally purpose Ihe subjection of the senses and the purification of 
the soul ; but man is fickle in his attachments. Those who do not bestow 
ample gifts may yet possess a control over the senses, purity of soul and 
gratitude and fidelity in their affections ; and this is commendable." 

" In past times the kings went out for pastimes. These are my 
pastimes,- -visits and gifts to teachers, visits to aged men, the distribution 
of money, visits to the people of the empire, etc." 

" There is no gift comparable with the gift of religion." 

"The king honors all sects, he propitiates them by alms. But the 
beloved of the gods attaches less importance to such gifts and honors than 
to the endeavor to promote their essential moral virtues. It is true the 
prevalence of essential virtues differs in different sects. But there is a 
common basis, and that is gentleness and moderation in language. Thus 
one should not exalt one's own sect and decry the others ; one should not 
deprecate them without cause but should render them on every occasion the 
honor which they deserve. Striving thus, one promotes the welfare of his 
own sect while serving the others. Whoever from attachment to his own 
sect, and with a view to promote it, exalts it and decries others, only deals 
rude blows to his own sect. Hence concord alone is meritorious, so that all 
bear and love to bear the beliefs of each other. All people, whatever their 
faith may be, should say that the beloved of the gods attaches less import- 
ance to gifts and external observances than to the desire to promote essen- 
tial moral doctrines and mutual respect for all sects. The result of this is 
the promotion of my own faith and its advancement in the light of religion." 

" The beloved of the gods ardently desires security for all creatures, 




respect for life, peace and kindliness in behavior. This is what the beloved 
of the gods considers as the conquest of religion. ... I have felt an 
intense joy such is the happiness which the conquests of religion procure. 
It is with this obj-ect that this religious inscription has been engraved, in 
order that our sons and grandsons may not think that a new conquest is 
necessary ; that they may not think that conquest by the sword deserves the 
name of conquest; that they may see in it nothing but destruction and 
violence ; that they may consider nothing as true conquest as the conquest of 

In the eighth edict the great emperor says : " I have also appointed 
ministers of religion in order that they may exert themselves among all 
sects, monks as well as worldly men. I have also had in view the interest 
of the clergy, of Brahmans, of religious mendicants, of religious Nirganthas 
and of various sects among whom my officers work. The ministers exert 
themselves, each in his corporation, and the ministers of religion work gen- 
erally among all sects. In this way acts of religion are promoted in the 
world as well as the practice of religion, viz., mercy and charity, truth and 
purity, kindness and goodness. The progress of religion among men is 
secured in two ways, by positive rules and by religious sentiments. Of these 
two methods that of positive rules is of poor value, it is the inspiration in 
the heart which best prevails. It is solely by a change in the sentiments of 
the heart that religion makes a real advance in inspiring a respect for life, 
and in the anxiety not to kill living beings." Who shall say that the relig- 
ion of this humane emperor has not endured, and within the two thousand 
years which have succeeded, mankind has discovered no nobler religion than 
to promote in this earth "mercy and charity, truth and purity, kindness 
and goodness." 

To what degree has each religion helped the historic evolution of the 
Race? When Buddhism flourished in India, the arts, sciences and civiliza- 
tion reached their zenith, as witnessed in the edicts and monuments of 
Asokd's reign. Hospitals were first founded for man and beast. Mission- 
aries were sent to all parts of the world. Literature was encouraged. 
Wherever Buddhism has gone, the nations have imbibed its spirit, and the 
people have become gentler and milder. The slaughter of animals and 
drunkenness ceased, and wars were almost abolished. 

What the Buddhist Literature has wrought for mankind. With the 
advent of Buddhism into Ceylon, and other Buddhist countries, literature 
flourished, and wherever it went it helped the development of arts and let- 
ters. The monasteries became the seats of learning, and the monks in obed- 
ience to their Master's will, disseminated knowledge among the people. 

Religion and the Family. The Domestic Education of Children. The 
Marriage Bond. The Sigatowdda Sutta lays down the relations of the 
members of the household to one another: 

Parents should: (i) Restrain their children from vice ; (2) Train them 


in virtue; (3) Have them taught arts and sciences; (4) Provide them with 
suitable wives and husbands; (5) Endow them with an inheritance. 

Children should : (i) Support their parents; (2) Perform the proper 
family duties; (3) Guard their property; (4) Make themselves worthy to be 
the heir; (5) .Honor their memory. The gift of the whole world with all 
its wealth would be no adequate return to parents for all that they have 

The Husband should : (i) Treat his wife with respect; (2) Treat his 
wife with kindness; (3) Be faithful to her; (4) Cause her to be honored by 
others; (5) Give her suitable ornaments and clothes. 

The Wife should: (i) Order her household aright; (2) Be hospitable 
to kinsmen and friends ; (3) Be chaste; (4) Be a thrifty housekeeper; (5) 
Show diligence and skill. 

Buddhist Brotherhood. Buddha was the first to establish the brother- 
hood without distinction of caste and race. Twenty-four centuries ago he 
declared, " As the great streams, O disciples, however many they may be, 
the Ganges, Jumna, Achiravati, Sarabhu, when they reach the great ocean lose 
their old name and their old descent, and bear only one name -the great 
ocean, so also do the Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Suclras, lose 
their distinctions when they join the brotherhood." The outcast as well as 
the prince was admitted to this order. Virtue was the {uuispoit, not wealth 
and rank. 

Buddha? s Exalted Tolerance. " Bhikshus, if others speak against me, 
or speak against my doctrine, or speak against the ouler, that is no reason 
why you should be angry, discontented or displeased withthem ... If you, 
in consequence thereof, become angry and dissatisfied, you bring yourself 
into danger ... If you become angiy arid dissatisfied will you be able to 
judge whether they speak correctly or incorrectly ? * We shall not, O Lord, 
be able. ... If others speak against me you should repudiate the false- 
hood as being a falsehood, saying, 'These things are not so, they are not 
true, these things are not existing amongst us, they are not in us.' " 

"Bhikshus, if others speak in piaise of me, speak in praise of my doc- 
trine, or speak in praise of the order, that is no reason why you should be 
pleased, gratified, or elated in mind ... If you, in consequence thereof, be 
pleased, gratified, or elated in mind, you bring yourselves thereby into clanger. 
The truth should be received by you as being the truth, knowing that these 
things exist, that they are true, that they exist among you and are seen in 
you ... " 

Buddhism and Modern Science. Sir Edwin Arnold says : " 1 have often 
said, and I shall say again and again, that between Buddhism and ^modern 
science there exists a close intellectual bond. When Tyndall tells us of 
sounds we cannot hear, and Norman Lockyerof colors we cannot see, when 
Sir William Thompson and Prof. Sylvester push mathematical investigation 
to regions almost beyond the calculus, and others, still bolder, imagine and 



try to grapple'a space of four dimensions, what is all this except the Bud- 
dhist Maya ? And when Darwin shows us life passing onward and upward 
through a series of constantly improving forms toward the Better and the 
Best, each individual starting in new existence with the records of bygone 
good and evil stamped deep and ineffaceably from the old ones, what is this 
again but the #$ddhist doctrine of Karma and Dharma?" Finally, if we 
gather up all the results of modern research, and look away from the best 
literature to the largest discovery in physics and the latest word in biology, 
what is the conclusion the high and joyous conclusion forced upon the 
mind, if not that which renders true Buddhism so glad and so hopeful ? 

Can the Knowledge of Religion be Scientific ? Buddhism is a scientific 
religion, inasmuch as it earnestly enjoins that nothing whatever be accepted 
on faith. Buddha has said that nothing should be believed merely because 
it is said. Buddhism is tantamount to a knowledge of other sciences. 

Religion in its Relation to Morals. The highest morality is inculcated 
in the system of Buddha, since it permits freedom of thought and opinion, 
sets its face against persecution and cruelty, and recognizes the rights of ani- 
mals. Drink, opium, and all that tend to destroy the composure of the mind 
are discountenanced. 

Different Schemes for the Restoration of Fallen Man. It is the duty of 
the Bhikshus and of the religious men (Upasakas) not only to be an example 
of holy life, but continually to exhort their weaker brethren by pointing out 
the pernicious effects of an evil life, and the gloriousness of a virtuous life, 
and urge them to a life of purity. The fallen should on no account be neg- 
lected ; they are to be treated with sympathy. 

Religion and Social Problems. The basic doctrine of Buddhism is to 
relieve human suffering. A life of sensual pleasures is condemned, and the 
conflicts of labor and capital and other problems which confront Europe are 
not to be met with in Buddhistic countries. In the Vasala Sutta he who does 
not look after the poor is calleda Vasala or low-born man. In the Sigatowada 
Sutta, Buddha enjoins on men to devote one-fourth of their wealth in the 
cause of the relief of the needy. In the Mahadhamma Sam a dan a Sutta Bud- 
dha says the poverty of a man is no excuse for his neglect of religion. As 
the dropsy patient must take bitter medicine, so the poor, notwithstanding, 
their poverty, must lead the religious life which is hard. 

Religion and Temperance. -Buddha said : " Man already drunk with 
ignorance should not add thereto by the imbibition of alcoholic drinks." One 
of the vows taken by the Buddhist monks and by the laity runs thus: " I 
take the vow to abstain from intoxicating drinks because they hinder progress 
and virtue. " The Dhammika Sutta says : " The householder that delights 
in the law should not indulge in intoxicating drinks, should not cause others 
to drink, and should not sanction the acts of those who drink, knowing that 
it results in insanity. The ignorant commit sins in consequence of drunken- 
ness and also make others drink. You should avoid this. It is the cause of 
demerit, insanity and ignorance though it be pleasing to the ignoiant." 



The dangers of modern life originate chiefly from drink and brutality, 
and in Buddhist countries the law, based upon teachings of Buddhism, pro- 
hibits the manufacture, sale and use of liquor, and prevents the slaughter of 
animals for food. The inscriptions of Asoka and the histories of Ceylon, Bur- 
mah and other Buddhist countries prove this. 

Benefits Conferred on Woman bv Buddhism. The same rights are given 
to woman as to man. Not the least difference is shown, and perfect equal- 
ity has been proclaimed. " Woman," Buddha says in the Chalavedala Sutta 
and in the Ma/iavagga, "may attain the highest path of holiness, Rahat- 
ship, which is open to man." 

Love of Country and Observance of Law. In the Mahaparinibhana 
Sutta Buddha enjoined love for one's country. "So long as a people meet 
together in concord and rise in^concord, and carry out their undertakings in 
concord, so long as they enact nothing not already established, abrogate 
nothing that has been already enacted, and act in accordance with the 
ancient institutions as established in former days, so long as they esteem and 
honor and revere the elders, so long as no women or girls are detained 
among them by force or abduction, so long as they honor and revere the 
shrines in town and country, so long will they be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper." 

The Fraternity of People. As Buddhism acknowledges no caste system, 
and admits the perfect equality of all men, it proclaims universal brother- 
hood. But peoples should agree in the acceptance of the universal virtues. 
Buddhism advocates universal peace amongst nations, and deplores war and 
bloodshed. The rights of smaller tribes and nations for a separate exist 
ence should be protected from aggressive warfare. In the Anguttara 
Nikaya, Tika Nipata, Brahmanavagga, Buddha advocates arbitration, 
instead of war. Buddhism strongly cc _.demns war on the ground of the 
great losses it brings on humanity. It says that -devastation, famine and 
other such evils have been brought on by wan 

WORKS TREATING ON BUDDHISM. The Idea of Rebirth, by F. Arun- 
dale ; The Wheel of the Law, by Alabaster ; The Light of Asia, by Sir 
Edwin Arnold ; Religions of India, by A. Barth ; Imitation of Buddha, by 
Ernst M. Bowden ; Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, by S. Beal ; Buddhism 
in China, by S. Beal ; Chinese Buddhist Literature, by S. Beal ; Romantic 
Legend of Sakya Muni, by S. Beal ; Buddhist Records of the Western 
World, by S. Beal, 2 vols ; Life of Hiouen Thsang, by S. Beal ; Dhamma- 
pada, by S. Beal ; Sutta Nipata, by Sir M. Coomaraswamy ; Sarva Darsana 
Sanghra, by Cowell ; Pali Dictionary, by R. C. Childers ; History of Ancient 
Civilization in India, by Romesh Chandra Dutt ; Indian Empire, by Sir W. 
W. Hunter; Buddhist Birth Stories, Buddhism, Ilibbert Lectures, by Prof. 
T. W. Rhys Davids; Buddhism, by Dr. Eitel ; Hand-book for the Student 
of Chinese Buddhism, by Dr. Eitel ;_ Legend of Gautama, by Bishop Bigan- 
det, 2 vols ; The Unknown God, by Loring Brace ; Chinese Buddhism, 


Religions in China, by Dr. Ch. Edkins ; Philosophy of the Upanishads, by 
Gough ; Oriental Religions, by S. Johnson, 2 vols ; Manual of Hindu Pan- 
theism, by Col. Jacob ; Vicissitudes of Aryan Civilization, by M. M. Kunte ; 
His Life and Works, by Korosi ; Sacred Books of the East, vols., viii., x., 
xi., xiii., xvii., xix., xx., xxi., xxii., xxxv., by Max Mxiller ; Buddhist Cate- 
chism, by H. S. Olcott ; Golden Rules of Buddhism, by H. S. Olcott ; 
Theosophy, Religion and Occult Science, by H. S. Olcott: Buddha ; his 
Life, Law and Order, by Dr. Hermann Oldenberg ; Udana Varga, Life of 
Buddha, by W. W. Rockhill ; Tibetan Tales, by Ralston ; Buddha Gho- 
sha's Parables, by , Captain Rogers ; Manual of Buddhism, Eastern Mona- 
chism, by R. Spence Hardy; Buddhist Catechism, by Subhadra Bhikshu ; 
Buddhism in China, by Schlagintweit ; Ceylon Mahavansa, by Wijesinha. 

"Christianity was in the place of host, and she could lose nothing by 
being modest and retiring for the time. Now that the Parliament is over, the 
Church can go on bv works to demonstrate her divine mission and her ardent 
consecration, as she has felt she has fallen short of her resources in the past. 

No one who stood thoughtfully on the grounds of the Exposition will 
forget the scei*; presented in the Court of Honor, M> called. Standing near 
the gilded statue of Liberty and looking with her towards the west one's 
eye followed the lagootf, crossed by bridges and traversed by boats, till it 
stopped at the graceful fountains. In the midst of the fullness of waters 
which they poured forth, trickling down over the white steps, was the Viking 
ship and her passenger, Columbia; directly beyond the Administration 
Building, with a statue of Columbus looking in the direction the Viking boat 
was steering, even to the statue of Liberty. Turning one's back on the west 
and looking towards the east and the lake, one saw the beautiful colonnade 
on whose entablature were inscribed the names of the older and the newer 
States. And above the archway binding the elegant structure was written 
the legend, * Ye shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free/ 
It was the crucial spot on all the grounds for a motto, uttering, as it were, its 
voice out toward the statue of Libeity, the Norseman's vessel, and the great 
mariner, and enthroned above the States. Therein all men might read the 
secret of the history of our civilization and national hope. To the nations 
that *ent their representatives from afar to Chicago and to the Parliament of 
Religions, may it be a prophecy of the advance of the truth of God to all 
that still sit in the region and shadow of death, and of its enlightening and 
subduing agency. The right use which the Christian pulpit of the land 
makes of the occasion will help toward its fulfilment." --AVv. D. S. Sc 
D.D., in * The Homilctic Review." 







The subject assigned to me is so vast that an hour would not suffice to 
do it justice. Hence, in the space of thirty minutes I can only point out 
certain lines of thought, trusting, however, that their truth will be so manifest 
and their significance so evident that the conclusion to which they lead may 
be clearly recognized as a demonstrated fact. 

Cicero has truly said that there never was a race of atheists. Cesare 
Balbo has noted with equal truth that there never has been a race of deists. 
Individual atheists and individual deists there have always been, but they 
have always been recognized as abnormal beings. Humanity listens to 
them, weighs their utterances in the scales of reason, smiles sadly at their 
vagaries, and holds fast the two-fold conviction that there is a Supreme 
being, the Author of all else that is, and that man is not left to the mercy of 
ignorance or of guess-work in regard to the purpose of his being, but has 
knowledge of it from the great Father. 

This sublime conception of the existence of God and of the existence of 
revelation is not a spontaneous generation from the brain of man. Tyndall 
and Pasteur have demonstrated that there is no spontaneous generation 
from the inorganic to the organic. Just as little is there or could there be, a 
spontaneous generation of the idea of the Infinite from the brain of the 
finite. The fact, in each case, is the result of a touch from above. All 
humanity points back to a golden age, when man was taught of the Divine 
by the Divine, that in that knowledge he might know why he himself existed, 
and how his life was to be shaped. 

Curiously, strangely, sadly as that primitive teaching of man by his 
Creator has been transformed in the lapse of ages, in the vicissitudes of dis- 
tant wanderings, of varying fortunes and of changing culture, still the com- 
parative study of ancient religions shows that in them all there has existed 
one central, pivotal concept, dressed, indeed, in various garbs of myth and 
legend and philosophy, yet ever recognizably the same the concept of the 
fallen race of man and of a future restorer, deliverer, redeemer, who, being 
human, should yet be different from and above the merely human. 

Again we ask, whence this concept ? And again the sifting of serious 
and honest criticism demonstrates that it is not a spontaneous generation of 
the human brain, that it is not the outgrowth of man's contemplation of 
nature around him and of the sun and stars above him, although, once hav- 
ing the concept, he could easily find in all nature symbols and analogies of 



it. It is part, and the central part, of the ancient memory of the human 
race, telling man what he is and why he is such and how he is to attain 
something better as his heart yearns to do. 

Glancing now, in the light of the history of religions, at that stream of 
tradition as it comes down the ages, we see it divide into two clearly dis- 
tinct branches, one shaping thought, or shaped by thought, in the eastern 
half of Asia, the other in the western half. And these two separate streams 
receive their distinctive character from the idea prevalent in the east and 
west of Asia concerning the nature of man, and, consequently, concerning 
his relation to God. 

In the west of Asia, the Semitic branch of the human family, together 
with its Aryan neighbors of Persia, considered man as a substantial indi- 
viduality, produced by the Infinite Being, and produced as a distinct entity, 
distinct from his Infinite Author in his own finite personality, and, through 
the immortality of , the soul, preserving that distinct individuality forever. 

Eastern Asia, on the contrary, held that man had not a substantial 
individuality, but only a phenomenal individuality. There is, they said, 
only one substance the Infinite ; all things are but phenomena, emanations 
of the Infinite. "Behold," say the Laws of Manu, "how the sparks leap 
from the flame and fall back into it ; so all things emanate from Brahma 
and again lose themselves in him. 1 ' "Behold," says Buddhism, "how the 
dewdrop lies on the lotus leaf, a tiny particle of the stream, lifted from it by 
evaporation and slipping off the lotus leaf to lose itself in the stream again." 
Thus they distinguished between being and existence ; between persisting 
substance, the Infinite, and the evanescent phenomena emanating from it 
for awhile," namely, man and all existent things. 

From these opposite concepts o* man sprang opposite concepts of the 
nature of good and evil. In wester i Asia, good was the conformity of the 
finite will with the will of the Infinite, which is wisdom and love; evil was 
the deviation of the finite will from the eternal norm of wisdom and love. 
Hence individual accountability and guilt, as long as the deviation lasted ; 
hence the cure of evil when the finite will is brought back into cornformity 
with the Infinite ; hence the happiness of virtue and the bliss of immortal- 
ity and the value of existence. 

Eastern Asia, on the contrary, considered existence as simply and solely 
an evil, in fact the sole and all-pervading evil, and the only good was deliver- 
ance from existence, the extinction of all individuality in the oblivion of the 
Infinite. Although existence was conceived as the work of the Infinite 
nay, as an emanation coining forth from the Infinite yet it was considered 
simply a curse, and all human duty had this for its meaning and its purpose, 
to break loose from the fetters of existence and to help others with ourselves 
to reach non-existence. 

Hence again, in western Asia, the future redeemer was conceived as 
one masterful individuality, human, indeed, type and head of the race, but 


also pervaded by the divinity in ways and degrees more or less obscurely 
conceived, and used by the divinity to break the chains, of moral evil and 
guilt nay, often they supposed, of physical and national evils as well and 
to bring man back to happiness, to holiness, to God. Thus, vaguely or more 
clearly, they held an idea of the incarnation of the Deity for man's good ; 
and his incarnation was naturally looked forward to as the crowning bless- 
ing and glory of humanity. 

In eastern Asia, on the contrary, as man and all things were regarded 
as phenomenal emanations of the Infinite, it followed that every man was an 
incarnation. And since this phenomenal existence was considered a curse, 
which metempsychosis dragged out pitifully; and if there was room for the 
notion of *a Redeemer, he was to be one recognising more clearly than others 
what a curse existence is, struggling more resolutely than others to get out 
of it, and exhorting and guiding others to escape from it with him. 

We pause to estimate these two systems. We easily recognize that their 
fundamental difference is a difference of philosophy. The touchstone of 
philosophy is human reason, and we have a right to apply it to all forms of 
philosophy. With no ineverenee, therefore, but in all reverence and tender- 
ness of religious sympathy, we apply to the philosophies underlying those 
two systems, the touchstone ot reason. 

We ask eastern Asia : How can the phenomena of the Infinite Being be 
finite ? For phenomena are not entities in themselves, but phases of being. 
We have only to look calmly in order to see here a contradiction in terms, 
an incompatibility in ideas, an impossibility. 

We ask again : How can the emanations of the Infinite Being be evil ? 
For the Infinite Being must be essentially good. Xoroaster declared that 
Ahriman, the evil one, had had a beginning and would have an end, and 
was, theiefoie, not eternal 01 infinite. And if theie is but one substance, 
then the emanations, the phenomena, of the Infinite Being are himself; how 
can they be evil f How can his incarnation be the one great curse to get 
free from ? 

Again we ask : How can this human individuality of ours, so strong, so 
persistent in its self-consciousness and self-assertion, be a phenomenon with- 
out a substance ? Or, if it have as its substance the Infinite Being himself, 
then how can it be, as it too often is, so ignorant and erring, so weak and 
changeful, so lying, so dishonest, so mean, so vile? For let us remember 
that acts are picdicatcd not of phenomena, but of substance, of being. 

Once more we ask : If human existence is but a curse, and if the only 
blessing is to restiain, to resist, to thwart and get lid of all that constitutes 
it, then what a mockery and a lie is that aspiration after human progress 
which spurs noble men to their noblest achievements ! 

To these questions pantheism, emanatiomsm, has no answer that reason 
can accept. It can never constitute a philosophy, because Us bases are con- 
tradictions. Shall we say that a thing may be false in philosophy and yet 


true in religion ? That was said once by an inventor of paradoxes ; hut 
reason repudiates it as absurd, and the Apostle of the Gentiles has \yell said 
that religion must be "our reasonable service." Human life, incarnation, 
redemption, must mean something different from this. For the spirit that 
breathes through the tradition of the Kast, the spirit of profound belt-anni- 
hilation in the presence of the Infinite, and of ascetic self-immolation as to 
the things of sense, we not only may but ought to entertain the tenderest 
sympathy, nav, the sincerest reverence. Who that has looked into it but 
has felt the fascination of its mvstic gloom ? Hut religion means more than 
this; it is meant not for man's heart alone, but for his intellect also. It 
must have for its foundation a bed-lock of solid philosophy. Turn we 
then and apply the touchstone to the tiadition of the West. 

Here it needs no lengthy philosophic reflection to iccogni/e how true 
it is that what is not self-exsistent, what has a beginning must be finite, 
and that the finite must be substantially distinct from the Infinite. We rec- 
ogni/e that no multiplication of finite individualities can detract from the 
Infinite nor could their addition add to the Infinite; for infinitude resides 
not in multiplication of things, but in the boundless essence of Being, in 
whose simple and all-pervading immensity the multitude of finite things 
have their existence gladly and gratefully. " What have you that you have 
not received ? And if you have received it why should you glory as if you 
had not received it ?" This is the keynote not only of their humble depend- 
ence, but also of their gladsome thankfulness. 

We recogni/e that man's substantial individuality, his spiritual immor- 
tality, his individual power of will and consequent moral responsibility, are 
great truths linked together in manifest logic, great facts standing together 

We see that natural ills are the logical result of the limitations of the 
finite, and that moral evil is the result of the deviation of humanity from the 
norm of the Infinite, in which truth and rectitude essentially reside. 

We see that the end and purpose and destiny, as well as the origin of 
the finite must be in the Infinite not in the extinction of the finite individuality 
else why should it receive existence at all but in its perfection and beati- 
tude. And therefore we see that man's upward aspiration for the better and 
the best is no illusion but a reasonable instinct for the right guidance of his 

All thift we find explicitly stated or plainly implied in the tradition of 
the West. Here we have a philosophy concerning God and concerning 
man which may well serve as the rational basis of religion. What then has 
this tradition to tell us concerning the incarnation and the redemption ? 

From the beginning, we see every finger pointing toward " the expected 
of the nations, the desired of the everlasting hills." One after another the 
patriarchs, the pioneer fathers of the race, remind their descendants of the 
promise given in the beginning. Revered as they were, each of them says : 


" I am not the expected one ; look forward and strive to be worthy to receive 

Among all those great leaders Moses stands forth in special grandeur 
and majesty. But in his sublime humility and truthfulness Moses also 
exclaims : " I am not the Messiah ; I am only his type and figure and pre- 
cursor. The Lord hath used me to deliver his people from the land of 
bondage, but hath not permitted me to enter the promised land, because I 
trespassed against him in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters 
of contradiction : I am but a figure of the sinless One who is to deliver man- 
kind from the bondage of evil and lead them into the promised laud of 
their eternal inheritance. Look forward and prepare for him." 

One after another the prophets, the glorious sages of Israel, arise, and 
each, like Moses, point forward to Him that is to come. And each brings 
out in clearer light who and what lie is to be, the nature of the Incarnation. 
" Behold, a Virgin shall conceive and shall bring forth a son and he shall 
be called Emmanuel, that is, God with us." " A little child is born to us, 
and a son is given to us, and the principality is on His shoulder, and he 
shall be called the Wonderful, the Counselor, the Mighty God, the Father 
of the World to come, the Prince of Peace." 

Outside of this land of Israel the nations of the Gentiles were stirred 
with similar declarations and expectancies. Soon after the time of Moses 
Zoroaster gives to Persia the prediction of a future Saviour and judge of the 

Greece hears the olden promise that Prometheus shall yet be delivered 
from his chains, re-echoed in the prayer of dear old Socrates that he would 
come from heaven to teach his people the truth and save them from the 
sensualism to which they clung so obstinately. And pagan Rome, the 
inheritor of all that had preceded her, hears the Sibyls chanting of the 
Divine One that was to be given to the world by the wonderful Virgin 
Mother, and feels the thrill of that universal expectancy concerning which 
Tacitus testifies that all were then looking for a great leader who was to 
rise in Judea and to rule the woild. 

And the expectation of the world was not to be frustrated. At the 
very time foretold by Daniel long ages before, of the tribe of Judah, of the 
family of David, in the little town of Bethlehem, with fulfillment of all the 
predictions of the prophets, the Messiah appears. "Behold," says the mes- 
senger of the Most High to the Virgin of Nazareth, "thou shalt conceive in 
thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. 
He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Most High ; and the 
Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father, and he shall 
reign in the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there shall be no 
end." "How shall this be done, because I know not man?" "The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall over- 
shadow thee; and therefore also the Holy One that shall be born of thee 


shall be called the Son of God." " Behold the handmaid of the Lord ; be 
it done to me according to thy word." 

And what then ? " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God. And the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among us, full of grace and truth, and of his fullness we all have 
received." And concerning him all subsequent ages were to chant the can- 
ticle of faith: "I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator of 
heaven and earth : and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of 
God, born of the Father before all ages, God of God, Light of Light, true 
God of true God, begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father; 
through whom all things were made, who for us men and for our salvation 
came down from heaven and was incarnated by the Holy Ghost of the Vir- 
gin Mary, and was made man/' 

But again, to this tremendous declaration, which involves not only 
a religion, but a philosophy also, we may, and we should, apply the touch- 
stone of reason and ask, u Is this possible, or is it impossible things that 
are here told us ? For we never can be expected to believe the impossible. 
Let us analyze the ideas comprised in it. Can God and man thus 
become one ? " 

Now, first, reason testifies as to man that in him two distinct and, as it 
would seem, opposite substances are brought into unity, namely -spirit and 
matter, the one not confounded with the other yet both linked in one, 
thus completing the unity and harmony of created things. Next reason 
asks, can the creature and the Creator, man and God, be thus united in 
order that the unity and the harmony may embrace all ? 

Reason sees that the finite could not thus mount to the Infinite any 
more than matter of itself could mount to spirit. But could not the Infinite 
stoop to the finite and lift it to his bosom and unite it with himself, with no 
confounding of the finite with the Infinite, nor of the Infinite with the finite, 
yet so that they shall be linked in one ? Here reason can discern no con- 
tradiction of ideas, nothing beyond the power of the Infinite. But could 
the Infinite stoop to this ? Reason sees that to do so would cost the Infinite 
nothing, since he is ever his unchanging self ; it sees, moreover, that since 
creation is the offspring not of his need but of his bounty, of his love, it 
would be most worthy of infinite love thus to perfect the creative act, thus 
to lift up the creature and bring all things into unity and harmony. Then 
must reason declare that it is not only possible but it is most fitting that it 
should be so. 

Moreover, we see that it is this very thing that all humanity has been 
craving for, whether intelligently or not. This very thing all religions have 
been looking forward to, or have been groping for in the dark. Turn we 
then to himself and ask: "Art thou He who is to come, or look we for 
another ? " To that question he must answer, for the world needs and must 
have the truth. Meek and humble of heart though he be, the world has a 


right to know whether he be indeed "the Expected of the Nations, the 
Immanuel, God with us." Therefore does he answer clearly and unmistak- 
ably : 

"Abraham rejoiced that he should see my day. He saw it and was glad," 
"Art thou then older than Abraham ? " " Before Abraham was I am." 
"Who art thou, then?" "I am the beginning, who also speak to you." 
" Whosoever seeth me seeth the Father ; 1 and the Father are one." 

His enemies threaten to stone him, "because," they said, " being man 
he maketh himself God." They demand that for this reason he shall be put 
to death. The high priest exclaims : " I adjure thee by the living God that 
thou tell us if thou be the Christ, the Son of the living God." He answers : 
" Thou hast said it, I am ; and one day you shall see me sitting on the right 
hand of the power of God and coming in the clouds of heaven." In fulfill- 
ment of the prophecies he is condemned to death. He declares it is for the 
world's redemption : " I lay down my life for my sheep. No one taketh my 
life from me, but 1 lay down my life, and I have power to lay down my life, 
and I have power to take it up again." 

As proof of all he said he foretold his resurrection from death on the 
third day, and in the glorious evidence of the fulfillment of the pledge, his 
church has ever since been chanting the Easter anthem throughout the 

To that church he gives a commission of spiritual authority extending 
to all ages, to all nations, to every creature a commission that would be 
madness in any mouth save that ot God incarnate. 

This is the testimony concerning himself given to an inquiring and 
needy world by him whom no one will dare accuse of lying or imposture, 
and the loving adoration of the ages proclaims that his testimony is true. 

In him are fulfilled all the figures and predictions of Moses and the 
prophets; all the expectation and yearning of Israel. In him is the fullness 
of grace and of truth toward which the sages of the Gentiles, with sad or 
with eager longing, stretched forth their hands. In each of them there was 
much that was true and good ; in him is all they had, and all the rest that 
they longed for; in him alone is the fullness, and to all of them and all of 
their disciples we say : "Come to the fullness." 

Edwin Arnold, who in his "Light of Asia" has pictured in all the col- 
ors of poesy the sage of the far East, has in his later " Light of the World " 
brought that wisdom of the east in adoration to the feet of Jesus Christ. May 
his words be a prophecy. 

(), Father, grant that the words of thy Son may be verified, that all, 
through him, may at last be made one in Thee 1 




Christianity in its broadest as well as deepest sense means the pres- 
ence of God in humanity. It is the revelation of God in his world, the 
opening up of a straight, sure way to that God, and a new tidal flow of 
divine life to all the sons of men. The hope of this has in some measure 
been in every age and in every religion, stirring them with expectation. 

Christianity is in the world to utter her belief, that he who revealed 
himself to Israel as the Good Shepherd realizes the expectations and fulfills 
the promises made in the prophecies, and that in the Word made flesh the 
glory of Jehovah has been revealed, and all flesh may see it together. Even 
in childhood he bears the name " Emmanuel," which, being interpreted, is 
44 God-with-us." He explains his work and his presence by declaring that 
it is the coming of the Kingdom not of law, nor of earthly government, nor 
of ecclesiasticism but of God. It is not another Moses, nor another Elias, 
but God in the world ; God-with-us this the supreme announcement of 
Christianity, asserting his immanence, revealing God and man as intended 
for each other, and rousing in man slumbering wants and capacities to real- 
ize the new vision of manhood that dawns upon him from this luminous 

Christianity affirms as a fundamental fact of the God it worships, that 
he is a God who does not hide nor withhold himself, but who is ever going 
forth to man in the effort to reveal himself, and to be known and felt 
according to the degree of man's capacity and need. This self-manifesta- 
tion or " forthgoing of all that is known or knowable of the divine perfec- 
tions 11 is the Logos, or Word ; and it is the very center of Christian revela- 
tion. This Word is God, not withdrawn in dreary solitude, but coming 
into intelligible and personal manifestation. From the beginning for so 
we may now read the " Golden Proem" of St. John's Gospel, with its won- 
derful spiritual history of the Logos from the beginning God has this 
desire to go forth to something outside of himself and be known by it. 
44 In the beginning was the Word." Hence the creation : " All things were 
made by him." Hence, too, out of this divine desire to reveal and accom- 
modate himself to man, his presence in various forms of religion. " He 
was in the world," Even in man's sin and spiritual blindness, the eternal 
Logos seeks to bring itself to his consciousness. 

But the Christian history of the Logos moves on to its supreme announce- 
ment: "And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we 
beheld his glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace 



and truth.* 1 Not some angel come from Heaven to deliver some further 
message; not another prophet sprung from our bewildered race to chide, to 
warn, or to exhort; but the Logos, which in the beginning was with God 
and which was God ; the Jehovah of the old prophecies, whose glory it had 
been promised would be revealed, that all flesh might see it together. 

And so, in the Christian view of it, the story of the Logos completes 
itself in the story of the manger. And so, too, the Incarnation instead of 
being exceptional is exactly in line with what the Logos has from the begin- 
ning been doing. God as the Word has ever been coming to man in a form 
accommodated to his need, keeping step with his steps, until in the complete- 
ness of this desire to bring himself to man where he is, he appears to the 
natural senses, and in a form suitable to our natural life. In the Christian 
conception of God, as one wht* seeks to reveal himself to man, it simply is 
inevitable that the Word should manifest himself on the very lowest plane 
of man's life, if at any time it would be true to say of his spiritual condition : 
" This people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and 
their eyes they have closed. 1 ' It is not extraordinary, in the sense of its 
being a hard or an unnatural tRing for God to do. He has always been 
approaching man, always adapting his revelations to human conditions and 
needs. It is this constant accommodation and manifestation that has kept 
man's power of spiritual thought alive. The history of religions, together 
with their remains, is a proof of it. The history of "the historic faiths," 
presented in this Parliament, has confirmed it as the most self-evident thing 
of the Divine Nature in his dealings with the children of men ; and the 
Incarnation is its natural and completes! outcome. 

And then we begin to follow the life of him, whose footprints, in the 
light of Christian history and experience, are still looked upon as the very 
footprints of the Incarnate Word. The Gospel story is a story of toil, of suf- 
fering, of storm and tempest ; a story of sacrifice, of love so pure and holy 
that even now it has the power to touch, to thrill, to re-create man's selfish 
nature. There is an undoubted actuality in the human side of this life : but 
just as surely there is a certain divine something forever speaking through 
those human tones, and reaching out through those kindly hands. The 
character of the Logos is never lost, sacrificed or lowered. It is always 
this divine something trying to manifest itself, trying to make itself under- 
stood, trying to redeem man from his slavery to evil, and draw to itself his 
spiritual attachment. Here, plain to human sight, is part of that age-long 
effort of the Word to reveal itself to man ; only now through a nature formed 
and born for the purpose. We are reminded of it when we hear him say, 
" Before Abraham was, I am." We are assured of it when he declares that 
he came forth from the Father. And we know that he has triumphed when, 
at the last, we hear his promise, " Lo, I am with you always !" It is the 
Logos speaking. The divine purpose has been fulfilled. The Word has 
come forth on this plane of human life, manifested himself, and established 


a relationship with man nearer and dearer than ever before. He has made 
himself available and indispensable to every need or effort. " Without me, 
ye can do nothing." In his divine humanity he has established a perfect 
medium whereby we may have free and immediate access to God's fatherlv 
help. "I am the door of the sheep. " k< I am the way, the truth, and the 

In this thought of the divine character of the Son of Man, the early 
Christians found strength and comfort. For a time they did not attempt to 
define this faith theologically. It was a simple, direct, earnest faith in the 
goodness and redeeming power of the God-man, whose perfect nature had 
inspired them to believe in the reality of his heavenly reign. They felt that 
the risen Lord was near them ; that he was the Saviour so long promised ; 
the world's hope, " in whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." 
Hut to-day man claims his right to enter understandingly into the mys- 
teries of faith, and reason asks, How could God or the divine Logos be 
made flesh? 

Yet in seeking for in answer to such an inquiry we are at the same 
time seeking to know of the origin of human life. The conception and 
birth of Jesus Christ as related in the Gospels is, declares the reason, a 
strange fact. So, too, is the conception and birth of every human being. 
Neither can be explained bv any principle of naturalism, which regards the 
external as first, and the internal as second and of comparative unimpor- 
tance. Neither can be understood unless it be recognized that spiritual 
forces and substances are related to natural forces and substances as cause 
and effect ; and that thev, the former, are prior and the active, formative 
agents playing upon and received by the latter. We do not articulate 
words and then try to pack them with ideas and intentions. The process is 
the reverse; first the intention, then that intention coming forth as thought, 
and then the thought yicarnating itself by means of articulated sounds or 
written characters. 

Hy this same law man is, primarily, essentially a spiritual being. In the 
very form of his creation, that which essentially is the man, and which in 
time loves, thinks, makes plans and efforts for useful life, is spiritual. In 
his conception, then, the human seed must not only be acted upon but be 
derived from invisible, spiritual substances, which are clothed with natural 
substances for the sake of conveyance. That which is slpwlv developed 
into a human being or soul must be a living organism composed of spiritual 
substances. Gradually that primitive form becomes enveloped and pro- 
tected within successive clothings ; while the mother, from the substances 
of the natural world, silently weaves the swathes and coverings which are 
to serve as a natural or physical body, and make possible its entrance into 
this outer court of life. 

Very like our humanities, in all that pertains to the growth of the natural 
body and natural mind, would be this humanity of the Son of Man. The 


same tenderness and helplessness of its infantile body ; the same possibility 
of weariness, hunger, thirst, pain ; the same exposure, too, in the lower planes 
of the mind, to the assaults of evil, resulting in internal struggle, temptation, 
and anguish of spirit. And yet there is always an unlikeness, a difference, 
in that the very primitive, determining forms and possibilities of that human- 
ity are divinely begotten. 

And so we think of this humanity of Jesus Christ as so formed and born 
as to be able to serve as a perfect instrument, whereby the eternal Logos 
might come and dwell among us, might so express and pour forth his love; 
might so accommodate and icveal his truth ; might, in a word, so set him- 
self to our human conditions and needs, and so establish himself on all the 
planes of angelic and human existence as to be forever after immediately 
present in them, and so become literallv, actually, (lod-with-us. 

Gradually this was done. Gradually the Divine 1/ife of lo\e and wis- 
dom came into the several planes which, by incai nation, existed in this 
humanity, removing from them whatever \\ as limiting or imperfect, and sub 
stituting what was di\me, filling them, glorifying them, and in the end making 
them a very part of himself. 

This bungs into harmony the two elements which wo are npt to look 
upon and keep distinct, the human and the divine. For he himself tells us 
of a process, a distinct change which his humanity underwent, and which 
is the key to his real nature. "The Holy Spirit," says the record, "was not 
yet given, because that Jesus was not vet glorified" Some divine operation 
was going on within that humanity which was not fully accomplished. Hut 
on the eve of his crucifixion he exclaimed, " Now is the Son of Man glori- 
fied and God is glorified in him." It is this process of putting off what 
was finite and infirm in the human, and the substitution ol the divine from 
within, lesulting in the formation of a divine humanity. So long as that 
i.s going on, the human as the Son feels a sepaiahon from the divine as the 
Father, and speaks of it, and turns to it, as though it weie another person. 
But when the glorification is accomplished, when the divine has entirely 
filled the human, and they act reciprocally and unanimously as soul and 
body, then the declaration is, "I and the Father are One." Divine in 
origin ; human in birth; divinely human through glorification. As to his 
soul or inmost being, the Father; as to his human, the Son ; as to the life 
and saving power that go forth fiom his glorified nature, the Holy Spirit. 

The story of the divine life in its descent to man, this coming or incar- 
nation of the Logos through the humanity of Jesus Christ, it is the sweet 
and serious privilege of Christianity to carry into the world. I try to state 
it. I try from a new theological standpoint to show reasons for its 
rational acceptance. But I know that however true and necessary explana- 
tions may be, the fact itself transcends them all. No one in this free 
assembly is required or expected to hide his denominationalism. And yet 
I love to stand with my fellow Christians and unite with them in that 
simplest, most comprehensive creed that was ever uttered, Credo Domine. 



The Sinhalese followers of Arya Dharma, miscalled Buddhism by West- 
ern scholars, through their chosen delegate, Mr. Dharmapala, greet the dele* 
gates representing all the World's Religions in open Parliament assembled 
at Chicago, in the year 2436 of Buddha's Nirvana A.D. 1893. To the 
Advisory Council of the Exposition, and to all and several the delegates, the 
salutations of peace, tolerance, and human and divine brotherhood. 

Be it known to you, brethren, that ours is* the oldest of missionary relig- 
ions, the principle of propaganda having been adopted by its promulgator at 
the very beginning and enforced by him in the despatch of his immediate 
followers, "The Brethren of the Yellow Robe," shortly after his attainment 
of the state of perfect spiritual illumination, 2481 years ago, under the Bodhi- 
tree at Buddha Gaya in Middle India. Traces of these ancient missions have 
been discovered of late years, and the influence of their teachings recognized 
by Western scholars in various directions. The spread of these ideas has 
invariably been effected by their intrinsic excellence, and never, as we rejoice 
to know, by the aid of force, or appeal to the superstitious weakness of the 
uneducated masses. No blood stains our temples, no profitable harvest have 
we reaped from human oppression. The Tathagata Buddha has enjoined 
his followers to promote education, foster scientific inquiry, respect the relig- 
ious views of others, frequent the company of the wise, and avoid unproduct- 
ive controversy. He has taught them to believe nothing upon mere author- 
ity, however seemingly influential, and to discuss religious opinions in a 
spirit of love and forbearance, without fear and without prejudice, confident 
that truth protects the righteous seeker after truth. 

It is evident then, brethren, that the scheme of your Parliament of Relig- 
ions recommends itself to the followers of Sakya Muni, and that we, one 
and all, are bound to wish it the most complete success. We should hav$ 
been glad to accede to the wishes of your council in sending one or more of 
our ordained monks ; but being ignorant of Western languages, their pres- 
ence as active members of the Parliament would be useless. For centuries 
circumstances have put a stop to our organized foreign propaganda, and the 
life of our monks has been one of quiet study, meditation and good works 
in and near their monasteries. It was, therefore, a joy to us that, through 
the liberality of your council, our young lay-missionary, H, Dharmapala, 
has been enabled to undertake the honorable duty of presenting this address 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B, 



















of greeting and taking part in your parliamentary deliberations. We com- 
mend him to you as worthy of confidence, and hope that good may result 
from his mission. 

Education in Ceylon on Western principles has been backward because 
until quite recently our children could not procure it save at the risk of the 
destruction of their religious belief under the interested tuition of anti- 
Buddhist instruction. This is now being remedied by the opening of secu- 
lar schools by our people under the lead of the Theosophical Society. To 
Colonel Olcott we owe the very catechism out of which our children are being 
taught the first principles of religion, and our present brotherly relations 
with our co-religionists of Japan and other Buddhistic countries. The relig- 
ious future of Ceylon, brethren, is full of promise, and with the growth of 
our enlightenment, we shall be more fit to carry abroad the teachings of the 
(ireut Master, whose mission was to emancipate the human mind from the 
bonds of selfishness, superstition and materialism. 

The labors of Orientalist^, especially of Pali scholars, have of late 
resulted in spreading very widely throughout the woild, some knowledge of 
the Buddha's teachings, while Sir Edwin Arnold's epic, "The Light of 
Asia," has created a popular love for the stainless and compassionate char- 
acter of (Jautama Buddha. Justice being done to him, his personality is 
seen to shine with exceptional brilliance among the figures of human his- 
tory. "We think that our Arya Dhania reflects the spiritual sunlight of his 
own pure nobility and the luminousness of his own wisdom. We invite you 
all to examine and test it for yourselves. Our founder taught that the cause 
of all miseries is ignorance; its antithesis, happiness, is the product of 

lie taught religious tolerance, the kinship of human families with each 
othei and with the universe, the existence of a common law of being and of 
evolution for us all, the necessity for the conquest of the passions, the avoid- 
ance of 01 uelt v, Ixing, lustfulness, and all sensual indulgences, of the cling- 
ing to superstitious beliefs, whether traditional or modern, and of belief in 
alleged infallibility of men or books. He inculcated the practice of all 
virtues, a high altruism in word and deed, the following of blameless modes 
of living and the keeping of an open mind for the discovery of truth. He 
taught the existence of a natural causation called Karma, wjiich operates 
throughout the universe, and which, in the sphere of ethics, becomes the prin- 
ciple of equilibrium between the opposing forces of ignorance and wisdom, 
the agent of both retribution and recompense. He taught that existence in 
physical life is attended by fleeting pleasures and lasting pains, wherefore 
the enlightened mind should recognize the fact and conquer the lust for life 
in the plane of physical being. Every effect being related to an anterior, 
formative cause, the joys and sorrows of life are the fruits of our individual 
actions ; hence man is the creator of his own destiny, and is his only possi- 
ble liberator. Liberation is enfranchisement from the trammels of ignor- 


ance, which not only begets the sorrows that scourge us, but also, by keep- 
ing active the thirst for bodily life, compels us to be incarnated again and 
again indefinitely until wisdom dries up the salt spring at which we try to 
quench our maddening thirst for life and life's illusive activities, and we 
break out of the whirling wheel of rebirth, and escape into the calm and full 
wisdom of Nirvana. 

The literature of Southern Buddhism is copious, yet its fundamental 
ideas may be easily synthesized. 

Our scriptures are grouped into three divisions, called Pitakas ; of 
which the first (Sutta)- comprises sermons or lectures on morality; the 
second (Vinaya) specifies the constitution, rules and discipline of the Order 
and of our Laity, and the the third (Abhi Dhamma) propounds the psychol- 
ogy of our system. 

Of course, it would be useless to lay before a transient body like yours 
a collection of these religious books, written in an unfamiliar language ; we 
must trust our delegate to the inspiration of your presence to give you a 
summary of what Southern Buddhists believe it necessary for the world to 
know, in the interest of human progress and human happiness. 



The Parsees of India are the followers of Zoroastrianism, or the religion 
of Zoroaster, a religion which was for centuries both the state religion and 
the national religion of ancient Persia. As Prof. Max Miiller says, "There 
were periods in the history of the world when the worship of Ormuzd threat- 
ened to rise triumphant on the ruins of the temples of all other gods. If the 
battles of Marathon and Salamis had been lost and Greece had succumbed 
to Persia, the state religion of the empire of Cyrus, which was the worship 
of Ormuzd, might have become the religion of the whole civilized world. 
Persia had absorbed the Assyrian and Babylonian empires ; the Jews were 
either in Persian captivity or under Persian sway at home ; the sacred mon- 
uments of Egypt had been mutilated by the hands of Persian soldiers. The 
edicts of the king the king of kings were sent to India, to Greece, to 
Scythia, and to Egypt, and if 4 by the grace of Ahura Mazda* Darius had 
crushed the liberty of Greece, the purer faith of Zoroaster might easily have 
superseded the Olympian fables." 

With the overthrow of the Persian monarchy under its last Sassanian 
king, Yazdagard,at the battle of Nehavand in A.D. 642, the religion received 
a check at the hands of the Arabs, who, with sword in one hand and Koran 
in the other, made the religion of Islam both the state religion and the 
national religion of the country. But many of those who adhered to the faith 
of their fathers quitted their ancient fatherland for the hospitable shores of 
India. The modern Parsees of India are the descendants of those early 
settlers. In the words of the Rt. Rev. Dr. Meurin, the learned Bishop (Vicar 
Apostolic) of Bombay in 1885, the Parsees are "a people who have chosen 
to relinquish their venerable ancestors 1 homesteads rather than abandon their 
ancient religion,. the founder of which has lived no less than 3,000 years ago 
a people who for a thousand years have formed in the midst of the great 
Hindoo people, not unlike an island in the sea, a quite separate and distinct 
nation, peculiar and remarkable as for its race, so for its religious and social 
life and customs." Prof. Max Miiller says of the religion of the Parsees : 
" Here is a religion, one of the most ancient of the world, once the state 
religion of the most powerful empire, driven away from its native soil, and 
deprived of political influence, without even the prestige of a powerful or 
enlightened priesthood, and yet professed by a handful of exiles men of 
wealth, intelligence and moral worth in western India, with an unhesitating 
fervor such as is seldom to be found in larger religious communities. It is 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 





well worth the earnest endeavor of the philosopher and the divine to dis- 
cover, if possible, the spell by which this apparently effete religion continues 
to command the attachment of the enlightened Parsees of India, and makes 
them turn a deaf ear to the allurements of the Brahmanic worship and the 
earnest appeals of Christian missionaries/' 

It is the system of such a religion that is the subject of my paper. As 
the natural love and respect which one has for his own religion are some- 
times held to color one's picture of his religion, I will illustrate my account 
of the Parsee religion as much as 'possible with the statements of Western 
scholars of repute who have studied the religion and the literature of the 

I will treat my subject in two parts. First, I will give a brief descrip- 
tion of the religion. Second, as desired by Rev. Dr. Barrows in his First 
Report to the President of the World's Congress Auxiliary, I will briefly refer 
to some of the important practical questions of the present age referred to 
in that report, and examine what the Paisee religion has to say on those 

I. Zoroastrianism or Parseeism by whatever name the system may be 
called is a monotheistic form of religion. It believes in the existence of 
one God, whom it knows under the names of Ma/da, Ahura and Ahura- 
Mazda, the last form being one that is most commonly met with in the later 
writings of the A vesta. That the religious system of Zoroaster is monothe- 
istic is evidenced, among other things, by the fact that Zoroaster rejected 
from his writings the word "daeva," a very ancient Aryan word for God, 
derived from the Aryan root " div," " to shine." Most of the Western 
nations which separated from the parent stock took with them this word in 
one form or another for the name of their God. Thus the Greeks called 
their God, Deos or Zeus ; the Romans, Deus ; the Germans, Teus ; the 
Lithuanians, Diewas, and so on. The Indian and the Iranian branches had 
the word "daeva." But when the early Iranians saw that the belief of the 
people was tending to polytheism and that the sacred word "daeva," 
instead of being used for God alone, was being used for many of his created 
objects, they stamped the word as unfit for the name of God and rejected it 
altogether from the Avesta. 

The first and greatest truth that dawns npon the mind of a Zoroastrian 
is that the great and the infinite universe, of which he is an infinitesimal 
part, is the work of a powerful hand -the result of a master mind. The 
first and the greatest conception of that master mind, Ahura-Mazda, is that, 
as the name implies, he is the Ominiscient Lord, and as such he is the ruler 
of both the material and the immaterial world, the corporeal and the incor- 
poreal world, the visible and the invisible world. 

As to the material, corporeal, or visible world, the sublime objects and 
the grand phenomena of nature which present themselves to the sight of 
all men, from intelligent and keen observers to ordinary simple men whose 


powers of observation are in their eiude infancy, bear evidence to his omnip- 
otence, to Ins all-working and ever working po\\ei. If one were to ask 
which is the hest and the surest evidence, that /oroastrianism rests upon 
for its belief in the existence ot God, the reply is that it is the "evidence 
fiom nature/' The harmony, the order, the law, and the svstem observed 
in nature lead the mind of a Xoroastrian from nature to nature's God, 

As in the physical world so in the moral world. As Ahura-Ma/da is 
the ruler of the physical world, so he is the ruler of the spiritual world. 
He is the most spiritual among the spiritual ones. His distinguished 
attributes are good mind, righteousness, desirable control, piety, perfection, 
and immortality. As he is the source of all physical light, so he is the source 
of all spiritual light, all moral light. He is the beneficent spirit from whom 
emanate all good and all piety, He looks into the heaits of men, and sees 
how much of the good and of the piety that have emanated fiom him has 
made its home there, and thus rewards the virtuous and punishes the vicious. 

As he has arranged all order and haimony in the physical world, so he 
has done in the moral world. Of course, one sees at times, in the plane of 
this world, moral disorders and want of harmony; but then the present state 
is only a part, and that a very small part, of his scheme of moral government. 
As petty disorders here and there in the giand svstem of nature do not dis- 
close any want of svstem or harmony in the grand scheme of the universe, 
so petty disordeis in the moral plane in the present state of life do not disclose 
any want of method in his moral government. In the moral world viitue 
has its own reward, and vice its own punishment. Viitue has all happiness 
and pleasure in the long run, and vice all miseiv and grief. Fiom a /oroas- 
trian point of view the consideration of these facts piesents a stiong evidence 
for the existence of a future state of life, for the immoitality of the soul. As 
the ruler of the world, Ahura-Ma/da hears the prayers of the ruled. He 
grants the prayers of those who are pious in thoughts, pious in words, and 
pious in deeds. " He not only icwards the good, but punishes the wicked. 
All that is created, good or evil, fortune or misfoitunc, is his work." 

We now come to the subject of the philosophy of the /oioastrian religion. 

We have seen that Ahura-Ma/da or (lod is, according to Parsee Scrip- 
tures, the causer of all causes. He is the creator as well as the destroyer, 
the increaser as well as the decreases He gives birth to different creatures, 
and it is he who brings about their end. How is it, then, that he brings 
about these two contrary results? " This great thinker [/oroaster] of re- 
mote antiquity solved this difficult question philosophically by the supposi- 
tion of two primeval causes, which, though different, were united, and 
produced the world of material things, as well as that of the spirit." 

These two primeval causes or principles are called in the A vesta the 
two " Mainyus." This word comes from the ancient Aryan root "man," to 
"think." It may be properly rendered into English by the word "spirit," 
meaning " that which can only be conceived by the mind but not felt by the 


senses." Of these two spirits or primeval causes or principles, one is crea- 
tive and the other destructive. The former is known in the Avesta by the 
namh of- 11 Spenta-rnainyush " or the increasing spirit, and the latter by that 
of " Angra-mainyush " or the decreasing spirit. These two spirits work 
under one God, Mazda, who, through the agency, as it were, of these two 
spirits, is the causer of all causes in the universe, the creator as well as the 

According to Zoroaster's philosophy, our world is the work of these 
two hostile principles, Spenta-mainyush, the good principle, and Angro- 
mainyush, the evil principle, both serving under one God. In the words of 
that learned Orientalist, Professor Darmesteter, ** All that is good in the 
world comes from the former ; all that is bad comes from the latter. The 
history of the world is the history of their conflict ; how Angro-mainyu 
invaded the woild <>f Ahura-Maxda and marred it, and how he shall be 
expelled from it at last. Man is active in the conflict, his duty in it being 
laid before him in the law revealed by Ahura-Ma/da to Xarathushtra. When 
the appointed time is come .... Angro-mainyu and hell will be 
destroyed, man will rise from the dead, and everlasting happiness will reign 
over the world/' 

Some authors entertain an opinion that Zoroaster preached dualism. 
But this is a serious misconception. On this point Dr. Haugsays: "The 
opinion, so generally entertained now, that Xarathushtra was preaching a 
dualism that is to say, the idea of two original and independent spirits, one 
good and the other bad, utterly distinct from each other, and one counteracting 
the creation of the other, is owing to a confusion of his philosophy with his 
theology ... A separate evil spirit of equal power with Ahura-Ma/da, 
and always opposed to him, is entirely foreign to Zarathushtra's theology." 

The reason why the original Zoroastrian notion of the two spirits, the 
creative and the destructive, is misunderstood as dualism is this. In the 
Parsee Scriptures the names of God are Mazda, Ahura, and Ahura-Mazda, 
the last word being a compound of the first two. The first two words are 
common in the earliest writings of the Gatha, and the third in the later 
scriptures. In later times the word Ahura-Mazda, instead of being restricted, 
like Mazda, to the name of God, began to be used in a wider sense and was 
applied to Spenta-mainyush, the Creative or the Good principle. This being 
the case, wherever the word Ahura-Mazda was used in opposition to that of 
Angro-mainyush, later authors took it as the name of God, and not as the 
name of the Creative principle, which it really was. Thus the very fact of 
Ahura-Mazda's name being employed in opposition to that of Angro-main- 
yush or Ahriman led to the notion that Zoroastrian Scriptures preached 

Dr. West presents the subject from another point of view: "The 
origin and end of Ahriman appear to be left as uncertain as those of the 
devil, and altogether the resemblance between these two ideas of the evil 



spirit is remarkably close; in fact, almost too close to admit of the possibility 
of their being ideas of different origin. ... If, therefore, a belief in 
Ahriman, as the author of evil, makes the Parsee religion a dualism, it is 

difficult to understand why a belief in the devil, as the author of evil, does 

- . 

not make Christianity also a dualism." 

From a consideration of these points of philosophy, Mr. Samuel Lang 
says: "The doctrines of this excellent religion are extremely simple. The 
leading idea is that of monotheism, but the one God has far fewer anthropo- 
morphic attributes, and is relegated much further back into the vague and 
infinite than the God of any other monotheistic religion. Ahura-Mazda, of 
which the more familiar appellation Ormuzd is an abbreviation, means the 
'All-knowing God ; ' he is said sometimes to dwell in the infinite luminous 
space, and sometimes to be identical with it. He is, in fact, not unlike the 
inscrutable First Cause, whom we may regard with awe and reverence, with 
love and hope, but whom we cannot pretend to define or to understand. 
But the radical difference between Zoroastrianism and other religions is that 
it does not conceive of this one God as an omnipotent Creator, who might 
malce the universe as he chose, and therefore was directly responsible for all 
the evil in it; but as a being acting by certain fixed laws, one of which 
was, for reasons totally inscrutable to us, that existence implied polarity, and 
therefore that there could be no good without corresponding evil." 

We will now see how these precepts and philosophic principles affect 
the question of morality. 

As there are two primeval principles under Ahura-Mazda that produce 
our material world, as said above, so there are two principles inherent in 
the nature of man which encourage him to do good or tempt him to do evil. 
One asks him to support the cause of the good principle, the other to sup- 
port that of the evil principle. 

* . * 

Now these two principles inherent in man, viz., Vohumana and Aka- 

mana (good mind and evil mind) exert their influence upon a man's thoughts, 
words and deeds. When the influence of the former, /. e., the good mind, 
predominates, our thoughts, words and deeds result in good thoughts, good 
words and good deeds ; but when that of the latter, i. e., the evil mind, pre- 
dominates, they result in evil thoughts, evil words and evil deeds. Now the 
fifth chapter of the Vendidad gives, as it were, a short definition of what is 
morality or piety. There, first of all, the writer says that " Purity is the best 
thing for man after birth." This you may say is the motto of the Zoroastrian 
religion. Therefore M. d'llarlez very properly says that, according to 
Zoroastrian scriptures, the " notion of the word virtue sums itself up in that 
of the 4 Asha.' " What Zoroastrian moral philosophy teaches is this, that 
your good thoughts, good words and good deeds alone will be your inter- 
cessors. Nothing more will be wanted. They alone will serve you as a safe 
pilot to the harbor of Heaven, as a safe guide to the gates of paradise. The 
late Dr. Haug rightly observed that ** The moral philosophy of Zoroaster was 


moving in the triad of 'thought, word and deed/ 1 ' These three words form, 
as it were, the pivot upon which the moral structure of Zoroastrianism turns. 
It is the groundwork upon which the whole edifice of Zoroastrian morality 

This brings us to the question of the destiny of the soul after death. 
Zoroastrianism believes in the immortality of the soul. The A vesta writings 
of Hadokht Nushk and the nineteenth chapter of the Vemlidad and of the 
Pehlevi books of Minokherad and Viraf-nameh treat of the fate of the soul 
after death. The last mentioned hook contains an account of the journey of 
Ardai-Viraf through the heavenly regions. This account corresponds to that 
of the ascension of the prophet Isaiah. Its notions about heaven and hell 
correspond to some extent to the Christian notions about them. According 
to Dr. Ilaug its description of hell and of some of the punishments suffered 
by the wicked there, bears a striking resemblance to that in the Infeino of 
the Italian poet Dante. 

Thus Zoroastrianism believes in the immortality of the soul. A plant 
called the Iloma-i-saphid or white Homa, a name corresponding to the 
Indian Soma of the Hindus, is held to be the emblem of the immortality ol the 
soul. According to Dr. Wimlisclimann and Professor Max Miiller. this 
plant reminds us of the '* Tree of Life " in the garden t>f Eden. As in the 
Christian Scriptures the way to the tree of life is strictly guarded by (he 
Cherubim, so in the Zoroastrian Scriptures the I Ioma-i-saphid, <>r the plant 
which is the emblem of immortality, is guarded by innumerable Kravashis 
that is, guardian spirits. The number of these guaidian spirits, as given in 
various books, is 09,90Q. 

A good deal of importance is attached in the A vest a and in the later 
Pehlevi writings to this question of the immortality of the soul, because a 
belief in this dogma is essential to the structure of moral principles. The 
whole edifice of our moral nature rests upon its groundwork. 

Again, Zoroastrianism believes in heaven and hell. 

Between heaven and this world there is supposed to be a bridge named 
" Chinvat." 

According to the Parsee Scriptures, for three days after a man's death 
his soul remains within the linlits of this world under the guidance of the 
angel Srosh. If the deceased be a pious man or a man who led a virtuous 
life, his soul utters the words, " Well is he by whom that which is his benefit 
becomes the benefit of any one else." If he be a wicked man or one who 
led an evil life, his soul utters these plaintive words : " To which land shall 
I turn ? Whither shall I go ? " 

On the dawn of the third night the departed souls appear at the *' Chin- 
vat Bridge." This bridge is guarded by the angel Mehcr Daver, i.e., Meher 
the Judge. He presides there as a judge assisted by the angels Kashnd and 
Astad, the former representing Justice and the latter Truth. At this bridge, 
and before this angel Meher, the soul of every man has to give an account 


of its doings in the past life. Meher Daver, the judge, weighs a man's 
actions by a scale-pan. If a man's good actions outweigh his evil ones, 
even by a small particle, he is allowed to pass from the bridge to the other 
end to heaven. If his evil actions outweigh his good ones, even by a 
small weight, he is not allowed to pass over the bridge, but is hurled down 
into the deep abyss of hell. If his meritorious and evil deeds counterbalance 
each other, he is sent to a place known as " Hamast-gehan," corresponding 
to the Christian " Purgatory" and the Mohammedan " Aeraf." His meri- 
torious deeds done in the past life would prevent him from going to hell, 
and his evil actions would not let him go to heaven. 

Again, Zoroastrian books say that the meritoriousness of good deeds 
and the sin of evil ones increase with the growth of time. As capital 
increases with interest, so good and bad actions done by a man in his life 
increase, as it were, with interest in their effects. Thus a meritorious deed 
done in young age is morfe effective than that very deed done in 
advanced age. For example, let that meritorious deed be valued 
in money. Let two friends, A and 13, at the age of twenty-five propose 
doing an act of charity, viz., a donation of 1,000 to a charitable institu- 
tion. A immediately gives the amount and B postpones the act for some time 
and does it at the age of fifty. Calculating at the rate of four per cent., 
A's gift of 1,000 at the age of twenty-five is worth twice that of B at the 
age of fifty, t. e., twenty five years later. Thus, the Dadistan-i-I)ini recom- 
mends man to follow the path of virtue from his very young age. A 
virtuous act performed by a young man is more meritorious than the same 
act performed by an old man. A man must begin practicing virtue from 
his very young age. As in the case of good deeds and their meritorious- 
ness, so in the case of evil action and their sins. The burden of the sin of 
an evil action increases, as it were, with interest. A young man doing an 
evil act has time and opportunities at his disposal to wash off, as it were, 
the effect of that act either by repentance or good deeds in return. A 
young man has a long time to repent of his evil deeds and to do good deeds 
that could counteract the effect of his evil deeds. If he does not take 
advantage of these opportunities, the burden of those evil deeds increases 
with time. 

Having given a brief outline of the religious system of the Parsees, we 
will here say a few words about 4he Parsee places of worship and about the 
Parsee prayers. As a good deal of ignorance seems to prevail among non- 
Zoroastrians as to the reverence paid to fire by the Parsees, it will not be 
out of place here to say something on the subject of the so-called fire- 
worship pf the Parsees. The Parsee places of worship are known as fire- 
temples. The very name fire-temple would strike a non-Zoroastrian as an 
unusual form of worship. 

We will not enter here into the history of the so-called fire-worship, nor 
enter into the different grounds religious, moral and scientific which 



actuate and even justify a Parsee in offering his reverence which, it must 
be remembered, is something different from worship to fire. Suffice it to 
say that the Parsees do not worship fire as God, They merely regdrd Hre 
as an emblem of refulgence, glory and light, as the most perfect symbol of 
God, and as the best and noblest representative of his divinity. "In the 
eyes of a Parsee his (fire's) brightness, activity, purity, and incorruptibility 
bear the most perfect resemblance to the nature and perfection of the 
deity. " A Parsee looks upon fire "as the most perfect symbol of the deity 
on account of its purity, brightness, activity, subtility, purity, and incorrupt- 

Again, one must remember that it is the several symbolic ceremonies that 
add to the reverence entertained by a Parsee for the lire burning in his fire- 
temples.? * 4 A new element of purity is added to the tire burning in the lire- 
temples of the Parsees by the religious ceremonies accompanied with pray- 
ers that^re performed over it, before it is installed in its place on a vase on 
an exalted stand in a chamber set apart. The sacred fire burning there is 
not the ordinary fire burning in our hearths. It has undergone several cer- 
emonies, and it is these ceremonies, full of meaning, that render the fire 
more sacred in the eyes of a Parsee. We will briefly recount the process 
here. In establishing a (ire-temple, fires from various places of manufact- 
ure are brought and kept in different vases. Great efforts are also made 
to obtain lire caused by lightning. Over one of these fires a perforated 
metallic fiat tray with a handle attached is held. On this tray are placed 
small chips and dust of Iragrant sandalwood. These chip** and dust are 
ignited by the heat of the lire below, care being taken that the perforated 
tray does not touch the lire. Thus a new fire is created out of the first fire. 
Then from this new the another one is created by the same process. From 
this new fire another is again produced, and so on, until the process is 
repeated nine times. The lire thus prepaied after the ninth process is con- 
sidered pure. The fires brought from other places of manufacture are 
treated in a similar manner. These purified fires are all collected together 
upon a large vase, which is then put in its proper place in a separate 

" Now, what does a fire so prepared signify to a Parsee ? He thinks to 
himself: 'When this fire on this vase before me, though pure in itself, 
though the noblest of the creations of God, and though the best symbol of 
the Divinity, had to undergo certain processes of purification, had to draw 
out, as it were, its essence - nay, its quintessence of purity, to enable itself 
to be worthy of occupying this exalted position, how much more necessary, 
more essential, and more important it is for me a poor mortal who is liable 
to commit sins and crimes, and who comes into contact with hundreds of 
evils both physical and mental -to undergo the process of purity and piety, 
making my thoughts, words and actions pass, as it were, through a sieve of 

* " History of the Parsees," by Mr. Dossabhoy Frainjee, vol. II. p. 212. 


piety and purity, virtue and morality, and to separate by that means my 
good thoughts, good words and good actions from had thoughts, had 
words, and had actions, so that I may, in my turn, be enabled to acquire an 
exalted position in the next world. 1 1f 

Again-, the fires put together as above are collected from the houses of 
men of different grades in society. This reminds a Parsee that, as all these 
fires from the houses of men of different grades have all, by the process of 
purification, equally acquired the exalted place in the vase, so before God 
all men no matter to what grades of society they belong are equal, 
provided they pass through the process of purification, /. <\, provided they 
preserve purity of thoughts, puiity of words and purity of deeds. 

Again, when a Parsee goes before the sacred (ire, which is kept all day 
and night burning in the fire temple, the officiating priest presents before 
him the ashes of a part of the consumed lire. The Parsee applies it to his 
forehead just as a Christian applies the consecrated water in his church, and 
thinks to himself: "Dust to dust. The fire, all brilliant, shining and 
resplendent, has spread the fragrance of the sweet-smelling sandal and 
frankincense round about, but is at last reduced to dust. So it is destined 
for me. After all I am to be reduced to dust and have to depart from this 
transient life. Let me do my best to spread, like this fire, before my death, 
the fragrance of charity and good deeds and lead the light of righteousness 
and knowledge before others/* 

In short, the sacred (ire burning in a (ire temple serves as a peipetiuil 
monitor to a Parsee standing before it, to preserve piety, puiity, humility 
and brotherhood. 

Now, though a Parsee's reverence for fne, as the emblem of God's 
refulgence, glory and light, as the visible form of all heat and light in the 
universe, in fact as the visible form of all energy, and as a perpetual moni- 
tor, encouraging ennobling thoughts of virtue, has necessitated the erection 
of tire-temples as places of worship, he is not restricted to any particular 
place for his prayers, lie need not wait for a priest or a placo to say his 

Nature in all its grandeur is his temple of worship. The glorious sun, 
the resplendent moon, the mountains towering high into the heavens and 
the rivers fertili/ing the soil, the extensive seas that disappear, as it were, 
into infinity of space and the high vault of heaven, all these grand objects 
and phenomena of nature draw forth from his soul admiration and praise 
for the Great Architect who is their author. 

As we said above, evidence from nature is the surest evidence that 
leads a Parsee to the belief in the existence of the Deity. From nature he 
is led to nature's God. From this point of view, then, he is not restricted 
to any particular place for the recital of his prayers. Fora visitor to Bom- 
bay, which is the headquarters of the Parsees, it is therefore not unusual to 
see a number of Parsees saying their prayers, morning and evening, in the 


open space, turning their faces to the rising or the setting sun f before the 
glowing moon or the foaming sea. Turning to these grand objects, the best 
and sublimest of his creations, they address their prayers to the Almighty. 

Mr. S. Lang * says of this: " Here is an ideal religious ceremony com- 
bining all that is most true, most touching and most sublime in the attitude 
of man towards the* Great Unknown. . . . To the Zoroastrian, prayer 
assumes the form bf a recognition of all that is pure, sublime and beautiful 
in the surrounding universe. He can never want opportunities of paying 
homage to the Good Spirit and of looking into the abysses of the unknown 
with reverence and wonder. The light of setting suns, the dome of loving 
blue, the clouds in the might of the tempest or resting still as brooding 
doves, the mountains, the ocean lashed by storm .... these are a 
Zoroastrian's prayers," In this respect, however, what I have called the 
Zoroastrian theory of religion affords great advantages. It connects relig- 
ion directly with all that is good and' beautiful, not only in the higher 
realms of speculation and emotion, but in the ordinary affairs of daily life. 
To feel the truth of what is true, the beauty of what is beautiful, is of itself 
a silent prayer or act of worship to the Spirit of light ; to make an honest, 
earnest effort to attain this feeling, is an offering or act of homage. Clean- 
liness of mind and body, order and propriety in conduct, civility in inter- 
course, and all the homely victues of every-day life, thus require a higher 
significance, and any wilful and persistent disregard of them becomes an 
act of mutiny against the Power whom we have elected to serve. 

Having spoken at some length about the place of prayers, we will say 
here something about the prayers themselves. All Parsee prayers begin 
with an assurance to do acts that would please the Almighty God, The 
assurance is followed by an expression of regret for past evil thoughts, 
words or deeds, if any. Man is liable to err, and so, if during the interval 
any errors of commission or omission are committed, a Parsee in the begin- 
nings of his prayers repents for those errors. He says: "O Omniscient 
Lord ! I repent of all my sins. I repent of all evil thoughts that I might have 
etrtertained in my mind, of all the evil words that I might have spoken, of 
all the evil actions that I might have committed. C) Omniscient Lord ! I 
repent of all the faults that might have originated with me, whether they 
refer to thoughts, words, or deeds, whether they appertain to my body or 
soul, whether they be in connection with the material world or spiritual." 
About the catholicity of Parsee prayers we will speak on in the second part 
of the paper. 

II. Having given a brief outline of the religious system of the Parsees, 
their places of worship and fonns of prayer, we will now proceed to consider 
how far the precepts of that religion are applied to some of the practical 
questions of life. 

We will first speak of education. To educate their children is a spirit* 

i ** A Modern Zoroastrian/' by Samuel Lang, p. aao. 



ual duty of Zoroastrian parents* Education is necessary, not only for the 
material good of the children and the parents, but also for their spiritual 
good. It >vas the spirit of the Zoroastrian religion that had colored the edu- 
cation of the early Zoroastrians, of which Professor Rapp says : " The most 
remark able'and the most beautiful form in which the moral spirit of the Per- 
sian people realized itself in life is the well-known Persian education. It, 
indeed, at *an early, age, implanted in the souls of young Persians the senti- 
ments which should always guide them in all their dealings and which pre- 
pared and hardened their bodies in order that as capable citizens they might, 
thereby be able at some future time to serve their native country with worthy 
deeds." 1 According to the Parsee books, the parents participate in the 
meritoriousness of the good acts performed b*y their children as the result of 
the good education imparted to them. On the other hand, if the parents 
neglect the education of their children, and if, as the result of this neglect, 
they do wrongful acts or evil deeds, the parents have a spiritual responsi- 
bility for such acts. In proportion to the malignity or evilness of these acts 
the parents are responsible to God for their neglect of the education of their 
children. It is, as it were, a spiritual self-interest that must prompt a Par- 
see to look to the good education of his children at an early age. Thus, 
from a religious point of view, education is a great question with the Parsees. 

The proper age recommended by religious Parsee books for ordinary 
education is seven. Before that age, children should have home education 
with their parents, especially with the mother. At the age of seven, after a 
little religious education, a Parsee child is invested with Sudreh and Kusti, 
i. **,, the sacred shirt and thread. This ceremony of investiture corresponds to 
the confirmation ceremony of the Christians. A Parsee may put on the dress 
of any nationality he likes, but, under that dress he must always wear the 
sacred shirt and thread. These are the symbols of hi being a Zoroastrian. 
These symbols are full of meaning, and act as perpetual monitors advising 
the wearer to lead a life of purity -of physical and spiritual purity. A Par- 
see is enjoined to remove, and put on again immediately, the sacred thread 
several times during the day, saying a very short prayer during the process. 
He has to do so early in the morning on rising from bed, before meals and 
after ablutions. The putting on of the symbolic thread and the accompany- 
ing short prayer remind him to be in a state of repentance for misdeeds if 
any, and to preserve good thoughts, good words and good deeds (Humata, 
Kukhta and Hvarshta), the triad in which the moral philosophy of Zoroas- 
ter moved. 

It is after this investiture with the sacred shirt and thread that the gen- 
eral education of a child generally begins. The Parsee books speak of the 
necessity of educating all children, whether male or female. Thus female 
education claims as much attention among the Parsees as male education. 

Physical education is as much spoken of in the Zoroastrian books as 

i Mr, K Rt Carnal translations. 


mental and moral education. The health of the body is considered the first 
requisite for the health of the soul. That the physical education of the 
ancient Persians, the ancestors of the modern Parsees, was a subject of 
admiration among the ancient Greeks and Romans is well known. In 
all the blessings invoked upon one in the religious prayers, the strength of 
body occupies the first and the most prominent place. 

Analyzing the Bombay Census of 1881, Dr. Weir, the health officer, 
said : *' Examining education according to faith or class, we find that edu- 
cation is most extended amongst the Parsee people ; female education is 
more diffused amongst the Parsee population than any other class . . . 
Contrasting these results with education at an early age amongst Parsees, 
we find 12.2 per cent. Parsee male and 8.84 per cent, female children, 
under six years of age, under instruction ; between six and fifteen the num- 
ber of Parsee male and female children under instruction is much larger 
than in any other class. Over fifteen years of age, the smallest proportion 
of illiterates, either male or female, is found in the Parsee population." 

Obedience to parents is a religious virtue with the /oroastrian religion. 
Disobedient children are considered great sinners. This virtue of obedi- 
ence to parents was such a common characteristic with the ancient Xoroas- 
trians that, as Herodotus says, the legitimacy of a child accused of a mis- 
deed towards the parents was looked at with great suspicion. The parents 
were the rulers of the house. The father was the king and the mother the 
queen of the house. So the children, as subjects, were bound to be obedi- 
ent to their rulers. This obedience to parents at home, and to teachers at 
school, was a training for obedience to the rules and manners of society at 
large, and to the constitutional forms for the government of the country. A 
child disobedient to his parents cannot be expected to be a good member of 
society and to be a good and loyal subject ; so the religious books of the 
Parsees greatly emphasize this virtue. One of the blessings that a priest 
prays for in a house on performing the Afringan ceremony, is the obedience 
of the children to the head of the family. He prays: "May obedience 
overcome disobedience in this house ; may peace overcome dissension ; may 
charity overcome want of charity; may courtesy overcome pride ; may truth 
overcome falsehood/ 1 Zoroastrianism teaches love and regard, loyalty and 
obedience, to the regular constitutional forms of government. We said 
above that a Parsee's mind is trained, by his religious precepts, to love 


nature, from which it is led to nature's God. As he always sees order and 
harmony in nature, he is trained to love order and hate disoider, so in his 
usual prayers he prays for his sovereign who is at the head of the govern- 
ment. Where love, order and harmony reign, there reign peace and pros- 
perity. A Parsee mother prays for a son that could take an intelligent part 
in the deliberations of the councils of his community and government ; so 
a regard for the regular forms of government was necessary. 

As U is one of the most important duties of a good government to look 


to the sanitation of the country, we will speak here about the Parsee ideas 
of sanitation and see how far these ideas help the general cause of sanitation. 
Of all the practical questions, the one most affected by the religious precepts 
of Zoroastrianism is that of the observation of sanitary rules and principles. 
Several chapters of the Vendidad form, as it were, the sanitary code of the 
Parsees. Most of the injunctions will stand the test of sanitary science for 
ages together. Of the different Asiatic communities inhabiting Bombay, the 
Parsees have the lowest death-rate. A breach of sanitary rules is, as it were, 
helping the cause of the evil principle. 

Again, Zoroastrianism asks its disciples to keep the eartli pure, to keep 
the air pure, and to keep the water pure. It considers the sun as the greatest 
purifier. In places where the rays of the sun do not enter, fire over which 
fragrant wood is burnt is the next purifier. It is a great sin to pollute water 
by decomposing matter. Not only is the commission of a fault of this kind 
a sin, but also the omission, when one sees such a pollution, of taking proper 
means to remove it. A /oroastrian, when he happens to see, while passing 
in his way, a running stream of drinking water polluted by some decompos- 
ing matter, such as a corpse, is enjoined to wait and try his best to go into the 
stream and to remove the putrefying matter, lest its continuation may spoil 
the water and affect the health of the people using it. An omission to do 
this act is a sin from a Zoroastrian point of view. At the bottom of a Par- 
see's custom of disposing of the dead, and at the bottom of all the strict relig- 
ious ceremonies enjoined therewith, lies the one main principle, viz., that, 
preserving all possible respect for the dead, the body, after its' separation 
from the immortal soul, should be disposed of in a way the least harmful 
and the least injurious to the living. > 

\Ve said above that a Parsee is enjoined to keep the earth pure. As 
one of the means to do this, cultivation's specially recommended. To bring 
desolate land into cultivation, and thus to add to the prosperity of the inhabi 
tants is a meritorious act, helping the cause of the good jfrinciple. To help 
cultivation is as meritorious as helping the cause of holiness and piety (Vend, 
iii. 31) because it helps the poor to gain their honest bread by honest work. 

Coming to the question of temperance, taking the word in its general 
sense, we find that Zoroastrian books advise temperance in all cases. Tem- 
perance is spoken of as a priestly virtue (Vend. xiii. 4^). It was owing to 
these teachings of their icligion that the ancient Persians were, according 
to Strabo, Xenophon, and other ancient historians, well known for their 
temperate habits. Fasting is not prescribed in any case as in other 

The old religious books of the Parsees do not strictly prohibit the use 
of wine, but preach moderation. Dadistan-i-dini (ch. xl. xli.) allows the 
use of wine, and admonishes every man to exert moral control over himself, 

* For the Parsee custom of the disposal of the dead, r>/V/V my paper on u The Funeral Cere- 
monies of the Parsees, their Origin and Explanation." 


To the robust and intelligent, who can do without wine, it recommends 
abstinence. To others it recommends moderation; A person, who gives 
another a drink, is deemed as guilty as the drinker, if the latter does any 
mischief either to himself or to others through the influence of that drink. 
Only that man is justified to take wine who can thereby do some good to 
himself, or at least can do no harm to himself. 

On the subject of the trade of wine-sellers, the Dadistan-i-dini says 
that not only is a man who makes an improper and immoderate use of wine 
guilty, but also a wine-seller who knowingly sells wine to those who make 
an improper use of it. It is improper and unlawful for a wine-seller to con- 
tinue to sell wine, for the sake of his pocket, to a customer who is the worse 
for liquor. He is to make it a point to sell wine to those only who can do 
some good to themselves by* that drink, or at least no harm either to them 
selves or to others. 

We now come to the question of wealth, poverty, and labor. As 
Herodotus said, a Parsee, before praying for himself, prays for his sovereign 
and for his community, for he is himself included in the community. His 
religious precepts teach him to drown his individuality in the common interests 
of his community. In the twelfth chapter of the Yasna, which contains, as it 
were, the Zoroastrian articles of faith, a Zoroastrian promises to preserve a 
perfect brotherhood. He promises, even at the risk of his life, to protect 
the life and the property of all the members of his community and to help 
in the cause that would' bring about their prosperity and welfare. It is with 
these good feelings of brotherhood and charity that the Parsee community 
has endowed large funds for benevolent and charitable purposes. If the 
rich Parsees of the future generations were to follow ijL the footsteps of 
their ancestors of the past and present generations in the matter of liberal 
donations for the good of the deserving poor of their community, one can 
say that there would be very little cause for the socialists to complain from a 
poor, man's point of view. Men of all grades in society contribute to these 
funds on various occasions. The rich contribute on occasions both of joy 
and grief. On grand occasions like those of weddings in their families they 
contribute large sums in charity to commemorate those events. Again, on 
the death of their dear ones, the rich and the poor all pay various sums, 
according to their means, in charity. These sums are announced on the 
occasion of the Oothumna or the ceremony on the third day after death. 
The rich pay large sums on these occasions to commemorate the names of 
their dear ones. 1 

The religious training of a Parsee does not restrict his ideas of brother 
hood and charity to his own community alone. He extends his charity to 
non Zoroastrians as well. 

As it is the duty of the rich to give in charity and help the poor from 


* Vide my paper on " The Funeral Ceremonies of the Parsees, their Origin and 
Explanation," before the Anthropological Society of Bombay, vol. II, 


the wealth God has endowed them with, it is equally the duty of all classes 
and grades of people to work hard for their bread. The very land on which 
a laborer works honestly blesses him, and that on which he does not work 
honestly, but wastes his time, curses him. The capitalist, or the rich man, 
and the laborer, or the poor man, have respective duties towards one 
another. The prosperity of the world depends upon their mutual aid. It is 
a great sin for a capitalist to keep back from the laborers their proper wages 
(Viraf, Chapter 39). It is as great a sin for a man to lead an idle life as it 
is for a rich man to fail to help the deserving poor and waste his wealth in 
the self-enjoyment of vicious pleasures. 

For all workers, the A vesta (Yasna, Ixii. 5) recommends sleep and a 
complete cessation from every kind of work for eight hours during the day. 
The Pehlevi Pandnameh of Bou^orge-Meher recommends eight hours dur- 
ing the day for mental recreation, religious meditation, prayers and study. 
The rest of the day, i. e^ eight hours, are recommended for field labor and 
such other hard physical work. 

We now come to the question of the influence of the Parsee religion on 
the literature, art, commerce, government, and domestic and social life of 
the people, 

As to the literature of the Parsees, it has, on the whole, a very healthy 
tone. The materialism, the agnosticism, the atheism, and the other "isms" 
of the Western world have jio place in it as yet. Zoroaster, when he preached 
his religion in ancient Persia, specially asked his hearers not to accept it on 
mere blind faith, but to criticise it and to choose it after deliberation (Yasna, 
xxx.). A part of the old Pehlevi literature of the Parsees also displays some- 
thing of a critical tone of inquiry. The modern literature of the Parsees on 
the subject of religious matters is also critical and inquisitive; but on the 
whole it is religious in its tone. Faith in the existence of God, in the immor- 
tality of the soul, and in future reward and punishment pervades the sub- 
stratum of all thoughts. This faith is not necessarily and always entertained 
from a Zoroastrian point of view, but from what we should term a general 
theistic point of view. Again, the literature is very tolerant of other religions. 
It is never carping at other faiths or forms of belief unless compelled to do so 
in self-defense. One of the reasons for this is that the Parsees do not prose- 
lyte others. Their literature, always ready to tolerate freedom of thought, is 
liberal in its opinions and views. It is always loyal and respectful to the gov- 
ernment of its country, and at the same time independent and free in its criti- 
cism. It is always ready to stand by the side of its British rulers in all cases 
of difficulties. 

It is commerce that has made the Parsees prosperous up to now. The 
founders of the great Parsee families, that have given hundreds of thousands 
of rupees in charity for the good of their own and other communities of Bom- 
bay, had all acquired their wealth by commerce. Honesty in trade is a virtue 
highly recommended in Parsee books. Dishonesty with partners, frauci in 


weights and measures, defrauding laborers of their proper wages, acquisition 
of wealth by unfair means, making of false agreements, and breach of prom- 
ise all these are great sins punishable in hell. In some of the practical 
admonitions given to a bridegroom in the marriage service, he is specially 
advised not to enter into partnership with an ambitious man. 

Coming to the question of the influence of the Parsee religion on the 
domestic and social life of the Parsees, we find that, according to the teach- 
ings of the Parsee books, a husband is the king, and the wife the queen, of 
the household. On the husband devolves the duty of maintaining his wife and 
children; on the wife, that of making the home comfortable and cheerful. 

The qualifications of a good husband, from a Zoroastrian point of view, 
are that he must be (i) young and handsome; (2) strong, brave, and 
healthy; (3) diligent and industrious so as maintain his wife and children; 
(4) truthful, as would prove true to herself and true to all others with whom 
he would come in contact; and (5) wise and educated. A wise, intelligent, 
and educated husband is compared to a fertile piece of land which gives a 
plentiful crop, whatever kinds of seeds are sown in it. The qualifications of 
a good wife are that she be wise and educated, modest and courteous, obed- 
ient and chaste. Obedience to her husband is the first duty of a Zoroastrian 
wife. It is a great virtue deserving all praise and reward. Disobedience is 
a great sin punishable after death. According to the Sad-dar, a wife that 
expressed a desire to her husband three times a day in the morning, after- 
noon and evening- to be one with him in thoughts, words and deeds, i. ^.,to 
sympathize with him in all his noble aspirations, pursuits, and desires, per- 
formed as meritorious an act as that of saying her prayers three times a day. 
She must wish to be of the same view with him in all his noble pursuits and 
ask him every day, " What are your thoughts, so that I may be one with you 
in those thoughts ? What are your words, so that I may be one with you in 
your speech ? What are your deeds, so that I may be one with you in your 
deeds?" A Zoroastrian wife so affectionate and obedient to her husband was 
held in great respect, not only by the husband and the household, but in 
society as well. As Dr. West says, though a Zoroastrian wife was asked to 
be very obedient to her husband, she held a more respectable position in 
society than that enjoined by any other Oriental religion. 

Marriage is an institution which is greatly encouraged by the spirit of 
the Parsee religion. It is especially recommended in the Parsee Scrip- 
tures on the ground that a married life is more likely to be happy than an 
unmarried one, that a married person is more likely to be able to withstand 
physical and mental afflictions than an unmarried person, and that a mar- 
ried man is more likely to lead a retlgious and virtuous life than an unmar- 
ried one. The following verse in the Gathd conveys this meaning (liii, 
5) : "I say (these) words to you marrying brides and to you bridegrooms. 
Impress them in your mind. May, you two enjoy the life of good mind by 
following the laws of religion. Let each one of you clothe the other with 










righteousness, because then assuredly there will be a happy life for you." 
An unmarried person is represented to feel as unhappy as a fertile piece of 
ground that is carelessly allowed to lie uncultivated by its owner (Vend. iii. 
24). The fertile piece, when cultivated, not only adds to the beauty of the 
spot, but lends nourishment and food to many others round about. So a 
married couple not only add to their own beauty, grace and happiness, but 
by their righteousness and good conduct are in a position to spread the 
blessings of help and happiness among their neighbors. Marriage being 
thus considered a good institution, and being recommended by the religious 
scriptures, it is considered, a very meritorious act for a Parsee to help his 
co-religionists to lead a married life (Vend. iv. 44). Several rich Parsees 
have, with this charitable view, founded endowment funds, from which 
young and deserving brides are given small sums on the occasion of their 
marriage for the preliminary expenses of starting in married life. 

Fifteen is the minimum marriageable age spoken of by the Parsee 
books. The parents have a voice of sanction or approval in the selection 
of wives and husbands. Mutual friends of parents or marrying parties may 
bring about a good selection. Marriages with non-Zoroastrians are not 
recommended, as they are likely to bring about quarrels and dissensions 
owing to difference of manners, customs and habits. 

We said above that the Parsee religion has made its disciples tolerant 
about the faiths and beliefs of others. It has as well made them sociable 
with the other sister communities of the country. They mix freely with 
members of other faiths and take a part in the rejoicings of their holidays. 
They also sympathize with them in their griefs and afflictions, and in case 
of sudden calamities, such as fire, floods, etc., they subscribe liberally to 
alleviate their misery. From a consideration of all kinds of moral and 
charitable notions inculcated in the Zoroastrian Scriptures, Frances Power 
Cobbe, in her " Studies, New and Old, of Ethical and Social Subjects," 
says of the founder of the religion : " Should we in a future world be per- 
mitted to hold high converse with the great departed, it may chance that in 
the Bactrian sage, who lived and taught almost before the dawn of history, 
we may find the spiritual patriarch, to whose lessons we have owed such a 
portion of our intellectual inheritance that we might hardly conceive what 
human belief would be now had Zoroaster never existed.' 1 



KY RFV. T. J. Scot j, I) I). 

The thought of asking the repiesentatives of the great historic religions 
of the race to sit down together in brotherly counsel, if not unique in the 
woild's histoiy, is at fer^t, m the scope and completeness of the pioposal made 
for the World's Parliament of Religions at Chicago, without parallel. The 
narrow and ungenerous conception of too many in the Christian world has 
accorded but little of the Heavenly Father's care and love to the nations 
outside of Chnstendom. Some have imagined that this is the spirit and 
teachings of the Bible, but the inherent unreasonableness of all such views 
appears on a glance at the magnitude of this race thus abandoned, and by 
asking the question Has God had no care over these millions, has he never 
spoken to llicni, and is there no loving Providence over the world ? The 
population of lands having the Bible is but a drop in the ocean compared to 
this mass of humanity Have these not been the subject of Divine Provi- 
dence ? " Is he the God of the Jews only ? Is he not also the God of the 
Gentiles ? Yea, of the Gentiles also " (Romans in. 2Q.) 

It is haidly ci edible to the adherents of our popular theology, that 
some of the gicat ethnic icbgions, as Hinduism and Buddhism, have had a 
better conception of God's giace than theirs. While they hold this religion 
as good foi them they admit that the religion of others may be from the same 
divine source for them But, lest we attract the attentions of the heresy hun- 
ter, it is well to bring this question to the test of the Bible. The light of a 
few plain texts flashed ovei the subject must suffice for this short paper. 

We can easily learn (#) what is God's attitude toward the nations repre- 
sented in the ethnic religions, (/>) what the rule of this probation is, and (c) 
what their responsibilities, 

I. On the question of God's i elation to the people outside of Judaism 
and Christianity it is interesting to note certain characters who appear in 
Bible history. We have what may be called Gentile saints m the persons of 
Melchisedek, priest of the most high God, Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, per- 
haps Job, and Balaam who at last sold himself for gold, Cornelius the 
Roman captain, Lydia the pui pie-seller of Thyatira, and others. These 
were of various nationalities, and the incident of Peter's meeting with the 
captain of the Roman band furnishes the key to a right view of God's feel- 
ing toward them. " I perceive God is no respecter of persons, but in every 
nation he that feareth him and worketh righteousness is accepted of him." 
(Acts x. 24-25.) God, then, is no respecter of persons among the nations. 



Jew and Christian must not arrogate to themselves all his grace. And 
there are those in every nation who fear God and work righteousness. Here 
is a plea for a Socrates, a Plato, a Seneca, a Manu, a Confucius. 

2. The nations not having the Bible must have some plain rule of pro- 
bation not just the same as the written revelation of the Christian. That 
revelation itself gives us the key, so that we can understand how non-Chris- 
tian nations are not left without hope. If God is " no respecter of persons," 
the rule for those without the Bible must be equitable. So upon this point, 
so strangely troublesome to many theologians in the West, the Book itself 
helps us out. First, God has "not left himself without witness in that he 
did good and gave rain from heaven and fruitful seasons." Then " His 
eternal power and Godhead are clearly seen, being understood by things that 
are made," This is the light of nature, and thus God has manifested his 
"invisible things" unto them. Secondly, there is the inward light of con- 
science. The nations " not having the law are a law unto themselves." 
Paul affirms that God will give " glory, honor, peace," ' to every man accord- 
ing to his deeds," "for there is no respect of persons with God." (Rom. ii.) 
Nature is a great object lesson leading man up to God. Consqience, illum- 
inated by the " Light which lightcth every man that cometh into the world," 
is light enough to enable every man to " fear God and work righteousness." 

We are apt to underestimate the gracious help thus given to those who 
have not had the Bible. On account of our knowledge of the Bible we are 
apt to assume for our people a degree of righteousness that does not exist, 
and on account of their idolatry we overlook the true knowledge of God 
among non-Christian peoples and the consequent righteousness among them. 
The lessons of nature's book and the monitions of the moral sense constitute 
a dispensation of grace for the non-Christian world. If the divine compas- 
sion, as we may well believe, has been over this part of humanity also, God 
has been helping them all through, the ages. That the Holy Spirit has been 
shining into their hearts and illuminating their understanding we may hold 
to be beyond question. Hence in their religious books and in the systems 
which they have wrought out there must be some good. They have often 
wrestled manfully with the problems of being. The existence and character 
of the Supreme One, the origin and destiny of the human spirit, sin and 
salvation, are questions that have been deeply pondered. The limits of this 
paper do not admit of even a brief statement of what they have contributed 
to humanity's uplift toward truth and reality, and perhaps in the history of 
the development of the race, the time has not yet come when we are pre- 
pared, without prejudice, fairly to estimate what each great nation has 
wrought out, how much Rome did for law and civil life, Greece for art, India 
for a powerful hold on the thought of God's immanence, China for practical 
piety and lessons of steady patient industry. 

Paul's "in Him we live and move and have our being," is likely an 
echo of Oriental thought. Christianity is the supreme religion, but it has had 







a historical preparation with contributions from the great ethnic religions. 
Some may imagine that in Christianity Christian people have all the truth 
.that may have been wrought out in the ethnic religions, but is it true that 
there are* no lessons yet to be learned or illustrated, and that the Occident 
can gather nothing from the Orient ? It is a hopeful sign in the history of 
the race that generous, broad-minded thinkers now appreciate more fully the 
great fact hinted at here, and are beginning to work this mine more earn- 
estly. The lesson of all is, God has been truly a Father to those outside of 
Judaism and Christianity. He " is the God of the Gentiles also." God's 
thoughts have not been our thoughts, nor have his ways been our ways. 
Our thoughts and theology are often too narrow, while 

" There's a wideness in God's mercy 
Like the wideness of the sea." 

3. This view of the non-Christian world is not a mere sentiment which 
takes away almost all responsibility. The Bible is plain in its statement 
that the part of the world without this written law is also under ethical law. 
God's eternal power and divinity are so clearly to be inferred that they are 
"without excuse." Light has been given by the Divine Spirit speaking 
through nature and the moral sense. Where there has not been a spirit of 
obedience or a principle of righteousness, "the whole world becomes guilty 
before God." Just as Christendom has not lived up to its light, so we learn 
from Paul's letter to the Romans the non-Christian world has not lived up 
to its light. There has been light enough for obedience and virtue, hence 
there must be condemnation where the spirit of these does not exist. 

4. At this point sometimes the question is raised, as it was for Paul, 
what advantage then has the Christian, and why carry the gospel to the 
nations? We may give Paul's reply, the "advantage" is "much every 
way, chiefly because unto them were committed the oracles of God." 
While admitting much that is good in the best books of the ethnic relig- 
ions, there is a transcendent superiority in the Bible over them, that in a 
unique sense constitutes it " the oracles of God." 

We may not yet be fully prepared to answer the question why God 
chose a particular branch of the race as the medium and depository of his 
Word, but analogy in human affairs gives us some clew. Some meh mani- 
fest greater susceptibility to divine grace than others, and doubtless this is 
the case with nations also which take on character and manifest special 
tendencies. There doubtless was an equal chance in primitive times. In 
the historic period the Semitic race has seemed the most capable, of all the 
races of the world, of grasping and maintaining the idea of a righteous personal 
God. If the Hebrew family had developed a peculiar fitness for being the 
depository of the oracles of God, that will account for the fact as it is 
claimed. They must have been adapted, as no other nations were, to 
receive and preserve and perpetuate the truths of the Bible. Meanwhile 
God did not leave himself without witness among other nations. Doubt- 


less divine wisdom did the most possible in giving them light, and the out- 
come, as far as wrong, has been a perversion of the truth. It is a notable 
fact that there has been a deterioration in the sacred books of the ethnic 
religions, and not, as in the case of the Hebiew, an evolution toward greater 
light and tiuth 

As we come to retogm/e moie fully the brotherhood of nations under 
the loving Fatheihood of God we will be able to study this whole question 
moie justly and lecognize the woik and place of each gieat nation in the 
education and development of humanity There has been a lo\mg Father- 
hood ovei all, and help foi all In om fear of putting ourselves on a level 
\vith the ethnic religions, we place them entnely outside our sacied cnclc , 
but we will yet come to find that God has been moie manifestl) picsenl in 
their elide than our narrow ciccd admitted. 

Now a biief word in conclusion with some piactical suggestions. God 
is one. Humanity is one The antagonistic and inimical relations of 
nations must pass away as man's tine destmv is discoveied. The family of 
man has yet to realise its leal biotherhood Many foices are at work to 
bung the nations into fellowship Science, commeice, tiavel, easy and 
lapid communication, the spicad of common languages, notably English (the 
familiar tongue for the Paihament of Religions), and even Religion itself, 
the theme of thih Pailiamcnt all these aie bunging the laces of the world 
together. Soon the electric Hash \\ill put the entire globe in momentary 
touch. Common inteicst must make humanity one in thought and coopera- 
tion. The tiuth of all things must be evolved, and the leligion of human- 
it v will be acknowledged A toleiant, gencious spnit, iccogni/mg the goo<l 
in all, and a heaity mutual feeling ot umveisal intci -dependence will hasten 
the happy dav. This I'aihament of Religions should not be without perma- 
nent piactical icsults. It should not close \\ithout the elements at least of 
a constitution being adopted piovuling for similar penodic meetings. 1 
may suggest that such constitution might consist of some few points as 
follows, (i) Objects of an international motal and religious congress, (2) 
Statement ot punciples of biotheihood, (3) Some principles of reform 
touching the moials of inlei national commerce, war and aibituition, (4) 
Suggestions for some plan of lepresentative coopeiation, time and place of 
parliaments similar to the one in Chicago. 




Chairman of the World's Religious Congresses, Chicago. 

HONORKD FRIKND, --You have doubtless been told with fatiguing reit- 
eration by your world-wide clientele of correspondents that they considered 
the Religious Congresses immeasurably more significant than any others to 
be held in connection with the Columbian Exposition. You must allow me, 
however, to repeat this statement of opinion, for I have cherished it from 
the time when I had a Conversation with you in Chicago, and 'learned the 
vast scope and catholicity of the plans whose fulfillment must be most grati- 
fying to you and your associates, for, with but few exceptions among the 
religious leaders of the world, there has been, so far as I have heard and 
read, the heartiest sympathy in your effort to bring together representatives 
of all those innumerable groups of men and women who have been united 
by the magnetism of scunc great religious principle, or the more mechanical 
methods that give visible form to some ecclesiastical dogma. The key-note 
you have set has already sounded forth its cleav, harmonious strain, and the 
weary multitudes of the world have heard it and have said in their hearts, 
44 Behold how good and how pleasant it would be if brethren would but 
dwell together in unity." 

I have often thought that the best result of this great and unique move- 
ment for a truly pan-religious congress was realized before its members met, 
for in these days the press, with its almost universal hospitality toward new 
ideas, helps beyond any other agency to establish an equilibrium of the best 
thought, affection and purpose of the world, and is the only practical force 
adequate to bring this about. 

By nature and nurture I am in sympathy with every effort by which 
men may be induced to think together along the lines of their agreement 
rather than their antagonism, but we all know that it is more easy to get 
them to act together than to think together. For this reason, the Con- 
gresses which are to set forth the practical workings of various forms of 
religion were predestined to succeed, and their influence must steadily 
increase as intelligent men and women reflect upon the record of the results. 
It is the earnest hope of thoughtful religious people throughout the world, 
as all can see who study the press from a cosmopolitan point of view, that 



out of the nucleus of influence afforded by th Congress may come an organ- 
ized movement for united activity, based on the Fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. . 

The only way to unite is never to mention subjects on which we arc 
irrevocably opposed ; perhaps the chief of these is the historic episcopate ; 
but the fact that he believes in this, while I do not, would not hinder that 
good and great prelate, Archbishop Ireland, from giving his hearty help to 
me, not as a Protestant woman, but as a temperance worker. The same 
was true in England of that lamented leader, Cardinal Manning, and is 
true to-day of Monsignor Nugent, of Liverpool, a priest of the people, uni- 
versally revered and loved. A consensus of opinion on the practical out- 
working of the Golden Rule, declared negatively by Confucius and posi- 
tively by Christ, will bring us all into one camp, and that is precisely what 
the enemies of liberty, worship, purity, and peace do not desire to see ; but 
it is, this I am persuaded, that will be attained by the great conclave soon to 
assemble in the White City of the West. The Congress of Religions is the 
mightiest ecumenical council the world has ever seen ; Christianity has 
from it everything to hope ; for even as the plains, the table-lands, the foot- 
hills, the mountain ranges, all conduct alike slowly ascending to the loftiest 
peak of the Himalayas, so do all views of God tend toward and culminate 
in the character, the life and work of Him who said : " And I f if I be lifted 
up, will draw all men unto Me." 

Believe me, yours in humble service for God and humanity, 




[Aftei expatiating upon the noble history of Armenia, the earliest of 
Christian nations, long the bulwark of Christendom against the invasions of 
Zoroastrianism and Islam, but at last overwhelmed by the Moslem hosts, the 
writer proceeded ] : 

The Armenians had opposed an active resistance to the Mohammedans, 
which prevented them from penetrating sooner into eastern Europe. The 
resistance became passive from the time that they lost their political inde- 
pendence, but it was none the less decisive. Persecutions did not cease under 
the dominion of the Ottomans, supported by their co religionists, the Kurds, 
Turcomans, Tartars, Kizilbashis, and Circassians, and reinforced above all 
by the swarm of renegades of all races, who were always ready to attach 
themselves to every state religion, every belief surrounded by privileges and 
worldly advantages, and who will be the first to return to Christianity, if 
some day a Christian state takes the place of the Turkish. These persecu- 
tions assumed exceptional rigor at the epoch of the Janissaries, whose cruel- 
ties knew no bounds. To speak truly, they continued until -our own day 
under one form and another, but they have not been able to sap the Armen- 
ian Church, which numbers even now 5,000,000 faithful souls, scattered over 
all parts of the globe. Ktchmiadzin is revered not only by the sons of this 
church, but also by the 80,000 Armenians who have entered within the pale 
of the Church of Rome, the 20,000 who have become Protestants, and a small 
number which has adhered to the Greek orthodoxy. It has had under its juris- 
diction the Christians of Albania and Georgia, converted by its missionaries, 
and has still under its jurisdiction Syrians, Copts, and Abyssimans, who 
receive hospitality in its important establishments in the Holy Land ; for the 
Armenian Church at Jerusalem occupies a position equal to that of the Greek 
or the Latin Church. 

In some respects misfortune is beneficial. The persecutions directed 
against the Armenian Church have had some good results. They have served 
to strengthen the character of the faithful who have survived them. At Con- 
stantinople I have seen many Christians from Hungary and Poland embrace 
Islam without difficulty in order to obtain employment in the Turkish army 
or administration ; but very few Armenians succumb to this temptation, and 
if an Armenian turns Mohammedan, he raises the murmur of the whole com- 
munity against him, who never pardon this apostasy. It is a spectacle 
worthy of admiration, not only from the Christian but from the human point 
of view to free these Armenians who prefer to suffer for their religious con- 



victicms, rather than be loaded with honors for renouncing them. If they 
abandon the cross for the crescent their miseries cease, and a free career is 
opened before them of social distinction and earthly pleasures under the 
aegis of a religion which patronizes polygamy. Well ! the worship of the 
ideal is so strong in them tliat they stubbornly refuse to change the rags of 
the giaour for the golden epaulettes of the pasha: 

Another resuk of these manifold persecutions has been to strengthen the 
attachment of the Armenians to the Church of St. Gregory the Illuminator. 
Etchmiadzin has become a word of enchantment, graven in the soul of every 
Armenian. The Armenians of the mother country how down with love 
before this sanctuary, which has already seen 1,591 summers. And as 
regards those who have left their native land, if it is far from their eyes it is 
not far from their hearts. A Persian monarch, Shah-Abbas, had forcibly 
transported into his dominion 14,000 Armenian families. Like the captive 
Israelites at the remembrance of Jerusalem, these Armenians always sighed 
at the recollection of Etchmiadzin. In order to keep them in their new coun- 
try, Shah-Abbas conceived the project of destroying Etchmiad/Jn, of trans- 
porting the stones to Djoulfa (Ispahan), and there reconstructing a similar 
convent. He actually transported the central stone of the chief altar, the 
baptismal fonts, and other important pieces, but the emotion of the Armen- 
ians became so great that he was forced to give up his project of vandalism. 

If Armenia has been exposed to so many calamities for having 
embraced the Christian religion, the latter has, however, rendered inesti- 
mable services in its turn. There it has organized charity and spread 
instruction, and it has maintained the Armenian nationality. 

The spirit of charity which forms the very basis of the Christian 
religion has penetrated the heart of the people. Innumerable houses of 
piety and benevolence have been erected in all parts of the country, and 
the sick and disinherited have always found hands stretched out to help 
them. Narses the Great himself built more than two thousand charitable 
establishments : hospitals for lepers and the infirm, hospitals for the poor, 
houses of refuge for the old, the orphans and the indigent, hospices for 
foreign travelers and priests, monasteries, nunneries, etc. This spirit is 
equally evident among Armenians in other countries, and if you enter Con- 
stantinople by the railway from Roumelia, the first great building winch 
strikes your eyes is the Armenian hospital of Gedi-Kouleh, with its thousand 
inmates who are treated with every care. 

The revolution brought about by Christianity in the ideas of the 
Armenian people has pushed them forward in the way of instruction. The 
Armenians formed their own alphabet, and from the Greek text of the 
Septuagint and from the Syriac version called Peshito, they translated the 
Hihle with a skill that has been highly appreciated by Golius, Ilottinger, 
Piques and Pierre Ledbruu, while Lacro/e did not hesitate to proclaim the 
Armenian version of the New Testament, " the queen of all versions/' 


They have produced, generally in the silence of a number of flourishing 
cloisters, an immerse literature, "one of the most fruitful and interesting in 
the Christian East," according to the celebrated French Armenist, Victor 
Langlois. " The Armenian liturgy," says another distinguished Armenist, 
Edouard Dulaurier, "contains a number of prayers in which the turn and 
movement of the thought, the majestic fullness and correctness of the style 
reveal an original composition which is entirely Armenian." Their poetic 
genius has produced superb canticles which do honor to the Christian 
inspiration, of which a selection is to be found in their national hymnary 
(Sharagan), justly compared to a diamond necklace. 

Christianity, when it became a national church, maintained the Armenian 
nationality. Without it the Armenians would have been absorbed in Zoroas- 
trianism, and at a later period in Islamism ; for in that nest of religions 
which goes by the name of the East, religion makes nationality; and the 
peoples are nothing but religious communities. That is why the Armenians, 
especially after the loss of their political independence, look askance at 
every attempt to detach the faithful from their church. Surrounded at the 
present clay by Orthodoxy (/. e., the Greek Church), Catholicism and Protest- 
antism, each of which aims at bringing this martyrized church into its course, 
they believe it is their duty to maintain the sfattts quo, because tfyey would 
not be able to satisfy the three churches all at once, and because their church 
is the last refuge of their nationality. They possess a national church, just 
as they possess a national language and literature, with a national alphabet, 
a national era and a national history, a national music and a national archi- 
tecture, and they do not wish to sacrifice them to the national characteristics 
of the more numerous nations ; for, in their eyes, numbers do not constitute 
merit, and human civilization owes more to Greece, which is microscopically 
small, than to China which is colossal in its greatness. They are conscious 
of their mission in Asia, and M. Ffelix Nfeve did not exaggerate in any 
respect when he wrote these lines : " By a two-fold phenomenon, which is 
very rare in history, the Armenian people, strong by reason of an admirable 
fidelity to its character and its faith, survives the wars and revolutions 
that have in a way decimated it ; it possesses in its literary and liturgical 
idiom a sign of its vitality arid a pledge of its perpetuity. One could believe 
that it is destined to take part some day in the regeneration of Asia." 

The foreign missionaries who find it convenient to preach Christianity 
to the faithful of a church nearly contemporary with Christ, ought not to 
forget that it is their first duty not to weaken in any way the position of a 
church which is in daily conflict with the powerful religion of Islam, 
Blessed be the church which should undertake to propagate among the 
Christians of Armenia, not such or such a form of Christianity, but an 
instruction and an education which render a people capable of reconciling 
respect for the past with the exigencies of the modern spirit ! From this 
point of view, the American college at Constantinople renders greater serv- 


\ f 

'* Wlf \ I t \N M SI I I J KOM J HIS i . K> v I J \! 1 1 \ vi I , I , i.l I I Hi (,| -, j , 



ices than those who waste their time in inculcating Puritan simplicity on the 
brilliant imagination of an Eastern people. 

The Armenian Church belongs to the Eastern Church, and its rites do 
not differ much from those of the Greek Church ; but it is completely 
autonomous, and is ruled by its deacons, priests and bishops, whose eccle- 
siastical vestments recall those of the Greeks and Latins. It has a special 
hagiography which embraces the entire ecclesiastical year ; a special ritual, 
a special missal, a special breviary, a specml hymnary. It admits the seven 
sacraments, but administers extreme unction only to the ecclesiastics ; does 
not recognize either expiations or indulgences ; and celebrates the commun- 
ion with unleavened bread and wine without water. It holds Easter at the 
date assigned by Christians before the Nicene Council, and the Nativity and 
Epiphany on the sixth of January, It prescribes fasting on Wednesday and 
Friday, and has a period of fasting and an order of saints which are pecul- 
iar to it. It believes that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. It is 
not at all Eutychian, of which it has been falsely accused, for it explicitly 
professes the dogma of the two natures, of the two wills and of the two 
operations in Jesus Christ. It was not a question of dogma, but of jurisdic- 
tion, that caused it to reject the council of Chalcedon. Its conduct is only 
guided by a feeling of self-preservation, and is dictated to it by the necessi- 
ties of its situation. As long as Armenia lacks political independence, the 
Armenians will not be able, without danger, to recognize the Council of 
Chalcedon. It is a rampart which separates them from the Greek or Rus- 
sian Church ; if they renounce it r almost half of the nation who live under 
Muscovite rule, would be easily absorbed in the Russian Church and nation- 
ality. The state of servitude, in which the Armenians live, will likewise 
prevent them from introducing reforms in their church, whose popular char- 
acter permits it to accept, without opposition, the ameliorations desired by 
the faithful. 

These, then, are almost all the differences which separate the Armenian 
from the venerable Greek Church, from the powerful Roman Church, or from 
the free Protestant Church. It has its reasons for maintaining them, and the 
liberal spirit with which all the churches are to-day penetrated gives ground 
for hepe that tolerance will be shoton to it, as it shows tolerance to its 
Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant sisters, for which it professes the most 
sincere affection and the most profound respect. 

Toleration is one of the glories of the Armenian Church. Its adherents 
have given manifold proofs of it to the Christians of all denominations, and 
if you happen to visit Etchmiadzin, you will see the tomb of Sir John Mac- 
Donald, who was British envoy in Persia, quite close to the entrance of the 
cathedral, among the tombs of the greatest patriarchs of modern Armenia. 
Tile church founded by the Illuminator prays daily " for all holy and ortho- 
dox bishops," and "for the peace of the whole world and the stability of the 
holy church/ 1 and beseeches the mercy of God " by the prayers and interces- 


sions of those who invoke the name of the Lord of Sanctity, in any country, 
from the rising to the setting sun." Some extracts from the confession of 
faith of Mgr. Nerses Varjabedian, who died in 1884, on the Armenian 
patriarchal throne at Constantinople, will suffice to give an idea of the spirit 
of this church. These are the words which the illustrious prelate wrote in 
the heat of a discussion relative to the Eastern and Western Churches : 

" The Armenian Church, both before and after the Latins and Greeks 
condemned each other to hell, did not interfere in their controversies, nor 
did it attach any importance to them ; it did not alter any more for this rea- 
son the commentaries of its dogmas ; but before, as after, it treated all the 
bishops and all the churches with love and toleration. 

"The Armenian Church rejects only heretics, and hitherto it has had 
nothing essential to reject in the tenets of the Latins and Greeks. 

"The Apostles' Creed is sufficient for orthodoxy; the rest contains dog- 
mas, the differences between which do not impair orthodoxy. 

"The Armenian Church, in speaking of an orthodox church, does not 
mean itself alone. 

" The unique glory of the Armenian Church consists in its treating its 
heterogeneous brethren in the spirit of the Primitive Church, that is to say, 
with toleration, even if they speak against it out of ignorance and hardness 
of heart, or through the pride of their prelates. 

" Whosoever does not profess this creed does not belong to the Arme- 
nian Church. The blessed fathers of the Armenians down to Lampronatzi 
and Shnorhali have held this same language. The two last named fathers 
wrote at a time when the Christians were wrangling with one another more 
violently than ever." 

Another glory of the Armenian Church is its democratic spirit. No obsta- 
cle is put in the way of its adherents to read and study the Bible, In the 
mass it practises the ceremony of cordial salutation, which the faithful render 
to one another with the holy kiss. Its deacons and priests, who are married, 
live from the voluntary offerings of their flocks, and it is the high clergy only, 
who are bound to celibacy, who receive a very moderate stipend. No annual 
payment is required, as in certain civilized countries, to have a pew in the 
churciv; every Christian is received gratuitously, and rich and poor alike bow 
the head side by side before the Eternal. The clergy, from the humblest 
deacon to the supreme patriarch, are elected by the free will of the ecclesias- 
tics and the laity. In the very midst of the consecration of a candidate, the 
bishop stops to ask the congregation if he is worthy of receiving orders. If 
one single individual calls out that he is not worthy of them, the consecration 
is suspended, and if this individual proves his assertion to the bishop, the 
candidate is immediately discarded. It may well be said that the Armenian 
clergy are the servants and not the masters of the church. 

Such is the Armenian Church, venerable by reason of its antiquity, proud 
of its orthodoxy, and glorious in the purple mantle of its martyrdom. Every 


stone of this sanctuary is cemented with the tears and the blood of its perse- 
cuted children*, it is for this reason that the seat of the Illuminator is so firmly 
established, and with so. much vigor raises aloft its five domes symbols of 
the five Armenian patriarchates of Ktchmiad/in, Sis, Aghtamar, Constanti- 
nople and Jerusalem. Sentinel of civilization and advance guard of Chris- 
tianity, the Armenian Church has bravely done its duty on the confines of the 
Eastern world. It has survived the attacks of /oroastrianism and of Islam, as 
it has survived the attacks of Christians who did not understand liberty of con- 
science, and in the midst of the painful crisis which it is going through at the 
present time, it sends a fraternal salutation to all the pious souls who are gath- 
ered together at this truly ecumenical council, and it blesses the first steps of 
the Parliament of Religions in the path of universal tolerance and charity, and 
the noble efforts of the great American people to spread the marvelous rain- 
bow of human brotherhood over the deluge of long-standing hatreds. 




To the Rev. JOHN HENRY BARROWS, D.D., Chairman. 

DEAR SIR, What I have aimed at in my Gifford Lectures on Natural 
Religion is to show that all religions are natural, and you will see from my 
last volume On Thcosophy or Psychological Religion, that what I hope for 
is not simply a reform, but a complete revival of religion, more particularly 
of the Christian Religion. I have often asked myself How St. Clement and 
Origen came to embrace Christianity, and to elaborate the first system of 
Christian theology. There was nothing to induce them to accept Christi- 
anity. They were philosophers first, Christians afterwards. They had 
nothing to gain and much to lose by joining this new sect of Christians. 
We may safely conclude, therefore, that they found their own philosophical 
convictions, the final outcome of the long preceding development of phil- 
osophical thought in Greece, perfectly compatible with the religious and 
moral doctrines of Christianity as conceived by themselves. 

Now, what was the highest result of Greek philosophy as it reached 
Alexandria, whether in its Stoic or Neo-Platonic garb ? It was the inerad- 
icable conviction that there is Reason or Logos in the world. When a^ked, 
Whence that 'Reason, as seen by the eye of science in the phenomenal 
world, they said : " From the Cause of all things which is beyond ail names 
and comprehension, except so far as it is manifested or revealed in the 
phenomenal world. What we call the different types, or ideias, or Zogoi, in 
the world, are the logoi, or thoughts, or wills of that Being whom human lan- 
guage has called God. These thoughts, which embrace everything that is, 
existed at first as thoughts, as a thought-world, KOS/X,OS i/enyros, before by 

will and force they could become what we see them to be, the s types or 

/ & t 

species realized in the visible world, Koer/u,os o^aros. " So far all is clear 

and incontrovertible, and a sharp line is drawn between this philosophy and 
another, likewise powerfully represented in the previous history of Greek 
philosophy, which denied the existence of that eternal Reason, denied that 
the world was thought and willed, as even the Klamaths, a tribe of Red 
Indians, profess, and ascribed the world, as we see it as men of science, to 
purely mechanical causes, to what we now call uncreate protoplasm, assum- 
ing various casual forms by means of natural selection, influence and envi- 
ronment, survival of the fittest, and all the rest. 

The critical step which some of the philosophers of Alexandria took, 
while others refused to take it, was to recognize the perfect realization of the 



Divine Thought or Logos of manhood in Christ, as in the true sense the Son 
of God, not in the vulg.u mythological sense, but in the deep metaphysical 
meaning which the utos /xoyoycn/s had long possessed in Greek philosophy. 
Those who declined to take that step, such as Celsus and his friends, did so 
either because they denied the possibility of an^r divine thought ever becom- 
ing fully realized in the flesh, or in the phenomenal world, or because they 
could not bring themselves to recogni/e that realization in Jesus of Na/areth. 
Clement's conviction that the phenomenal world was a realization of the 
Divine Reason was based on purely philosophical grounds, while his con- 
viction that the ideal or the divine conception of manhood had been fully 
realized in Christ and in Christ only, dying on the cross for the truth as re- 
vealed to him and by him, could have been based on historical grounds only. 
Everything else followed. Christian morality was really in complete 
harmony with the morality of the Stoic school of philosophy, though it gave 
to it a new life and a higher purpose. Hut Ihc-whole world assumed a new 
aspect. It was seen to be supported and pervaded by reason or Logos, it 
was throughout teleological, thought and willed by a rational power. The 
same divine presence had now been perceived for the first time in all its 
fullness and perfection in the one Son of God, the pattern of the whole race 
of men, henceforth to be called "the sons of God." 

This was the groundwork of the earliest Christian theology, as presup- 
posed by the author of the Fourth Gospel, and likewise by many passages 
in the Synoptical Gospels, though fully elaborated for the first time by such 
men as St. Clement and Origen. If we want to be true and honest Chris- 
tians we must go back to those earliest ante-N Scene authorities, the true 
Fathers of the Church. Thus only can we use the words, " In the beginning 
was the Word and the Word became flesh," not as thoughtless repeaters, but 
as honest thinkers and believers. The first sentence, "In the beginning 
w r as the Word," requires thought and thought only; the second, "And the 
Logos became flesh," requires faith, faith such as those who knew Jesus 
had in Jesus, and which we may accept, unless we have any reason for 
doubting their testimony. 

There is nothing new in all this, it is only the earliest Christian the- 
ology restated, restored and revived. It gives us at the same time a truer 
conception of the history of the whole world, showing that there was a pur- 
pose in the ancient religions and philosophies of the world, and that Chris- 
tianity \vas really from the beginning a synthesis of the best thoughts of the 
past, as they had been slowly elaborated by the two principal representatives 
of the human race, the Aryan and the Semitic. 

On this ancient foundation, which was strangely neglected, if not pur- 
posely rejected, at the time of the Reformation, a true revival of the Christian 
religion and a reunion of all its divisions may become possible, and I have 
no doubt that your Congress of Religions of the World might do excellent 
work for the resuscitation of pure and primitive ante-Nicene Christianity. 

Yours very truly, F, MAX MULLER. 













[Accepting without reserve, for the sake of argument, the evolutionist 
account of the origin of man, the question of his religious significance still 
remains to be considered.] 

I. It looks as if nature herself were inviting us to regard man as, while 
no exception in origin, exceptional in significance. She has hidden the 
evidence of our parentage ; she has thrown down the scaffolding after fin- 
ishing the building. How much trouble it has given the scientists to find 
links of connection between man and the lower creation ! So far as the 
body is concerned, the best evidence is that which is carefully concealed 
from observation, the transformation which a human being undergoes before 
he is born. Then of the evolution of mind how faint the traces ! Grant 
the reality of the evolutionary process, and that here as elsewhere it has 
proceeded by insensible progression ; nevertheless what we see is a great 
gulf separating man even at the lowest point of civilization from the most 
intelligent animal, lias this fact no meaning ? The meaning of it is 
nothing less than this, that in man all that went before finds its rationale. 
Kvolution of the inanimate and the lower animate world took place because 
it was to end in the evolution of man. 

This is what we have all got to do, and what, I submit, the theory of 
evolution, rightly construed, helps us to do ; we have to learn that we do 
not suffer by comparison with the heavenly bodies. Rather they, by com- 
parison, dwindle into insignificance. When I consider man, final product of 
the creative process, what are sun, moon and stars ? Whether the astro- 
nomic bodies contain human beings I know not. If they do, then man 
there, as here, is supreme. If they do not, then vast in mass, in distance, 
and in the swings of their revolutions as these bodies are, they are insig- 
nificant compared with the chief tenant of this small terrestrial planet. 

Similar is the view to be taken of the whole sub-human creation. It 
has its reason of existence in man and the moral interests he represents. If 
man had not been, it would not have been worth while for the lower world to 
be. If the Creator had not had man in view from the first, the lower world 
would not have come into existence. This is how the Theist must view the 
matter. He must regard the sub-human universe in the light of an instru- 
ment to be used in subservience to the ends of the moral and spiritual uni- 
verse, and created by God for that purpose. The Agnostic can evade this 
conclusion by regarding the evolution of the universe as an absolutely nee- 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H, B. 



essary and aimless process. For us this theory is once for all impossible. 
We must believe in God, Maker of heaven and cartji. And believing in 
him we look for a plan in his work. In creation, as in Providence, we find 
at lirst much mystery and darkness. To what end, that all-diffused fiery 
mist, those igneous rocks, those micioscopic proto/oa, those hideous "drag* 
ons of the prime"? But stay, here at the end of the ivons, is man. It was 
worth God's while to make him, and in the light of this latest creation we 
can see at least a glimmering of meaning even in chaos, in the apparently 
useless, the irrational, the monstrous. All these were natural steps in the 
gradual process that was to have a worthy ending in which the whole crea- 
tive movement should find its justification. 

2. Through man as the head of creation we may know God, The end 
explains not only the process of creation but the Creator. It was man in 
view as the " far-off divine event" that gave God an interest in the process. 
Doth God care for fiery clouds, or for protozoa, or for "dragons of the 
prime" ? He cares for spirit and its characteristic endowments, reason, free- 
dom, love of the good, hatred of evil. That is, he is himself a spirit with 
essentially similar character. Our inference does not rest on the mere cata- 
gory of causality. God as cause stands in the same relation to all beings, 
and on that ground might be as like one being as another. Our inference 
is based on the category of purpose. Man is not only one of the infinite 
number of effects produced by Divine causality, but he is the effect which 
explains all the rest, the end in view of the Creator in all his creative work. 
If this conception be allowed, then it cannot be denied that man's relation 
to God is unique. It is a relation of affinity, because God ex hypothesi 
supremely cares for what man distinctively is. 

The point that needs emphasizing to-day is not that mantis like God, 
but that God is like man ; for it is God, his being and nature, that we long 
to know, and we welcome any legitimate avenue to this high knowledge. 
And man by his place in nature is accredited o us as our surest, perhaps 
sole, source of knowledge. And it confirms us in the use of this source to 
find that ancient wisdom, as represented by the Hebrew sage to whom we 
owe the story of Genesis, indirectly endorses our method, by proclaiming 
that in man we may see God's image. 

This doctrine has in its favor the consensus gentium. Men everywhere 
and always have conceived their gods as manlike. They have done so too 
often in most harmful ways, imputing to the Divine human passions and 
vices. The desideratum is to conceive God not as like what man is or has 
been at any stage in time, but as like what man will be when his moral 
development has reached its goal. It is safe to say that God is what man 
always has been in germ, a rational, free, moral personality. But it is not 
safe to fill in the picture of the Divine personality by indiscriminate imputation 
to God of the very mixed contents of the average human personality. Our 
very ideals are imperfect, how much more our realizations ! Our theology 


must he constructed, therefore, on a basis of careful, impartial self -criticism, 
casting aside as until matetial for building our system, not only all that can 
be traced to our baser nature, !>ut even all in our highest thoughts, feelings 
and aspirations that is due to the influence of the time-spirit, or is merely 
an accident of the measure of civili/ation reached in our social environment. 
The safest guides in theology are always the men who arc more or less dis- 
turbed because they are in advance of their time ; the men of prophetic 
spirit, who sec lights not yet above the horizon for average moial intelli- 
gence ; who cherish ideals regarded by many as idle dreams; who, while 
affirming with emphasis the essential affinity of the Divine with the human, 
understand that even in that which is truly human, say, in pardoning grace, 
God's thoughts rise above man's as the heavens rise above the earth. 

On this view it would seem to follow that each age needs its own 
prophets to lead it in the way of moral progress, and set before it ideals in 
advance of those which have been the guiding lights of the past. And yet 
it is possible that there may be prophets of bvgone davs whose significance 
as teachers has been by no means exhausted. 

This may be claimed pieeminently for him whom Christians call their 
Lord. The claim, I believe, will be allowed even by those who are not 
Christians. 1 can even imagine a more sincere, deeper homage to Christ's 
present value being paid by intelligent adherents ot other faiths than* by 
many who pay to him the conventional homage of Christendom. 1 do not 
expect a time will ever come when men may say, we do not need the teach- 
ing of Jesus any more. That time has-certainly not come yet. We have not 
got to the bottom of Christ's doctrine of God and man as related to each 
other as Father and son. How beautifully he has therein set the great 
truth that God is manlike, and man Godlike, making man at his best the 
emblem of God, and at the worst the object of God's love! All fathers are 
not what they ought to be, but even the worst fathers have a shrewd idea 
what it becomes a father toj>e. And the better fathers and mothers grow, 
the better they will know God. Theology will become more Christian as 
family affection flourishes. And what a benefit it will be to mankind when 
Cnrist's doctrine of Fatherhood has been sincerely and universally accepted! 
Every man God's son ; therefore every man under obligation to be Clod- 
like, that is to be a true man, self-respecting and worthy of respect. Every 
man God's son ; therefore every man entitled to be treated with respect by 
fellow men, despite of poverty, low birth, yea, even in spite of low charac- 
ter, out of regard to the possibilities in him. Carry out this program 
and away goes caste in India, England, America, everywhere, in every land 
where men are supposed to have forfeited the rights of a man by birth, by 
color, by poverty, by occupation ; and where many have yet to learn the 
simple truth quaintly stated by Jesus when he said, " How much is a man 
better than a sheep." What a long way we have to travel before it can be 
said : "Jesus of Nazareth is superseded I" 


3. A long way to thoroughly Christian civilization. Yes, but the goal 
will be reached. Evolution points that way. Evolution does not foster a 
pessimistic spirit. It encourages hope for the distant future. It does so by 
the view it gives of the general trend of the universe upwards. It does so 
still more by placing man at the summit. If man himself was the terminus 
ad quern^ then man must become all that it is in him to be. It was not man 
the savage, Homo alalus, for whom all creation in its earlier stages was 
in travail, but man the civilized, man the completely Christianized. And 
therefore we may confidently hope that he will make his appearance in clue 
season, possibly not till the lapse of millenniums in this world. In this 
world, but what of the next ? Does the view of man, as the crown of evo- 
lutionary process, throw any light on his eternal destiny ? Does it contain 
any promise of immortality ? Here one 'feels inclined to speak with bated 
breath. A hope so august, so inconceivably great, makes the grasping 
hand of faith tremble. We are tempted to exclaim, " Behold, we know not 
anything." Yet it is worthy of note that leading advocates of evolution- 
ism are among the most pronounced upholders of immortality. Mr. Fiske 
says : u For my own part I believe in the immortality of the soul, not in 
the sense in which I accept the demonstrable truths of science, but as a 
supreme act of faith in the reasonableness of God's work." lie cannot 
believe that God made the world, and especially its highest creature, simply 
to destroy it, like a child who builds houses out of blocks, just for the pleas- 
ure of knocking them down, Not less strongly Le Conte writes: " With 
out spirit-immortality this beautiful cosmos, which has been developing into 
increasing beauty for so many millions of years, when its evolution has run 
its course and all is over, would be precisely as if it had never been an 
idle dream, an idiot tale signifying nothing." These utterances of course 
do not settle the question. But considering whence they emanate, they may 
be taken at least as an authoritative indication that the tenet of human 
immortality is congruous with, if it be not a necessary deduction from, the 
demonstrable truth that man is the consummation of the great world-pro- 
cess by which the universe has been brought into being. 


Natural religion, if thereby we understaad the beliefs fairly deducible 
from the facts of nature, is in truth closely allied to natural science, and, if 
reduced to a system, may even be considered as a part of it. Our principal 
inquiry, therefore, should be not so much, "How do scientific results agree 
with religious beliefs, or any special form of them ? " but rather, " How much 
and what particular portion of that which is held as religious belief is insep- 
erable from or fairly deducible from the results of natural science ?" 

All scientific men are probably prepared to admit that there must be a 
first cause for the phenomena of the universe. 

We cannot, without violating all scientific probability, suppose these to 
be causeless, self-caused, or eternal. Some may, however, hold that the first 
cause, being an ultimate fact, must on that account be unknowable. Though 
this may be true of the first cause as to origin and essence, it cannot be true 
altogether as to qualities. The first cause must be antecedent to all phe- 
nomena. The first cause must be potent to produce all resulting effects, and 
must include potentially the whole fabric of the universe. The first cause 
must be immaterial, independent, and in some sense self-contained or indi- 
vidual. These properties, which reason requires us to assign to the first 
cause, are not very remote from the theological idea of a self-existent, all- 
powerful, and personal Creator. 

Even if we fail to apprehend these properties of the first cause, we are 
not necessarily shut up to absolute agnosticism, for science is familiar with 
the idea that causes may be entirely unknown to us in themselves, yet well- 
known to us in their laws and their effects. Since then, the whole universe 
must in some sense be an illustration and development of its first cause, it 
must all reflect light on this primitive power, which must thus be known to us 
at least in the same manner in which such agencies as gravitation and the 
ethereal medium occupying space are known. 

Nor can we interpret these analogies in a pantheistic sense. The all is 
itself a product of the First Cause, which must have existed previously, and of 
which we cannot affirm any extension in a material sense. The extension 
is rather like that of the human will, which, though individual and personal, 
may control and animate a vast number of persons and agencies may, for 
example, pervade and icgulate every portion of a great army or of a great 
empire. Here again we are brought near to the theological doctrine, and 
perceive that the First Cause may be the will of an Almighty Being, or at least 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



something which, relatively to an eternal and infinite existence, may be com- 
pared with what will is in the lesser sphere of human consciousness. In this 
way we can at least form a conception of a pDwer all-pervading, yet per- 
sonal ; free, yet determined by its own innate constitution. 

Thus science seems to have no place for agnosticism, except in that 
sense in which the essence of all energies and even of matter is unknown ; 
and it has no place for pantheism, except in that sense in which energies, 
like gravitation, apparently localized in a central body, are extended in 
their effects throughout the universe. In this way science merges into 
rational theism and its First Cause becomes the wil^ of a divine Being inscru- 
table in essence, yet universal in influence, and manifested in his works. In 
this way science tends to be not only theistic, but monotheistic, and con- 
nects those ideas of unity which it derives from the uniformity and univer- 
sality of natural laws with the will of one law -maker. Nor does law exclude 
volition. It becomes the expression of the unchanging will of infinite wisdom 
and foresight. Otherwise we should have to believe that the laws of nature 
are either necessary or fortuitous, and we know that neither of these alter- 
natives is possible. 

All animals are actuated by instincts adapted to their needs and place 
in nature, and we have a right to consider such instincts as in accordance 
with the will of their Creator. Should we not regard the intuitions of man 
in the same light, and also what may be called his religious and moral 
instincts ? Of these, perhaps one of the most universal next to the belief in 
a god or gods, is that in a future life. It seems to have been implanted in 
those antediluvian men whose remains are found in caverns and alluvial 
deposits, and it has continued to actuate their descendants ever since. This 
instinct of immortality should surely be recognized by science as constituting 
one of the inherent and essential characters of humanity. 

So far in the direction of religion the science of nature may logically 
carry us without revelation, and we may agree with the Apostle Paul, that 
even the heathen may learn God's power and divinity prove the things that 
he has made. In point of fact, without the aid of either formal science or 
theology, and in so far as is known without any direct revelation, the belief 
in God and immortality has actually been the common property of all men, 
in some form more or less crude and imperfect. But there are special points 
in revealed religion respecting which the study of nature may give some testi- 

When natural science leaves merely material things and animal instincts, 
and acquaints itself with the rational and ethical nature of man, it raises new 
questions with reference to the First Cause. This must include potentially all 
that is developed from it. Hence the rational and moral powers of man must 
be emanations from those inherent in the First Cause, tf liich thus becomes a 
divinity, having a rational and moral nature comparable with that of man, 
but infinitely higher. 


On this point a strange confusion, produced apparently by the philoso- 
phy of evolution, seems to have affected some scientific thinkers, who seek to 
read back moral ideas into the history of the world at a time when no mun- 
dane moral agent is known to have been in existence. They represent man 
as engaged in an almost hopeless and endless struggle against an inherited 
"cosmic nature," evil and immoral. This absurd and atheistic exaggeration 
of the theological idea of original sin, and the pessimism yvhich springs from 
it, have absolutely no foundation in natural science. 

Natural science does, however, perceive a discord between man, and 
^specially his artificial contrivances, and nature ; and a cruel tyranny of man 
over lower beings* and interference with natural harmony and symmetry. 
In ottyer words, the independent will, free agency, and inventive powers of 
man have set themselves to subvert the nice and delicate adjustments of 
natural things in a way to cause much evil and suffering to lower creatures, 
and ultimately to man himself. Science sees, moreover, a great moral need 
which it cannot supply, and for which it can appeal only to the religious idea 
of a divine redemption. 

On this account, if no other, science should welcome the belief in a 
divine revelation to humanity. On other grounds also it can see no objec- 
tion to the idea of divine inspiration. The First Cause manifests him- 
self hourly before our eyes in the instincts of the lower animals, which are 
regulated by his laws. It is the inspiration of the Almighty which gives 
man his rational nature. Is it probable then that the mind of man is the 
only part of nature shut out trom the agency and communication of the all- 
pervading mind ? This is evidently altogether improbable. If so have we 
not the- right to believe that divine inspiration is present in genius and 
inventive power, and that in a higher degree it may animate the prophet 
and the seer, or that God himself may have been directly manifested as a 
divine teacher ? Science cannot assure us of this, but it makes no objection 
to it. 

This, however, raises the question of miracle and the supernatural ; but 
in opposition to these science cannot consistently place itself. It has by its 
own discoveries made us familiar with the fact that every new acquisition of 
knowledge of nature confers powers which, *if exercised previously, would 
have been miraculous ; that is, would have been evidence of, for the time, 
superhuman gowets. We know 'no limit to this as to the agency of intelli- 
gences higher than man, or as to God himself. Nor does miracle in this 
aspect counteract natural law. The scope for" the miraculous within the 
limits of natural law, and the properties of natural objects, is thus ptecti- 
cally infinite. All the metaphysical arguments of the last generation 
against the possibility of miracles have in fact been destroyed by the pro- 
gress of science, and no limit can be set to divine agency in this respect, 
provided the end is worthy of the means. On the t other hand, science has 
rendered human imitations of divine miracles impostures, too transparent to 
be credited by intelligent persons* 





For these reasons the attitude of science to divine revelation is not one 
of antagonism, except in so far as any professed revelation is contrary to 
natural facts and laws. This is a question on which I do not propose to 
enter, but may state my conviction, which 1 have elsewhere endeavored to 
vindicate, that the Old and New Testaments of the Christian faith, while 
true to nature in their reference to it, infinitely transcend its teaching in 
tlieir sublime revelations respecting God and his purposes toward man. 

Finally, we have thus seen that natural science is hostile to the old 
materialistic worship of natural objects, as well as to the worship of ances- 
tors and heroes, of humanity generally, and of the state, or indeed of any- 
thing short of the great First Cause of all. It is also hostile to that agnosti- 
cism which professes to be unable to recognize a First Cause, and to pan- 
theism, which confounds the primary cause with the cosmos resulting from 
his actioh. On the contrary, it has nothing to say against the belief in a 
divine First Cause, against divine miracle or inspiration, against the idea of 
a future life, or against any moral or spiritual means for restoring man to 
harmony with God and nature. As a consequence it will be found that a 
large proportion of the more distinguished scientific men have been good 
and pious in their lives, and friends of religion. 


My topic is "Music, Emotion and Morals." I find that the connection 
between music and morals has been very much left out in the cold here, 
and yet music is the golden art. You have heard many grave things 
debated in this room during the last three or four days. Let me remind 
you that the connection between the arts and morals is also a very grave 
subject. Yet, here we are, ladies and gentlemen, living in the middle of 
the golden age of music, perhaps without knowing it. What would you 
have given to have seen a day of Raphael or to have seen a day of Pericles, 
you who have been living in this great Christian age ? And yet the age of 
Augustus was the golden age of Roman literature. The age of Pericles 
was that of sculpture, the Mediccan age of painting ; so the golden age 
of music is the Victorian or the Star-Spangled Banner age. 

Music is the only living, growing art. All other arts have been discov- 
ered. An art is not a growing art when all its elements have been discov- 
ered. You paint now, and you combine the discoveries of the past; you dis- 
cover nothing; you build now, and you combine the researches and the 
experiences of the past; but you cannot paint better than Raphael ; you can- 
not build more beautiful cathedrals than the cathedrals of the middle ages ; 
but music is still a growing art. Up to yesterday everything in music had 
not been explored. 1 say we are in the golden age of music, because we can 
almost within the memory of a man reach hands with Mozart, Beethoven and 
Wagner. We place their heads upon pedestals side by side with Raphael 
and with Michel Angelo, yet we have no clear idea of the connection between 
the art of music and morals, although we acknowledge that great men like 
Beethoven are worthy of a place along with the great sculptors, poets and 
painters. Now let me tell you that you have no business to spend much 
time or money or interest upon any subject unless you can make out a con- 
nection between the subject and morals and conduct and life ; unless you 
can give an art or occupation a particular ethical and moral basis. 

If anyone asks you what is the connection between music and morals, I 
will give it to you in a nutshell. This is the connection. Music is the lan- 
guage of emotion. Emotion is connected with thought. Therefore music is 
connected with thought. Thought is connected with action, action deals 
with conduct, and the sphere of conduct is connected with morals. ThWe- 
fore, ladies and gentlemen, if music is connected with emotion, and emotion 
is connected with thought, and thought is connected with agtion ? and action 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



is connected with the sphere of 'conduct, or with morals, things which are 
connected by the same must be connected with one another, and therefore 
music must be connected with morals. 

Now, the reason why we have coupled all these three worlds music, emo- 
tion, morals together, is because emotion is coupled with morals. The great 
disorders of our age come not from the possession of emotional feeling, but 
from its abuse, its misdirection and the bad use of it. Once discipline your 
emotions, and life becomes noble, fertile and harmonious. 

Well, then, if there is this close connection between emotion or feeling, 
and the life, conduct, or morals, what the connection between emotion and 
morals is, that also must be the character of the connection between music, 
which is the art medium of emotion, and morals. 

Nothing good and true was ever carried out in this world without 

There has never been a great crisis in a nation's history without some 
appropriate air, some appropriate march, which has been the voiceless 
emotion of the people. 1 remember Garibaldi's hymn. It expresses the 
essence of the Italian movement. Look at all your patriotic songs. Look at 

"John Brown's body is a-mouldering in the ground, 
But his soul is marching on." 

The feeling and action of a country passes into music. It is the power 
of emotion through music upon politics and patriotism. I remember when 
Wagner, as a very young man, came over to England and studied our 
national anthems. He said that the whole of the British character lay in 
the first two bars of " Rule Britannia." 

And so your " Star-Spangled Banner" has kindled much unity and 
patriotism. The profoundly religious nature of the Germans comes forth in 
their patriotic hymn, " God Save the Emperor." Our " God Save the Queen" 
strikes the same note, in a different way, as " Rule Britannia," This shows 
the connection between emotion and music in politics and patriotism. It 
throws a great light upon the wisdom of that statesman who said: "Let 
who will make the laws of a people ; let me make their national songs." 

I see another gentleman is in charge of the topic " Religion and Music," 
but it is quite impossible for me to entirely exclude religion from my lecture 
to-day, or the power of emotion through music upon religion and through 
religion upon morals, for religion is that thing which kindles and makes 
operative and irresistible the sway of the moral nature. I read that our 
JLord and his disciples, at a time when all words failed them and when their 
hearts were heavy, when all had been said and all had been done at that 
last supper, after they had sung a hymn, went out into the Mount of Olives. 
After Paul and Silas had been beaten and thrust into a noisome dungeon, 
they forgot their pain and humiliation and sang songs, spiritual psalms, in 
the night, and the prisoners heard them. I read, in the history of the Chris- 
tian Church, when the great creative and adaptive genius of Rome took 


possession of that mighty spiritual movement and proceeded to evangelize 
the Rtoman Empire, that St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan in the third century, 
collected the Greek modes and adapted certain of them for the Christian 
Church, and that these scales were afterward revived by the great Pope 
Gregory, who gave the Christian Church the Gregorian chants, the first 
elements of emotion interpreted by music which appeared in the Christian 
Church. It is difficult for us to overestimate the power of those crude 
scales, although they seem harsh to our ears. It is difficult to realize the 
effect produced by Augustine and his monks when they landed in Great 
Britain, chanting the ancient. Gregorian chants. When the king gave his 
partial adherence to the mission of Augustine, the saint turned from the 
king and directed his course toward Canterbury, where he was to be the first 
Christian archbishop. 

Still, as he went along with his monks, they chanted one of the Gre 
gorian chants. That was his war cry. 

" Turn away, O Lord, thy wrath from this city, and thine anger from 
its sin." 

That is a true Gregorian ; those are the very words of Augustine. And 
later on I shall remind you of both the passive and active functions of the 
Christian Church passive when the people sat still and heard sweet 
anthems ; active when they broke out into hymns of praise. Shall I tell 
you of the great comfort which the church owes to Luther who stood up in 
his carriage as he approached the City of Worms and sang his hymn, " Ein 
feste Burg ist unser Gott "? Shall I tell you of others who have solaced their 
hours of solitude by singing hymns and spiritual psalms, and how at times 
hymn singing in the church was almost all the religion that the people 
had? The poor Lollards, when afraid of preaching their doctrine, still sang, 
and throughout the country the poor and uneducated people, if they could 
not understand the subtleties of theological doctrine, still could sing praise 
and make melody in their hearts. I remember how much I was affected in 
passing through a little Welsh village some time ago at night, in the solitude 
of the Welsh hills, as I saw a little light in a cottage-, and as I came near I 
heard the voices of the children singing : 

" Jesus, lover of my soul, 
Let me to thy bosom fly." 

And I thought how those little ones had gone to school and had learned 
this hymn and had come home to evangelize their little remote cottage and 
lift up the hearts of their parents with the love of Jesus. 

I now approach the last clause of my discourse. We have discovered 
the elements of music. Modern music has been three or four hundred years 
in existence, and that is about the time that every art has taken to be 
thoroughly explored. After that, all its elements have been discovered ; 
there is no more to be discovered, properly speaking, and all that remains 
is to apply it to the use, consolation and elevation of mankind. 


Music is the most spiritual and latest born of the arts in this most 
material and skeptical age ; it is not only a consolation, but a kind of min- 
istering angel in the heart ; it lifts us up and reminds us and restores in us 
the sublime consciousness of our own immortality. For it is in listening to 
sweet and noble strains of music that we feel lifted and raised above our- 
selves. We move about in worlds not realized ; it is as the footfalls on the 
threshold of another world. We breathe a higher air. We stretch forth the 
spiritual antenna? of our being and touch the invisible, and in still moments 
we have heard the songs of the angels, and at chosen seasons there comes 
a kind of open vision. We have "seen white presences among the 'hills/ 1 

" Hence in a season of calm weather, 
Though inland far we be, * 
Our souls have sight of that immortal sea 
Which brought us hither." 


Man, in the light of revelation, as made known through the Scriptures 
and by the definitions and traditions of the Catholic Church, is a compound 
of soul and body. He is the product of God's last creative act. His body 
is of the earth, but his immortal spiritual soul is the image of God. His 
end is God. But to reach that end he must pass through a period of pro- 
bation on this earth. Everything in creation is subordinate to the issue of 
that great struggle. The first man, Adam, fell. Through his sin human 
nature, while remaining unchanged in essence, lost something of its super- 
added gifts. At first man's reason was supreme. Now it is obscured by 
passions and a tendency to evil. 

It concerns us to know whether the accepted truths of biological sci- 
ence, more particularly those of anatomy, anthropology, and physiology, 
harmonize with those of revelation. Turning, then, from revelation to 
science, we have to examine man and to classify him to determine, in short, 
according to Huxley's happy phrase, his place in nature. If we subject the 
tissues of his body to chemical analysis", if, with the highest powers of the 
microscope, we examine the minutest elements of structure of bone, muscle, 
blood, brain, and all the rest, there is nothing implying essential difference 
between man and animals.. We next dissect man's body and examine the 
various so-called Systems, the bones, muscles, vessels, the brain and nerves, 
and the internal organs. Comparing system by system, we find differences 
in degree, and in degree only, between the bodies of man and ape. The 
difference is vast, but it is a difference only in degree after alL 

The intimate relationship in bodily structure between man and ani- 






mals is further shown by the science of embryology. While we are not 
called upon to accept very literally the claim that the development of the 
embryo presents an epitome of the history of the rise of the human race 
from the lowest forms, none the less its transitory structures and arrange- 
ments offer overwhelming evidence of the animal nature and affinities of 
the human body. 

But, as we have undertaken a scientific study of man, we must not stop 
with his lifeless body. All must be seen and studied living to be properly 
placed. Studying man in this way, we find that he is a living organism. 
From this we infer that he has a vital principle. In common with plants, 
his vital principle presides over nutrition, reproduction, and growth. In 
common with other animals, he has in addition the power of motion and 
sensation of various kinds. He has instincts also. But beyond and above 
all these, lie has understanding and a free will. He t is a rational animal, 
and as such, as Mivart has said, more above the highest animal than the 
latter is above a stone. It follows directly that man has been the result of 
an act of creation. An immortal spiritual soul can by no possibility have 
been gradually evolved from the vital principle of a lower being, nor sud- 
denly formed by any action of physical forces. 

But the question must be studied from the physical side also. What 
do anatomy and anthropology say to the claims of revelation ? Surely 
since it is the soul that makes the human composite what it is, the material 
side is of secondary consequence ; but even on this lower plane any true 
conflict between revelation on one side and anatomy on the other, must be 
fatal to one or both. Should science ever show by analogy so strong as to 
Compel conviction, that man's body has risen from lower animals till God 
made it human by informing it with a spiritual soul, revelation would have 
nothing to take back, nothing to fear. 

But there is, undoubtedly, a system of evolution, which is in absolute 
opposition to religion. The scheme may be briefly stated as follows : In 
the beginning was matter and force. By some law of unknown origin, the 
nebulous matter formed worlds. On this one, somehow, organic life 
appeared. Cells developed into plants of successively greater complexity, 
plants into animals. Animals rose from the simple to the complex and 
finally to man, by gradual changes. Instinct is the result of the inheritance 
of accumulated ancestral experience. There is no essential difference 
between it and reason. Ethical and moral ideas are simply developments. 
Plan does not exist. Free will and accountability are, therefore, impossible. 
The original atoms can have had no choice but to obey the original forces. 
How or when can so essentially foreign a power as that of freedom to 
choose, have first appeared ? It cannot have been in germ in the primeval 
atoms, neither can it of itself have come out of nothing. It therefore can- 
not exist. If there be no free will, there is no accountability, BO right, no 
.wrong, conscience is a delusion, law a tyranny. Any system of religion, 


any probation, any future rewar4 or punishment on these premises is self- 
evidently absurd. 

Between any such system and revelation there can be no agreement. 
If one is right, the other is wrong. We deny these doctrines because they 
are false. Philosophy, indeed, shows their falsehood most clearly. Mine is 
the more humble task of showing how unsupported they are by evidence in 
the physical domain. 

To return to the study of the body of mail. As has been shown, man as 
a whole so far transcends all animals that the shape of his body is of little 
more importance than the cut of his coat, as the criterion of his position in 
the universe. Norte the less his body must be classified on precisely the same 
principles that guide us in the case of non-rational animals. Zoologically he 
is evidently a mammal, constituting the family of the Hominida? of the sub- 
order Anthropoids of the order of Primates. The other families of that sub- 
order are various kinds of apes and monkeys, the one nearest to man being 
that of the simiidae, which comprises the larger apes of Asia and Africa the 
long-armed apes, the orang, gorilla and chimpanzee. All of these are tail- 
less, and to the superficial observer evidently nearest to man. The scientific 
student reaches the same conclusion, but none the less he recognizes points of 
similarity with species of the families of smaller monkeys which the larger 
apes do not show. Further, and this point is of vital importance, the series 
of the great apes does not lead up to man by regular gradations. In some 
respects the chimpanzee most nearly resembles man, in others, the gorilla, 
and, although we may admit that on the whole these two approach the near- 
est to man's body, yet in other respects the orang and the long-armed apes 
surpass them. The skull and teeth of the chimpanzee approach nearest to 
those of man, but the siamang is the only ape with a forward projection of 
the lower jaw like the human chin. The orang has twelve ribs like a man, 
while the chimpanzee and gorilla have thirteen. 

A very important and curious chapter in this connection is that of anoma- 
lies of structure. There are occasionally structures, or arrangements of struc- 
tures, which are not normal in the species in which they occur, but in others. 
They are seen frequently in man. They have been made to bear evidence for 
his descent from lower animals, and have been called " reversions." There are 
reasons for debating these claims very seriously. To hold that a certain 
anomaly of, say a bone, in man is a reversion to the condition of a primitive 
type, is not to say that every other animal possessing it is an ancestor of 
man, for they may be side branches of the genealogical tree ; but it is neces- 
sary that a common origin should be shown for both. When we come to 
put this into practice very great difficulties arise. Let us take some common 
instances in illustration. First, the supra-condyloid process of the humerus. 
This is a little spur of bone found in some three per cent, of our dissecting- 
room subjects. A band of fibrous tissue running to it makes a bridge over a 
hole called a supra-condyloid foramen. It is not found" in any of the higher 


apes, but in many American monkeys and in most of the lemurs. It is found 
in certain carnivora, notably those of the cat trib?, in most of the insectivora, 
but never in the ungulata, or hoofed animals ; it is generally found in the 
edentata and marsupials. This, therefore, is so widely distributed a structure 
that it is a more plausible instance than most, and if it stood alone would be 
hard to refute. But it is the very diversity of these anomalies that is fatal to 
the theory that they are reversions. Another, probably more common one in 
man, though less widespread among mammals, is a projection known as the 
third trochanter of the thigh bone, which is normal in the odd -toed ungulates 
and in some rodents and edentates. A very uncommon one is the union of 
the pieces of the breast-bone after the fashion of the long-arm?d apes. Still 
another very rare peculiarity is the fossa praenasalis, a little hollow in the 
skull just below the opening of the nose. It is met with only in low class 
skulls. Among animals it has been seen poorly marked at times (not as a 
rule) in the gorilla ; but its best representation is seen in the seal tribe* 

Now, no one claims that man carne from either the carnivora or the 
ungulata, certainly not from both. If then we see a feature in man appear- 
ing occasionally which is normal in hoofed animals, from which he did not 
descend, according to the theory of heredity, it must have existed in a com- 
mon ancestor. As we go on from one feature of this kind to many the 
difficulty is increased, for we have to include the carnivora and, worse still, a 
higher specialized group, the seal tribe. This being obviously impossible, 
we have to go further back still and seek a still earlier common ancestor 
from whom we are to inherit the characteristics of both. This very soon 
reaches a reductio ad absurdum> for the primitive parent must have been an 
anatomical curiosity ol the greatest complication. What are we then to do 
with such facts ? It will not do to ignore them. They undoubtedly have a 
cause, seeming to point to a similarity of plan and tendencies. It allows 
us to formulate the proposition, that points of resemblance between two 
families of animals are no evidence of the descent of one from the other or 
of both from a common ancestor. It brings law and plan into the fore- 
ground. From being first used as an argument for chance, it on the con- 
trary, is found to point to law, though to which one which we do not yet 

Let * us now study living man, considered merely as an animal. For 
roaming through forests, how inferior to the long-armed ape who swings 
in flying leaps from tree to tree with a grace and certainty which no trained 
acrobat can approach. For defence or attack how much below the gorilla. 
As a mere animal, how unfitted for anything. Not very swift of foot, far 
from strong of arm, with neither claw nor tusk, without great sharpness of 
sight or of hearing, with very limited powers of scent, without protective 
panoply or weapon of defense, man, as an animal and as nothing more, can 
be ranked only as a failure. But, if grown man be such, how much more is 
he trammelled by the necessary care of infant and child through the long 


period of helplessness. Yet do not his powers of instinct place him far 
above other animals? Undoubtedly it might have been so, equally 
undoubtedly it is not. His instinct is far inferior to that of many lower 
animals. As well as we can decide by our own mental processess we 
know that it is by reason that rnau is guided. The body is inadequate and 
strong instinct is wanting. How then account for the existence and per- 
petuation of so badly dowered a race ? It is clear that it is only because 
man has reason that he is what he is. 

We pass to anthropology. We see many races of men ; but with 
advancing knowledge old plans of classification have lost their value. We 
find again curious cross-relationships in different races. This much is cer- 
tain, namely, that they are all men. The differences between them, indeed, 
are great, in capacity of skull, in stature, in proportion, but the very lowest 
are unmistakably men, considered merely from the anatomical standpoint. 
The missing link fails to appear/ Low forms of structure are, indeed, pre- 
sented by some very ancient skeletons, but it were idle to claim that they 
bear evidence of even a distinct species of man. 

The gap between even the body of man and that of the ape is a great 
one, though the difference is in degree, not in kind. From the physical 
side there are insurmountable difficulties in the ordinary theory that man as 
a whole, body and soul, was evolved gradually from a monkey or an ape. 
It is beyond question that such a process must have taken a very long 
time. Scores, perhaps hundreds, of thousands of years must have witnessed 
its progress, It is well-nigh incredible that no race of the man-like beast 
and his follower the beast-like man should have come to light. The race 
cannot have been a small one, nor have done its work in a corner. To have 
survived during the long period necesssary for its success it must have 
spread vastly. Yet of this great series of multitudes between man and 
apes we do not find a trace. More than this, if some of the lowest savage 
races which we now know are such pitiable objects, how much more so must 
have been this being who was gradually losing the physical advantages of 
apes, and had not as yet acquired reason, without which man as an animal 
is so worthless. It is in direct defiance of the laws of evolution, for every 
step is marked by the survival of the unfittest.. 

It is said that low races of men have been arrested in their upward 
course. That there is no shadow of proof that they have not fallen from a 
higher estate. On the contrary, there is very much in favor of the theory 
that they have done so. How many instances have we seen in history of 
the wiping out of great civilizations ! What a contrast is the Egypt of 
to-day with that of the Pharaohs ! The language of some very low tribes 
show a richness which is conclusive of passed prosperity. Herbert Spencer 
admits in his Sociology the probability of the 4egradation from something 
higher of most, if not all, the savage tribes of to-day. 

Revelation teaches that man has -fallen ; that there is in him a tendency 


to evil. What is the cause ? It is foolish to pretend that it is in the per- 
sistence of animal passions. Let the student of Sociology consider the 
refinement of vice in the . luxury, lust and cruelty of the decadence of the 
Roman Empire, or of Oriental despotisms ; to look no nearer home, to see 
that there is a malice in it very different from mere savageness. .There is 
in it a perverseness in evil that suggests a closer resemblance to devils than 
to beasts. It is not a return to a lower estate, but the corruption of a 

Thus revelation and science are in accord concerning mnn. Philosophy 
shows that as a living organism he must have a vitaA principle or soul, and 
that inasmuch as it is spiritual it differs radically from that of brutes. Anat- 
omy and anthropology proclaim that there is no evidence in favor of the 
gradual evolution of man both soul and body, which philosophy pronounces 
impossible, and wh ch cannot be reconciled with revelation. Variations 
themselves point to law in contradistinction to chance. Observation and 
common sense show but too clearly the evidence of corruption in human 
nature, which is neither an inheritance from lower animals, nor the natural 
endowment of man created in the image and likeness of God. 



What we happily emphasize in this Congress of Religions is simply 
Religion. That we write out in large letters and trumpet the great fact 
of it^in all the tongues of men. We believe there must be more of it in the 
world when men come to understand how much there is of it already. What 
the wprld wants is the best religion. It wants it with a deeper thirst than it 
wants silver or gold, or knowledge or science. And I believe this Congress 
will help the world to get just what it wants and needs more and more 
genuine religious life. From this point, then, is the place to go forward in 
the recital of the infinite positive blessings the religious life brings as dis- 
tinguished from the moral life. 

The religious life alone has creative power. The moral can never^ 
create the religious, while the religious will always create the moral life. 
The moral life is (roughly) as the mineral kingdom to the vegetable. The first 
can feed the life of the second, but cannot kindle it. The religious life 
develops more continuity, more fibre and more propagative power than a 
moral life. 

In it there is the glory of the unseen. There is the hush and awe 

Coypright, 1893. i>y J- H. B. 


of the Omnipotent and Eternal. There is the unseen holy, there is an exten- 
sion of the being upward and forward immeasurable in the feeling of it 

But contrast the merely moral life. All that concerns the future, its 
opening and attractions, its glories and gleams, has no power for him who 
aims only to do his duty to his fellow-men. How much the man must miss; 
what a calamity if all men should thus deny the uppermost realm of being. 
The whole world is one thing, if men are immortal, and another if they are not. 

Guizot shows, you remember, that society Js the means and man is the 
end in civilization, because man is immortal. Laws and language and liter- 
ature and government and economics, are the things they are, and which they 
are coming to be felt to be in the newer political economy and sociology 
because man is immortal. Education is coming to have its own true sacred- 
ness because it is immortal material with which we have to deal. And I dare 
say it now and here, that no man is fit to be an educator, in the just sense of 
the term, who so fearfully and fatally mistakes the nature with which he is to 
deal, as to deny its immortality. Without the religious life as allied to the 
supernatural, I do not believe any severe morality can be maintained among 

Who doubts the flexibility of religious motives? They are as elastic 
as the atmosphere, as divisible and equally constant in their pressure. 
And what might not be said, what is not every pious heart saying, of the 
religious life as containing a communion with God, which the merely moral 
life alas! either ignores or denies. 

What is prayer ? The outbreathing of innermost life into the closest 
contacts. " Speak to him," for spirit with spirit may meet. " He is closer 
than breathing." Prayer ! It is the eloquence of the need, perceived rather 
by~the Infinite Listener than by the soul which so imperfectly at best under- 
stands its own need. Prayer ! It is the sob of a broken heart (whether by 
sin or by sorrow) heard by God and hymned by angels. 

What is praise ? What are the sacraments ? Public worship ; church- 
fellowships ? Nothing can properly express the importance to us, of the 
upward extension of our being by communion with God. It is of the same 
range with outward extension of the religious life into duty, or its forward 
extensions into immortality. 

And when man's whole nature is considered it is found that the moral 
life is most distinctly related to the intellectual and volitional activities and 
is deficient on the emotional side. But just here the religious life is full and 
powerful. Not that we propose to accept the half-humorously proposed 
distribution of the soul territory which would give the intellect to science 
and the will to ethics and surrender the emotions to religion. No, sirs. 
Religion will not forget other things, but she does accept the dominion of 
the heart. 

There is no such apostasy in religion as the apostasy from love. Now 
what would the heart-life of the race become without religion? Whither 


should we go without the mercy of God, the Father's pity ; without the 
boundless compassion of a dying Christ? To what utter hardness are we left 
by law and morals considered only in themselves? li\ the emotions and 
affections are the springs of action. How shall the world do its work with- 
out the religious life to cultivate and enlarge them? In this great tract of 
the soul lies far the largest part of the common life of all men. How shall 
it be made the source of happiness it ought to become? Here are the 
materials of character. How is Heaven to be peopled and days of Heaven 
to come upon the earth unless the strong forces of religion control here? 
Men are stirred to their best deeds and wrought to their best permanent 
shapes through the affections. And all men concede to the religious life 
special power in the emotional tract. 

All that is in us, then, all the fundamental departments of the microcosm 
we call man demand the religious life. The intellect reaches its highest 
principles when it thinks God's thoughts after him, and finds mind every- 
where in the universe. The affections and emotions find their true objects 
in divine things, and from these run out exuberantly and beneficently to all 
human needs. The will finds its freedom steadied and the man back of the? 
will certified by the infinite personality of God. The conscience whispers 
approval of them and rebukes us. The spiritual aspirations find their true 
direction only in the religious life. How much of man is denied or docked 
by moral ism? 

And now we come to the religious life as concerned with sin. 

Here we find the distinguishing clement of Repentance, which has no 
place whatever in the moral life. In the, latter there may be regret or 
remorse (if the evil consequences of sin have become evident or have gone 
beyond our power to arrest). But the religious life can know repentance. 
It is made up of elements which do not appear v m the moral life. 

' Can I be wrong in saying that the moral life misses the greatest pos- 
sible joy of man when it fails of repentance ? Did not all divine interposi- 
tions in the world, from the first voice to Cain, to the last pleading of the 
risen Christ seek to awaken it ? Does not the tear of repentance (as in Tom 
Moore's exquisite fiction) move the crystal bars of Paradise ? And does not 
every true act of repentance awaken the praises of intelligent spirits sinless, 
themselves, in the presence of God ? 

This evangelical repentance refreshes the whole world of sin by its real 
sorrow. There is a "repentance unto life," and there are "fruits meet for 
repentance." In the nature and fruits of it is a greater thing than the 
merely moral man can ever know. 

Hold it closely, then, this distinguished character of the religious life. 
The forgiven are forgiving ; the elder son is implacable. For sinners the 
religious life can answer. Kthics, as a means to salvation, must be left to 
angels. Repentance is moral sanity. It is the truth of things. It sees God's 
frown &wj seeks his favor, It stops sinning. It puts the stoniest barriers iq 


the way of sinning- again. It looks to what we must be as well as to what 
we have been. It bears the noblest fruitage in a hundred-fold of good deeds, 
and turns blasphemers into apostles. And the moralist cannot know it. 

The religious life is sundered wholly from the moral life and elevated 
above it by the initial fact of Regeneration. 

Here is a " new life " indeed. It is a "new man " with whom we have 
to deal. It is an implanted principle which goes on to consequences of 
greatest moment exactly in line with the initial impulse. At once it claims 
to be more than the moral life, introducing new reasons for obedience even 
to what was obeyed before from lower considerations. This is divine energy 
received into the almost passive soul of man, but lifting it into a permanent 
partaking of the divine life. 




We shall have to begin by defining the. terms " Science of Religion, " 
and " Philosophy," and determining the scope of both, Schleiermacher 
defined religion as " a sense of absolute dependence." But it includes more 
than this feeling, namely, the apprehension of a supreme or at least super- 
ior being, i. e., it includes knowledge, 

Even in the feeling itself there is more than a mere sense of dependence^ 
namely, reverence, fear, love. An eminent philosophical Christian writer 
says : " Religion is the union of man with God, of the finite with the Infin- 
ite, expressed in conscious love and reverence." James Freeman Clark, 
seeking for a simple and comprehensive expression, says : " Religion is 
the tendency in man to worship and serve invisible beings like himself, but 
above himself." This is purposely comprehensive, so that it may include 
44 Animism," " Fetichism," and many forms of Pantheism, like that of Spin- 
oza who declared that we must " love God as our supreme good." There 
have been and there are many religions, and however much they may differ 
in other respects in this they agree, "that man has a natural faith in 
supernatural powers with whom he can commune, to whom he is related, 
and that this life and this earth are not enough to satisfy his soul." 

What is science ? In its broadest definition, science is systematized 
knowledge. This, however, implies more than an orderly, arrangement of 
facts. It includes the discovery of the principles and laws which underlie 
and pervade the facts. . Science seeks to reach the highest_principles, those 
which have given shape and character to the facts, and among these princi- 
ples even aspires to grasp the central one, so as to give rational unity to 


subject. Now, is there, or may there be a Science of Religion ? It is a 
gratuitous assumption to claim that there is no science but natural science. 
This assumption would exclude grammar, rhetoric, logic, political economy, 
ethics, psychology, and even mathematics. The truth is there are various 
kinds of science, according to the nature of the truth to be investigated. 
41 Each science, " says Aristotle, " takes cognizance of its peculiar truths/' 
" Any facts," says John Stuart Mill, " are fitted, in themselves, to be the sub- 
ject of a science, which follow one another according to constant laws ; 
although those laws may not have been discovered, nor even be discover- 
able by our existing resources. " The religious phenomena of the world 
and human experience are just as real as any with which physical science 
has to deal. In the sense in which he means it, James Freeman Clark is 
right when he says. " The facts of consciousness constitute the basis of 
religious science. These facts-axe as real and as constant as those which 
are perceived through the senses. Faith, Hope, and Love are as real as 
form, sound and color. The moral laws also, which may be deduced 
from such experience are real and permanent, and these laws can be veri- 
fied in the daily course of human life. The whole realm of spiritual exer- 
cises may and ought to be carefully examined, analyzed and verified." 

To construct a scienc^ of religion requires the collocation of vast his- 
torical data, an exhaustive and true analysis of the facts of consciousness ; 
the discovery of the relations of these facts to one another, of the principles 
which underlie and pervade them, and the laws by which they are gov- 
erned ; and the logical arrangement or systemization of these elements or 

The science of religion as above defined, is broader than systematic 
theology, in the sense in which it is used by Christians ; but if the term 
theology be used in a somewhat Aristotelian sense, it may stand to desig- 
nate our science of religion. Pherecydes and Plato, who wrote philo- 
sophically on the gods and their relations to the material universe and to 
man, were called theologians, Aristotle divided all speculative science into 
mathematical, physical, and theological. He says, " There is another 
science which treats of that which is immutable and transcendental, if 
indeed there exists such a substance, as we shall endeavor to show that there 
does. This transcendental and permanent substance, if it exist at all, must 
surely be the sphere of the Divine it must be the first and highest prin- 
ciple." This he calls theology. But it is still better to take the phase in 
the broad sense as 6Aoyos rovOeov KO! Trcpt roJi/ #io>v. 

What is the scope of this science ? Whatever else theology or the 
science of religion must consider, the three most prominent subjects must 
be, first, God, his being and attributes, the sources of ourideaof God, proofs 
of his existence, his rulership over the world, etc. Second. Nature, or the 
works of God. Third. Man in his relation to .the Deity. The fact of sin, 
its nature, and consequence's, the question as to the possibility of man's 



recovery from sin, and man's destiny or the question of immortality are also 
prominent subjects for consideration. 

Having taken a glance at the definition and scope of the science of 
religion, let us do the same for philosophy. Definitions have been very 
various from the days of Plato and Aristotle to the present time. With 
Aristotle philosophy is the systematic and critical knowledge of the first or 
ultimate principles of being, essentially what now is usually called meta- 
physics or ontology. Herbert Spencer calls it " knowledge of the highest 
degree of generality," and adds, " Science is partially unified knowledge ; 
philosophy is completely unified knowledge/' 

Philosophy strives to comprehend in unity and to understand the ground 
and causes of all reality. This necessarily includes life in all its aspects and 
relations, I should give the scope of philosophical inquiry, or the Philosophical 
Encyclopedia, as follows : Metaphysics or ontology, psychology, logic, ethics, 
religion, aesthetics, politics. These divisions partly overlap one another. On 
comparing the scope of both the science of religion and philosophy, it is 
seen that in part they cover the same ground. The two disciplines may be 
represented by two intersecting circles, the space included within each of the 
circles being in part the same. The ultimate objects about which they both 
treat are God, nature, and man. The relations of philosophy therefore, to the 
science of religion are of necessity very intimate. We can not separate them 
entirely, try we never so hard. While the ultimate aim of religion is practi- 
cal, and that of philosophy speculative, no serious or thoughtful mind can 
rest in the contemplation of the practical or ultilitarian elements of religion. 
Moreover, when the speculative or rational elements in religion everywhere 
underlie the practical, religion must meet the demands of the intellect as 
well as of the heart, that is, religion must be rational. But the consideration 
of these rational elements brings her within the domain of philosophy. 
Rational theology is indeed a part of philosophy. 

What is the material and formal aid of philosophy to the science of reli- 
gion ? Man finds himself to be a religious being. He has a sense of depen- 
dence on a superior being. There are, we may say, deposits in his feelings 
themselves which are peculiar and may turn out to be very significant and 
lead to the discovery of very important truths. There are in all men certain 
spontaneous religious beliefs. But as man advances in intellectual growth 
and in intelligence he begins to reflect on these phenomena. He will ask 
into the meaning and ground of these feelings, and the significance of his 
beliefs. He will necessarily inquire how far these feelings and beliefs are 
justifiable, whether they are mere fancies of the imagination, or grounded in 
realities and supported by reason, and how far they involve real knowledge. 
He believes in God, Have we any true or real knowledge of such a being, 
if he exists ? What are the sources of this knowledge ? How far may we 
know him, and of what character is our knowledge of him ? These are all 
questions which must be answered, if there is to be any such thing as 


scientific theology or a science of religion at all. But all these are also 
questions of philosophy. The attempt to answer these questions, if we are 
not willing to be content with a very partial and unscientific inquiry, will 
necessarily conduct to others which will land us in the very profoundest 
depths of human thought, in the very realm of 1 inquiry in which philosophy 
as such lives and has its being. 

As in the case of other subjects, religion must come to philosophy to 
settle for it all the problems which are purely rational. Many of the 
objects of religion, ot all the great religions at least, are usually historical, 
given in sacred books or traditions, yet every religion which ignores philo- 
sophy is extremely liable to superstition and fanaticism. The sources of 
materials for the science of religion, as of the Christian religion, are 
partly historical and partly philosophical. Of the historical, the primary 
source is the sacred books ; the materials yielded by philosophy may, on 
the other hand, be called fundamental. 

Philosophy must furnish the ultimate data, the basal truths, though not 
the historical facts, upon which a great part of religious doctrine rests. 
Natural Theology is constantly assuming a more metaphysical or philosoph- 
ical character. 

I. The Existence of God. The sacred books, as the Bible of the Jews 
and Christians, proceed upon the assumption of the existence of a Divine 
Being. If there is no such being, there is no religion. The question, then, 
which at once confronts us in inquiring into the reality of religion itself 
relates to the existence of God. This is the fundamental question, but it is 
philosophical in its nature and its solution belongs to the realm of philoso- 
phy. Whence is our conviction of the existence of God ? It is not my 
purpose to enter further into this question than to show its relation to phil- 
osophy, that the answer must come from philosophy. Some say the knowl- 
edge or the conviction of the existence of God is innate, and that it cannot 
be proved, as Dr. Calderwood ; others as Prof. Flint in his Theism, and Dr. 
Caird in his Philosophy of Religion, and Dr. Knapp, hold that it is not 
at all innate, but is a matter of proof ; others still hold that it is a matter of 
revelation ; while still others maintain that it is both innate and the subject 
of proof. Kant held that metaphysics can neither prove nor disprove the 
existence of God. Dr. McCosh does not admit that we have an intuitive 
knowledge of God, but that " our intuitions, like the works of nature, carry 
us up to God, their author/' Yet he says : "The idea of God, the belief 
in God, may be justly represented as native to man." Many writers go so 
far as to speak of a God-consciousness. Prof, Fisher says : " We are con- 
scious of God in a-more intimate sense than we are conscious of finite things." 
Prof. Luthardt of Leipzig says : ** Consciousness of God is as essential an 
element of pur mind as consciousness of the world or self-consciousness/' 
The names of many other writers, philosophical and theological, who teach 
that the idea of God is innate, might be added, such as Descartes, Dr, 


Julius Miiller, Prof. Dr. Dorner, Prof. Bowen of Harvard University, Prof. 
Harris of Yale University. Dr. McCosh says : " Among metaphysicians 
of the present day it is a very common opinion that our belief in God is 
innate," Their doctrine may be expressed thus : We have an intuitive, nec- 
essary belief in the Divine existence. But belief implies knowledge more 
or less clear ; " necessary belief involves necessary cognition." Hence, 
God as the object of our intuitive belief, becomes, in some sense, the object of 
intuitive knowledge. This knowledge may be exceedingly dim, requiring 
to be brought up into clearer consciousness and developed by observation 
and reflection, upon the psychological principle so well stated by Sir Will- 
iam Hamilton: "The notions or cognitions which are primitive facts are 
given us ; they are not indeed obtrusive, they are not even cognizable of 
themselves. They lie hid in the profundities of the mind until drawn from 
their obscurity by the mental activity itself employed upon the materials of 
experience." They belong to the natural furniture of, the mirid, and when 
called into consciousness by the appropriate occasions, they have all the 
force and authority of self-evident truths. For instance : (a) If one ask for 
an explanation of finite existence, " the belief in the One Infinite Being " at 
once and intuitively presents itself. (t>) Especially let the conscience be 
fully roused, and the idea of a Divine Being instantly appears, it may be 
with fearful force and authority. Says Luthardt : " There is nothing of 
which man has so intuitive a conception as he has of the existence of God." 
" We can by no means free ourselves from the notion of God." The emi- 
nent Max Miiller puts the statement thus : " As soon as man becomes con- 
scious of himself as distinct from all other things and persons, he at the 
same time becomes conscious of a higher self ; a power without which he 
feels that neither he nor anything else would have any life or reality. This 
is the first sense of the godhead, sensns nuMtnisms it has been called ; for it is 
a sexsus, an immediate perception, not the result of reasoning or of general- 
izing/but an intuition as irreversible as the impression of our senses. This 
sensus numhris is the source of all religion. It is that without which no 
religion, true or false, is possible." 

When objections are raised to this doctrine* the examination of its 
validity can be determined only within the field of philosophy. This is 
done by appealing to the criteria of intuition, (i) It is said to be necessary. 
It is necessary to our nature, so that, when the problem is put before the 
mind, the opposite can not be believed. Its denial does violence to our 
whole nature, and is forced. As soon as the laws of nature act unrestrained, 
the belief in Deity asserts itself. It is necessary somewhat in the same sense 
as our conviction of the moral law, or of right, is necessary, we can not rid 
ourselves of it. This is not disproved by the fact that some men have 
doubted the existence of God. Men may do violence to their mental con- 
stitution, either by wrong metaphysics or by sin, A man may so cauterize 
his hand that he loses the sense of touch. Men may have been born blind 




or deaf, but this does not prove that sight and hearing are not native to 
man. Some have doubted whether there is an external world at all, as 
Bishop Berkeley ; others, whether there is any such a thing as spirit, as 
Auguste Comte. Some have denied the reality of the moral law, but all 
the world believes in the existence of spiritual natures and the reality of the 
material world, in spite of metaphysical subtleties and learned arguments, 
(2) This belief in a divine being is universal ; t\ e^ (a) It is held in some 
forms by all nations, tribes and tongues. The claim h^s in a few instances- 
been set up that some small tribes have been discovered who had no idea 
whatever of God, but when the case was narrowly inquired into, the state- 
ment was found to be incorrect. Even Prof. De Quatrefages, professor of 
anthropology in unbelieving Paris, writes : " Obliged in the course of my 
investigation to review all races, I have sought atheism in the lowest as 
well as the highest. I have nowhere met it except in individuals, or in 
more or less limited schools, such as those which existed in Europe in the last 
century or which may still be seen at the present day." 

The statement of the doctrine above, namely, that this is in the first 
instance an intuitive belief, which however involves knowledge, also leads 
to the question as to the relation of faith and knowledge, a question which 
has been much discussed ever since the days of Origen. He uttered the 
dictum, fides pracepit intellectum. This was also held by Augustine, Anselm 
Calvin, Pascal, Anselm's motto was, Credo tit intelligam. The doctrine 
thus expressed by these eminent thinkers has been much discussed by phil- 
osophers and theologians, but its solution belongs to the domain of philoso- 
phy. 1 need only mention Calclerwood, Sir William Hamilton, Victor 
Cousin, Schleiermacher, Jacobi, Christlieb. 

3. But, in the next place, can the existence of God be proved ? Or do 
we rest solely on this innate conviction ? This were really sufficient ; but 
in addition there is a vast amount of cumulative proof which is as a large 
reserve to support the inner conviction. Some writers, as Jacobi, Kant, 
Hartmann, Dr. Calderwood, Lotze, disparage these so-called proofs ; but the 
mass of theists, from Socrates to the present time, both philosophers and 
theologians, have acknowledged them to be valid and of great service. 

The well-known classification of these proofs is into the ontological, 
the cosmological, teleological, and the anthropological. Without discussing 
these, the mere statement of them itself will determine their character as 
philosophical. The determination of their validity and force belongs to 

i. The ontological argument is purely metaphysical. Anselm was the 
first to put into form, Descartes constructed another, and after him Dr. 
Samuel Clarke, and still later, Victor Cousin. Anselm's argument is in 
substance this: That which exists in reality is greater than that which 
exists only in the mind. There exists in the human intellect the conception 
of an infinitely perfect being. In infinite perfection, 'necessary existence is 


included ; necessary existence implies actual existence, for if it must be it is. 
If the perfect Being of whom we have conception does not exist we can con- 
ceive of one still more perfect, i. e., of one who does of necessity exist. 
Therefore, necessity of being belongs to perfection of being. Hence an abso- 
lutely perfect being exists, which is God. Gaunilo, a contemporary of Anselm, 
sought to show that there is a paralogism in this argument. We have, for 
instance, an idea of a centaur, but this does not prove that a centaur ever 
existed- Indeed this argument, it is sometimes said, is now not much in 
repute. On the other hand, we find the essence of it, in Plato; hints of it 
in Aristotle, Athanasius, Augustine, and Boethius. Anselm first developed 
it. Descartes -adopted it with some changes. Leibnitz followed. The 
great theologians, Cudworth, Stillingfleet, Howe and Henry More adopted 
it in their debates with the infidelity of their time. Cousin developed still 
another form of it. Validity is allowed to it by Luthardt, Dr. Dorner, 
Henry B. Smith, Dr. Caird, Prof. Shedd, Ulrici, Thompson, Tulloch and 
others. John Stuart Mill advised theologians to adhere to it. Yet it has 
been vehemently attacked in our times. Kant, although he professed 
respect for it, regarded it as inadequate, and so does Herman Lotze, both in 
his Microcosmus and Religions- Philosophic. John Stuart Mill, on the other 
hand, says, " I think it must be allowed that in our present state of knowl- 
edge, the adaptations of nature afford a large balance of probability in 
favor of creation by intelligence." Janet's Final Causes is an admirable 
exposition of the subject. It is to be remembered that moral proof is not 
mathematical demonstration ; that no one line of argument is to be taken 
by itself alone ; that taken together, the ontological, the cosmological, the 
teleological and the anthropological arguments are like so many converging 
lines all pointing toward, even if they do not in strict demonstration reach, 
the common centre God. Dr. Carpenter speaks of some departments of 
science " in which our conclusions rest, not on any one set of experiences, 
but upon our unconscious coordination of the whole aggregate of our experi- 
ence; not on conclusions of any one train of reasoning, but on the conver- 
gence of all our lines of thought toward one center." 

4. In connection with these arguments philosophy must explain the 
meaning and vindicate the reality of Cause. 

5. Religion says God is infinite and absolute. But can the infinite and 
absolute be known by the finite ? . Can there be any relation between the 
absolute and the finite ? This is an important question for religion, but 
philosophy must give us the solution, if a solution is possible. Says Herbert 
Spencer in his First Principles ; "The axiomatic truths of physical science 
unavoidedly postulate absolute being as their common basis. The persistence 
of the universe is the persistence of that unknown cause, power, or force 
which is manifested to us through all phenomena. Such is the foundation 
of any system of positive knowledge. Thus the belief which this datum con- 
stitutes has a higher warrant than any other whatever/' He is here sub- 
stantially on Aristotelian ground. 


6. Again: Can personality be postulated of the infinite or absolute? 
Philosophy must both explain personality and how this can be consistent 
with the infinite and absolute. 

The deepest revelation of consciousness, is the ego and the non-ego. In 
Consciousness we become aware at once of self, a modification of self, which 
is a mental state or act, and the not-self. We find here sensations, percep- 
tions, memories, imaginations, beliefs, volitions, etc., but in connection with 
each and all of these is also invariably given the self, and its antithesis, the 

This conscious self thus experiencing or exercising sensations, judgments, 
volitions, is what we call a person. If we should here adopt the theory of 
James Mill and his son John Stuart, that self is only a "permanent possibility 
of feeling," all proper notion of self-hood or personality vanishes, The self, 
with these powers of thought, feeling and self-determination, we call a spirit. 
From consciousness then we have the idea of spirit, and are prepared to under- 
stand the doctrine, " God is Spirit ;" and a knowledge of our own personality 
prepares us for the idea of the personality of God. As Dr. Fisher truly says : 
" Belief in the personality of man, and belief in the personality of God, stand 
or fall together." 




Three religions stand now in the world which have come down to us 
from time pre-historic Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Judaism. 

They all have received tremendous shocks and all of them prove by 
their survival their internal strength ; but while Judaism failed to absorb 
Christianity, and was driven out of its place \>i birth by its all-conquering 
daughter, and a handful of Parsees, are all that remains to tell the tale of his 
grand religion, sect after sect have arisen in India and seemed to shake 
the religion of tHe Vedas to its very foundation, but like the waters of the 
seashore in a tremendous earthquake, it receded only for a while, only to 
return in an all-absorbing flood, a thousand times more vigorous, and when 
the tumult of the rush was over, they have been all sucked in, absorbed and 
assimilated in the immense body of another faith. 

From the high spiritual flights of Vedantic philosophy, of which the 
latest discoveries of science seem like the echoes, the agnosticism of the 
Buddhas, the atheism of the Jains, and the low ideas cxf idolatry with the 
multifarious mythology, each and all have a place in the Hindu's religion. 

Where then, the question arises, where is the common center to which 
all these widely diverging radii converge ; where is the common basis upon 

Coypright, 1893, by J. H. B. 


which all these seemingly hopeless contradictions rest? And this is the 
question I shall attempt to answer. 

The Hindus have received their religion through their revelation, the 
Vedas. They hold that the Vedas are -without beginning and without end. 
It may sound ludicrous to this audience, how a book can be without begin- 
ning or end. But by the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the 
accumulated treasury of spiritual law discovered by different persons in dif- 
ferent times. Just as the law of gravitation existed before its discovery, and 
would exist if all humanity forgot it, so with the laws that govern the 
spiritual world. The moral, ethical and spiritual relation between soul and 
souls and between individual spirits and the Father of all spirits were there 
before their discovery and would remain even if we forgot them. 

The discoverers of these laws ate called Rishis, and we honor them as 
perfected beings, and I am glad to tell this audience that some of the very 
best of them were women. 

Here it may be said that the laws as laws maybe without 'end, but 
they nxust have had a beginning. The Vedas teach us that creation is 
without beginning or end. Science has proved to us that the sum total of 
the cosmic energy is the same throughout all. Then if there was a time 
when nothing existed, where was all this manifested energy ? Some say 
it was in a potential form in God. But then God is sometimes potential 
and sometimes kinetic, which would make him mutable, and everything 
mutable is a compound, and everything compound must undergo that 
change which is called destruction. Therefore God would die. Therefore 
there never was a time when there was no creation. If I may be allowed 
to apply a simile, creation and creator are two lives, without beginning 
and without end, running parallel to each other, and God is power, an ever- 
active providence, under whose power systems after systems are being 
evolved out of chaos, -made to run for a time and again destroyed. This 
is what the Hindu boy repeats every day with his guru: " The sun and 
the moon, the Lord created after other sims and moons." And this 
agrees with science. 

Here I stand, and if I shut my eyes and try to conceive my existence, 
I, I, I what is the idea before me ? The idea of a body. Am I, then, 
nothing but a combination of matter and material substances ? The Vedas 
declare " No," I am a spirit living in a body. I am not the body. The 
body will die, but I will not die. Here am I in this body, and when it will 
fail, still I will go on living, and also I had a past. The soul was not cre- 
ated from nothing, for creation means a combination, and that means a cer- 
tain future dissolution. If, then, the soul was created, it must die. There- 
fore it was not created.. Some are born happy, enjoying perfect health, 
beautiful body, mental vigor, and with * all wants supplied. Others are 
born miserable : some are without hands or feet, some idiots, and only drag 
on a miserable existence. Why, if they are all created, does a just and 


merciful God "create one happy and the other unhappy why is he so par- 
tial ? Nor would it mend matters in the least by holding that those that 
are miserable in this life will be perfect in a future. Why should a man be 
miserable here in the reign of a just and merciful God ? In the second 
place, it does not give us any cause, but simply a cruel act of an all-power- 
ful being, and therefore unscientific, There must have been causes, then, 
to make a man miserable or happy before his birth, and those were his past 
actions. Are not all the tendencies of the mind and those of the body 
answered for by inherited aptitude from parents ? Here are the two par- 
allel lines of existence one that of the mind, the other that of matter. If 
matter and its transformation answer for all that we have, there is no neces- 
sity of supposing the existence of a soul. But it cannot be proved that 
thought has been evolved out of matter, and if a philosophical monism is 
inevitable, a spiritual monism is certainly logical and no less desirable, 
but neither of these is necessary here. 

We cannot deny that bodies inherit certain tendencies from heredity, 
but these tendencies only mean the secular configuration, through which a 
peculiar mind alone can act in a peculiar way. The cause of those pecu- 
liar tendencies in that soul have been caused by his past actions, and a soul 
with a certain tendency would go and take birth in a body which is the 
fittest instrument of the display of that tendency by the laws of affinity. 
And this is in perfect accord with science, for science wants to explain 
everything by habit, and habit is got through repetitions. So these repeti- 
tions are also necessary to explain the natural habits of a new-born soul 
and they were not got in this present life ; therefore they must have come 
down from past lives. 

But there is another suggestion ; taking all these for granted, how is it 
that I do not remember anything of my past life ? This can be easily 
explained. I am now speaking English. It is not my mother tongue, in 
fact no words of my mother tongue are present in my consciousness, but 
let me try to bring them up, they rush into my consciousness. That shows 
that consciousness is the name only of the surface of the mental ocean, and 
within its depths is stored up all our experiences. Try and struggle and 
they will come up and you would be conscious. 

This is the direct and demonstrative evidence. Verification is the 
perfect proof of a theory and here is the challenge, thrown to the world by 
the Rishis. We have discovered precepts by which the very depths of the 
ocean of memory can be stirred up try it and you would get a complete 
reminiscence of your past life. 

So then the Hindu believes that he is a spirit. 

Him the sword cannot pierce him the fire cannot burn him the 
water cannot melt him the air cannot dry. And that every soul is a circle 
whose circumference is nowhere, but whose center is located in a body, and 
death means the change of this center from body to body. Nor is the soul 


bound by the conditions of matter. In its very essence, it is free, unbounded, 
holy and pure and perfect. But some how or other it has got itself bound down 
by matter, and thinks itself as matter? Why should the free, perfect and 
pure being be under the thraldom of matter, is the next question. How 
can the perfect be deluded into the belief that he is imperfect, is the ques- 
tion. We have been told that the Hindus shirk the question and say that 
no such question can be there, and some thinkers want to answer it by the 
posing of one or more quasi perfect beings, and big scientific names to fill 
up the gap. But naming is not explaining. The question remains the 
same. How the perfect becomes the jjuasi perfect ; how can the pure, the 
absolute, change even a microscopic particle of its nature ? But the Hindu 
is more sincere. He does not, want to take shelter under sophistry. He is 
brave enough to face the question in a manly fashion. And his answer is, 
I do not know. I do not know how the perfect being, the soul came to 
think itself as imperfect, as joined to and conditioned by matter. But the 
fact is a fact for all that. It is a fact in everybody's consciousness that he 
thinks himself as the body. We do not attempt to explain why I am in 
this body. The answer that it is the will of God, is no explanation. It is 
nothing more than what they say themselves. "We do not know." 

Well, then, the human soul is eternal and immortal, perfect and infinite, 
and death means only a change of center from one body to another. 
The present is determined by our past actions, and the future will be by 
the present; that it will go on evolving up or reverting back from birth to 
birth and death to death. But here is another question ; is man a tiny boat in 
a tempest, raised one moment on the foaming crest of a billow and dashed 
down into a yawning chasm the next, rolling to and fro at the mercy of 
good and bad actions a powerless, helpless wreck in an ever-raging, ever- 
rushing, uncompromising current of cause and effect a little moth placed 
under the wheel of causation, which rolls on crushing everything in its way, 
and waits not for the widows' tears or the orphans' cry? The heart sinks at 
the idea, yet this is the law of nature. Is there no hope ? Is there no escape ? 
was the cry that went up from the bottom of the heart of despair. It reached 
the throne of mercy, and words of hope and consolation came down and 
inspired a Vedic sage, and he stood up before the world and in trumpet voice 
proclaimed the glad tidings to the world. " Hear ye children of immortal bliss, 
even ye that reside in higher spheres. I have found the Ancient One, who is 
beyond all darkness, all delusion, and knowing him alone you shall be saved 
from death over again. Children of immortal bliss, what a sweet, what a 
hopeful name." Allow me to call you, brethren, by that sweet name, heirs of 
immortal bliss yea, the Hindu refuses to call you sinners. Ye are the 
children of God, the sharers of immortal bliss, holy and perfect beings, ye are 
divinities on earth. Sinners? It is a sin to call a man so ; it is a standing 
libel on human nature. Come up, Oh, live and shake off the delusion that 
you are sheep ; you are souls immortal, spirits free and blest and eternal ; ye 


are not matter, ye are not bodies ; matter is your servant, not you the servant 
of matter. 

Thus it is that the Vedas proclaim not a dreadful combination of unfor- 
giving laws, not an endless prison of cause and effect, but that at the head of 
all these laws, in and through every particle of matter and force, stands one 
through whose command the wind blows, the fire burns, the clouds rain, and 
death stalks upon the earth. And what is his nature ? 

He is everywhere the pure and formless one. The Almighty and the 
All-merciful. "Thou art our father, thou art our mother; thou art our 
beloved friend ; thou art the source of all strength ; give us strength. Thou 
art he that bearest the burdens of the universe: help me bear the little bur- 
den of this life." Thus sang the Rishis of the Veda ; and how to worship 
him through love. " He is to be worshiped as the one beloved," " dearer 
than everything in this and the next life/' 

This is the doctrine of love preached in the Vedas, and let us see how 
it is fully developed and preached by Krishna, whom the Hindus believe to 
to have been God incarnate on earth. 

He taught that a man ought to live in this world like a lotus leaf, which 
grows in water but is never moistened by water so a man ought to live in 
this world his heart to God and his hands to work. It is good to love God 
for hope of reward in this or the next world, but it is better to love God for 
love's sake, and the prayer goes : " Lord, I do not want wealth, nor chil- 
dren, nor learning. If it be thy will I will go to a hundred hells, but grant me 
this, that I may love thee without the hope of reward unselfishly love for 
love's sake." One of the disciples of Krishna, the then Emperor of India, 
was driven from his throne by his enemies, and had to take shelter in a 
forest in the Himalayas with his queen, and there one day the queen was 
asking him how it was that he, the most virtuous of men, should suffer 
so much misery ; and Yuohistera answered : " Behold, my queen, the Hima- 
layas, how beautiful they are ; I love them. They do not give me anything, 
but my nature is to love the grand, the beautiful, therefore I love them. 
Similarly, I love the Lord. He is the source of all beauty, of all sublimity. 
He is the only object to be loved ; my nature is to love him, and therefore I 
love. I do not pray for anything ; I do not ask for anything. Let him 
place me wherever he likes. I must love him for love' sake. I cannot 
trade in love." 

The Vedas teach that the soul is divine, only held under bondage of 
matter, and perfection will be reached when the bond shall burst, and the 
word they use is therefore Mukto freedom, freedom from the bonds of 
imperfection, freedom from death and misery. 

And this bondage can only fall off through the mercy of God, and 
this mercy comes on the pure, so purity is the condition of his mercy. How 
that mercy acts. He reveals himself to the pure heart, and the pure and 
stainless man sees God, yea even in this life, and then, and then only, 





all the crookedness of the heart is made straight. Then all doubt 
ceases. He is no more the freak of a terrible law of causation. So this is 
the very center, the very vital conception of Hinduism, The Hindu does not 
want to live upon words and theories if there are existences beyond the 
ordinary sensual existence, he wants to come face to face with them. If there 
is a soul in him which is not matter, if there is an all-merciful universal soul, 
he will go to him direct. He must see him, and that alone can destroy all 
doubts. So the best proof a Hindu sage gives about the soul, about God, is 
** 1 have seen the soul ; I have seen God." And that is the only condition 
of perfection. The Hindu religion does not consist in struggles and attempts 
to believe a certain doctrine or dogma, but in realizing; not in believing, but 
in being and becoming. 

So the whole struggle in their system is a constant struggle to become 
perfect, to become divine, to reach God and see God, and this reaching God, 
seeing God, becoming perfect, even as the Father in Heaven is perfect, con- 
stitutes the religion of the Hindus. 

And what becomes of man when he becomes perfect ? He lives a life 
of bliss, infinite. He enjoys infinite and perfect bliss, having obtained the 
only thing in which man ought to have pleasure, God, and enjoys the bliss 
with God. So far all the Hindus are agreed. This is the common religion 
of all the sects of India ; but then the question comes, perfection is absolute, 
and the absolute cannot be two or three. It cannot have any qualities. It 
cannot be an individual. And so when a soul becomes perfect and absolute, 
it must become one with Brahma, and he would only realize the Lord 
as the perfection, the reality, of his own nature and existence, the existence 
absolute, knowledge absolute, and life absolute. We have often and often 
read about this being called the losing of individuality as becoming a stock 
or a stone. " He jests at scars that never felt a wound." 

I tell you it is nothing of the kind. If it is happiness to enjoy the con- 
sciousness of this small l>ody,Jt must be more happiness to enjoy the con- 
sciousness of two bodies, so three, four, five ; and the aim, the ultimate of hap- 
piness would be reached when it would become a universal consciousness, 
Therefore, to gain this infinite universal individuality, this miserable little 
prison individuality must go. Then alone can death cease when I am one 
with life, then alone can misery cease when I am one with happiness itself; 
then alone can all errors cease when I am one with knowledge itself; and it 
it is the necessary scientific conclusion, science has proved to me that physi- 
cal individuality is a delusion, that really my body is one little continuously 
changing body, in an unbroken ocean of matter, and the Adwaitam is the 
necessary conclusion with my other counterpart, mind. 

Science is nothing but the finding of unity, and as any science can reacli 
the perfect unity, it would stop from further progress, because it would reach 
the goal, thus chemistry cannot progress farther, when it would discover one 
element out of which all others could be made. Physics would stop when it 


would be able to fulfill its services in discovering one energy of which all the 
others are but the manifestations, and the science of religion become perfect 
when it discovered Him who is the one life in a universe of death ; Him who 
is the constant basis of an ever-changing world ; One who is the only soul of 
which all souls are but delusive manifestations. Thus was it, through mul- 
tiplicity and duality, the ultimate unity was reached, and religion can go no 
farther, and this is the gool of all, again and again, science after science, 
again and again. 

And all science is bound to come to this conclusion in the long run. 
Manifestation, and not creation, is the word of science of to-day, and he is 
only glad that what he had cherished in his bosom for ages is going to be 
taught in some forcible language," and with further light by the latest con- 
clusions of science. 

Descend we now from the aspirations of philosophy to the religion 
of the ignorant ? On the very outset, I may tell you that there is no poly- 
theism in India. In every temple, if one stands by and listens, he will find 
the worshipers applying all the attributes of God, including omnipresence, 
to these images. It is not polytheism, neither would the name henotheism 
answer our question. "The rose called by any other name would smell as 
sweet." Names are not explanations. 

1 remember, when a boy, a Christian man was preaching to a crowd in 
India. Among other sweet things he was telling the people that if he gave 
a blow to their idol with his stick, what could it do ? One of his hearers 
sharply answered, " If I abuse your God what can he do ? " " You would be 
punished," said the preacher, "when you die." "So my idol will punish you 
when you die," said the villager. 

The tree is known by its fruits ; and when I have seen amongst them 
that are called idolatrous men, the like of whom in morality and spirituality 
and love, I have never seen anywhere, I stop and ask myself, Can sin beget 
holiness ? 

Superstition is the enemy of man, bigotry worse. Why does a Chris- 
tian go to church, why is the cross holy, why is the face turned toward the 
sky in prayer? Why are there so many images in the Catholic Church, why 
are there so many images in the minds of Protestants, when they pray ? My 
brethren, we can no more think about anything without a material image 
than it is profitable for us to live without breathing. And by the law of 
association the material image calls the mental idea up and vice versa. 
Omnipotent to almost the whole world means nothing. Has God superficial 
area ? if not, when we repeat the word we think of the extended earth ; that 
is all. 

As we find that somehow or other, by the laws of our constitution, we 
have got to associate our ideas of infinity with the ideal of a blue sky, or a 
sea ; the omnipresence covering the idea of holiness with an idol of a church 
or a mosque, or a cross ; so the Hindus have associated the ideas of holiness. 


purity, truth, omnipresence, and all other ideas with different images and 
forms. But with this difference : upon certain actions some are drawn their 
whole lives to their idol of a church and never rise higher, because with 
them religion means an intellectual assent to certain doctrines and doing 
good to their fellows. The whole religion of the Hindu is centered in real- 
ization. 'Man is to become divine, realizing the divine, and, therefore, idol 
or temple or church or books, are only the supports, the helps of his spiritual 
childhood, but on and on he must progress. 

He must not stop anywhere ; " external worship, material worship," 
says the Vedas " is the lowest stage ; struggling to rise high, mental prayer is 
the next stage, but the highest stage is when the Lord has been realized." 
Mark the same earnest man who was kneeling before the idol tell you here- 
after of struggles, " Him the sun cannot express, nor the moon nor the 
stars, the lightning cannot express him, nor what we speak of fire ; through 
him they all shine." But with this difference, he does not abuse the images 
or call it sin. He recognizes in it a necessary stage of his life. " The child 
is father of the man." Would it be right for the old man to say that child- 
hood is a sin or youth a sin ? Nor is it compulsory in Hinduism. 

But if a man can realize his divine nature with the help of an image, 
would it be right to call it a sin ? Nor even when he has passed that stage 
that he should call it an erron To the Hindu man is not traveling from 
error to truth, but from truth to truth, from lower to higher truth. To him 
all the religions from the lowest fetichism to the highest absolutism mean so 
many attempts of the human soul to grasp and realize the Infinite, deter- 
mined by the conditions of its birth and association, and each of these 
mark a stage of progress, and every soul is a child eagle soaring higher and 
higher ; gathering more and more strength till it reaches the glorious sun. 

Unity in variety is the plan of nature, and the Hindu has recognized it. 
Every other religion lays down a certain amount of fixed dogma, and tries 
to force the whole society through it. They lay down before society one 
coat which must fit Jack and Job, and Henry, all alike. If it does not fit 
John or Henry, they must go without coat to cover body. They have dis- 
covered that the absolute can only be realized or thought of or stated 
through the relative, and the image, cross or crescent are simply so many 
centers, so many pegs to help the spiritual idea on. It is not that this 
help is necessary for every one, but for many, and those that do not need 
it, have no right to say that it is wrong. 

One thing I must tell you. Idolatry in India does not mean a horror. It 
is not the mother of harlots. On the other hand, it is the attempt of unde- 
veloped minds to grasp high spiritual truths. The Hindus have their own 
faults, they* sometimes have their exceptions ; but mark this, it is always 
towards punishing their own bodies, and never to cut the throats of their 
neighbors. If the Hindu fanatic burns himself on the pyre, he never 
lights the fire of inquisition ; and even this cannot be laid at the door of 



religion any more than the burning of witches can be laid at the door of 

To the Hindu, then, the whole world of religions is only a traveling, a 
coming up, of different men and women, through various conditions and 
circumstances, to the same goal. Every religion is only an evolving a God 
out of the material man ; and the same God is the inspirer of all of them. 
Why, then, are there so many contradictions ? They arc only apparent, says 
the Hindu. The contradictions come from the same truth adapting itself 
to the different circumstances of different natures. 

It is the same light coming through different colors. And these little 
variations are necessary for that adaptation. Hut in the heart of everything 
the same truth reigns ; the Ixml has declared to the Hindu in his incarna- 
tion as Krishna, u I am in every religion as the thread through a string ot 
pearls. And where ve-r thou seest extraordinary holiness and extraordinary 
power raising and purifying humanity, know" ye that I am there. " And 
what was the result ! Through the whole order of Sanscrit philosophy, I 
challenge anybody to find any such* expression as that the Hindu only would 
be saved and not otheis. Says Vyas, " We find perfect men even beyond 
the pale ol our caste and creed." One thing more. How can, then, the 
Hindu whose whole idea centers in God believe in the Buddhist who js 
agnostic, or the Jain who is atheist ? 

The Buddhists do not depend upon God; but the whole force of their 
religion is directed to the great central truth in every religion, to evolve a 
God out of man. They have not seen the Father, but they have seen the 
Son. And he that hath seen the Son hath seen -the Father. This, brethren, 
is a short sketch of the ideas of the Hindus. The Hindu might have failed 
to carry out all hus plans, but if there is to be ever a universal religion, it 
must be one which would hold no location in place or time, which would be 
infinite like the God it would preach, whose sun shines upon the followers of 
Krishna or Christ ; saints or sinners alike; which would not be the 
man or Buddhist, Christian or Mohammedan, but the sum total of all 
and still have infinite space for development; which in its catholicity 
embrace in its infinite arms and formulate a place for every human 
from the lowest groveling man who is scarcely removed in intell 
from the brute, to the highest mind, towering almost above 
who makes society stand in awe and doubt his human nature. 

It would be a religion which would have no place for pe 
intolerance in its polity, aRd would recognize a divinity i 
woman, and whose whole scope, whose whole force would* 
aiding humanity to realize its divine nature. Offer religH 
and all the nations must follow thee. Asoka's council 
Buddhist faith. Akbar's, though more to the purpdift, 
meeting. It was reserved for America to call, to procl 
the globe that the Lord is in ew&TV religion, 



May He who is the Brahma of the Hindus, the Ahura Muzda of tKe 
Zoroastrians, the Buddha of the Buddhist^, the Jehovah of the Jews, the 
Father in Heaven of the Christians, give strength to you to carry out your 
noble idea. The star arose in the East ; it traveled steadily toward the 
West, sometimes dimmed and sometimes effulgent, till it made a circuit of 
the world, and now it is again rising on the very horizon of the East, the 
borders of the Tasifu, a thousand-fold more effulgent than it ever was before. 
Hail Columbia, mother-land of liberty! It has been given to thee, who 
never dipped her hand in her neighbor's blood, who never found out that 
shortest way of becoming rich by robbing one's neighbors, it has been given 
to thee to march on at the vanguard of civilization with the flag of harmony. 



A French author of great repute has written a book entitled Virriligion 
deVavenir^ "The Irreligion of the Future," in which he declares that relig- 
ion will eventually disappear; and he whose opinion is swayed by the dili- 
gent researches of such historians as Buckle and Lecky will very likely 
indorse this prediction. 

It is quite true, as these authors assert, that the theological questions of 
ages have disappeared, but it is not true that religion has ceased to be 
in the evolution of mankind. On the contrary, religion has so pen* 
ited our life that we have ceased to notice it as an independent power. 
That which appears to men like Buckle, Lecky, and Guyau as a pro- 

to an irreligious age is an advance to a purer conception of religion. 
Religion is indestructible, because it is that innermost conviction of man 
(regulates his conduct. As long as men cannot live without morality, 
'pMJf religion will be needful to mankind. 

ie people regard this view of religion as too broad ; they say religion 
in God ; and I have no objection to their definition provided we 
, bCHSeerning the words belief and God. God is to me, as he always has 
mass of mankind, an idea of moral import. God is the authority 
U ought. To conceive God as a person is a simile, and to think 
father is an allegory. God is not a person like ourselves ; he is 
j^.nor a mother like our progenitors ; he is only comparable to a 
truth he is much more than that ; he is not personal, but super- 
mean the same as its original Greek Trams which would be 
trust or faithfulness. It must mean the same as its cor- 
word ammunah) which means firmness of character* 
MSt be an unswerving obedience to the moral law* 





s Science is a revelation of God. Science gives us information concern- 
ing the truth, and the truth reveals his will. 

It is true that the hieroglyphics of science are not easy to decipher, and 
they sometimes seem to overthrow the very foundations of morality. But 
such mistakes should not agitate us nor shake our confidence in the reliabil- 
ity of science. By surrendering science you degrade man ; you cut him off 
from the only reliable communication with God, and thus change religion 
into superstition. 

Some of the schoolmen made a distinction between religious truth and 
scientific truth, declaring that a proposition might be true in religion which 
is utterly false in philosophy, and vice versa. This view is not only logically 
untenable, but it is also morally frivolous ; it is irreligious. 

The nature of religious truth is the same as that of scientific truth. 
There is but one truth. There cannot be two truths in conflict with one 
another. Contradiction is always, in religion not less than in science, a 
sign that there is somewhere an error. 

Religion has often, in former ages, by instinct, as it were, found truths, 
and boldly stated their practical applications, while the science of the time 
was not sufficiently advanced to prove them. The religious instinct antici- 
pated the most important moral truths, before a rational argumentation 
could lead to their recognition. This instinctive or intuitive apprehension 
of truth has always distinguished our great religious prophets. , 

Almost all religions have drawn upon that wondrous resource of human 
insight, inspiration, which reveals a truth, not in a systematic and scientific 
way, but at a glance, as it were, and by divination. The religious instinct 
of man taught our forefathers some of the most important moral truths, 
which, with the limited wisdom of their age, they never could have known 
by other means. 

In almost all practical fields men have made important inventions 
which they were unable to understand. Their achievements were frequently 
in advance of their knowledge. 

Centuries before Christ, when ethics as a science was yet unknown, 
the sages of Asia taught men to love their enemies. 1 The preachings of 
Christ appeared to his contemporaries as impractical and visionary, while 
only recently we have learned to understand that the fundamental com- 
mands of religious morality are the only correct applications to be derived 
from the psychical and social laws of human life. 

As the instinctive inventions of prehistoric ages show " by the side of 
highly ingenious appliances the crudest and roughest expedients,' 7 so our 
religions, too, often exhibit by the side of the loftiest morality a most 
lamentable lack of insight into the nature of ethical truth. 

* We quote one instance only selected from the Dhammapada, one of the most ancient 
btoks of the Buddhist canon : " Hatred does not cease by hatred at any time : hatred ceases 
by love, tf>js is ^n pld rwJe,"-~-Sac. bks. of the East, vpl, x. p. 5? 


The science of mechanics does not come to destroy the mechanical 
inventions of the past, but on the contrary, it will make them more 
available. In the same way a scientific insight into religious truth does not 
ccrtne to destroy religion ; it will purify and broaden it. 

The dislike v of religious men to accept lessons from science is natural 
and excusable. Whenever a great religious teacher has risen, leaving a 
deep impression upon the minds of his surroundings, we find his disciples 
anxious to preserve inviolate not only his spirit, but even the very words of 
his doctrines. Such reverence is good, but it must not be carried to the 
extreme of placing tradition above the authority of truth. 

Reverence for our master makes us easily forgetful of our highest duty, 
reverence for an impartial recognition of the truth. The antipathy of a cer- 
tain class of religious men toward science, although natural and excusable, 
should nevertheless be recognized as a grievous fault ; it is a moral error 
and an irreligious attitude. 

Our religious mythology is so thoroughly identified with religion itself 
that when the former is recognized as erroneous, the latter also will unavoid- 
ably collapse. 

And what a downfall of our noblest hopes must ensue ! The highest 
ideals have become illusions ; the purpose of life is gone, and desolation 
rules supreme. 

The destruction of dogmatism appears as a wreck of religion itself, but, 
in fact, it is a religious advance. We must pass through all the despair of 
infidelity and of a religious emptiness before we can learn to appreciate the 
glory and grandeur of a higher stage of religious evolution. 

Ts there any doubt that all our dogmas are truths figuratively 
expressed ? Why should we not take the consequences of this truth? 

Religious parables, if taken in their literal meaning, will somehow 
always be found irrational. Says an old Roman proverb, Omne simile 
claudicat) every comparison lirnps; it is somewhere faulty. Why should 
religious similes be exceptions ? 

Man's reason and scientific acumen are comparable to the eyes of his 
body, while his religious sentiments are like the sense of touch. The sim- 
plicity and immediateness of our feelings of touch does not make it advisa- 
ble to dispense with sight. 

That conception of religion which rejects science is inevitably doomed. 
It cannot survive and is destined to disappear with the progress of civiliza- 
tion. Nevertheless, religion will not go. Religion will abide. Humanity 
will never be without religion ; for religion is the basis of morals, and man 
could not exist without morals. 

Religion is as indestructible as science ; for science is the method of 
searching for the truth, and religion is the enthusiasm and good will to live 
a life of truth. 




[Speaking first of the Prospects of Exploration, we ask, " What remains 
to be done?"] 

1. The complete survey and mapping of Eastern Palestine, Sinai and 
the Wilderness of the wanderings, and of the Lebanons, and the Damascus 
Plateau, and the mountains of Northern Syria. 

2. The excavation of known and unknown sites. This work is only 
begun. It is fair to hope that the most essential of the disputed points of 
the typography of Jerusalem can be settled if suitable excavations are con- 
ducted by capable men. Many well-known sites will be far better known 
when the testimony concealed under heaps of rubbish is brought to light. 
Then there are tels* never yet opened by the pick, which may contain 
records not less important than the Moabite stone. It is not too much to 
hope that we will yet unearth libraries, the important revelations of which 
are hinted to us by the Lachish tablet discovered by Mr. F. T. Bliss. It js 
noteworthy that every such discovery strengthens conviction as to the 
accuracy of the Bible story, and the genuineness of the sacred text. 

3. A complete study of the existing races, .sects, traditions, folk-lore, 
and customs, and an exhaustive comparison of the same with the text of 

4. A thorough search for manuscript of Scripture and ecclesiastical 

5. A thorough study of the natural history and meterology of the land, 
such as will finally solve all problems of this class in the Bible which are 
capable of solution. 

6. A study of the history of the land from Arabic and other Oriental 

It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of the work already accom- 
plished \n fortifying our faith in the Bible. We have in our hands a 'book 
consisting of a collection of works, historical, poetical, legal, doctrinal, 
philosophical, ethical and prophetical, composed during a period of fifteen 
hundred years. These books contain allusions to sites and physical feat- 
ures of the lands in which they were written, or the history of which they 
treat. Some of these are minute descriptions of boundaries, and lists of 
towns. Some are allusions to rocks or caves, or mountain peaks, or oases, 
or marshes, often local features, never heard of in any other region, or 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 


spoken of in any other work. They are introduced into the text as things 
well known, and requiring no gloss or explanation, or a gloss is furnished 
in a manner which could only be possible to one familiar with every local 
detail from personal residence. In many places, as in Kzekiel xlvii (the 
Vision of the Holy Waters), the local knowledge of the reader is taken for 
granted in a manner that removes the possibility of supposing that the pas- 
sage could have been written by any but an author on the ground and for 
those quite v at home there. Names of persons, allusions to customs, the 
dependence of one event on another, are introduced in a way that tests to 
the most crucial point the question of the genuineness and authenticity of 
the writing. 

Now we find by Biblical exploration the long-forgotten names of 
obscure towns embalmed in the often unaltered names of still more obscure 
modern towns or shapeless ruins. Sometimes these names are somewhat 
altered, but none the less easily recognizable to one familiar with Semitic 
philology, or the laws of Semitic transliteration and substitution. We find 
the very rock or cleft in a rock where some trivial event of Hebrew history 
took place, corresponding exactly in terms of neighborhood and distance, 
and often of name, to the necessities of the ancient narrative. We find on 
excavation a complete confirmation of the representations of the sacred 
writers on points which ignorant critics, who have only studied the sur- 
face, have disputed, while they scoffed at the statements of eye-witnesses 
whose accuracy in these local details give a strong presumption in favor of 
all else they say. We find in a local tradition, often of other than Christian 
parentage, the exact reproduction of an obscure passage in the sacred 
history. We find in a local custom, preserved through long troubled ages, 
and revolutions such as no other land has undergone, the graphic pre- 
sentment of scenes as old as Abraham and Moses, as Caleb and Jephthah, 
as David and Ilezekiah. 

And we find all these lines of evidence converging on the sacred text, 
shedding light on what was obscure, making more vivid that which was 
known, and gradually establishing the certainty of the volume, on the 
utterances of which we build the structure of our civilization in this world, 
and out hopes of eternal life in the next. 




My purpose is to examine the place and influence in the development 
of American Christianity of special evangelistic movements which have 
appeared from time to time in our history. The theme will thus cover what 
we are accustomed to call general revivals or special Pentecostal seasons in 
the progress of Christ's kingdom. 

The first great movement which really molded American Christianity 
was in 1740-1760, called "The Great Awakening,' 7 under the leadership of 
Jonathan Edwards, WhiteHeld, Wesley, and the Tonnants, of New Jersey. 
This movement was probably the most influential force which has ever acted 
upon the development of the Christian religion since the Protestant reforma- 
tion. In 1740 the population of New Kngland was not more than 250,000. 
and in all the colonies about 2,000,000. Yet it is estimated that more than 
50,000 persons were converted to Christ in that revival a far greater pro- 
portion than at any other period of our history. The movement awakened the 
public mind more fully to the claims of home missions, especially among 
the Indians. It likewise gave a great impulse to Christian education. The 
founding of Princeton College was one of the direct fruits. Dartmouth Col- 
lege, founded in 1769, also sprang from the same impulse. The great doc- 
trines made especially prominent in this religious movement were those 
required to meet the peculiar circumstances of the times, viz., the sinfulness 
of sin f the necessity of conversion, and justification by faith in Christ alone. 

The second general evangelistic movement, 1787-1810, generally colled 
the revival of 1800, wS hardly less important as a factor in our Christian 
life than its predecessor. It followed a period of formalism and religious 
barrenness. From this movement sprang, as by magic, nearly all the great 
national religious institutions of to-day. 

All religious bodies were equally enriched and enlarged by the stu- 
pendous impulse given to religious thought and activity by this revival. 
The leading characteristic of this movement, so far as doctrines were con- 
cerned, was the sovereignty of God. The success of the colonies in the 
Revolutionary war ; the establishment of national independence ; the 
awakening forces of material and industrial development, together with the 



prevailing rationalistic and atheistic influence of France, had produced a 
spirit of pride and self-sufficiency which was hostile to the authority of 
God, and, of course, antagonistic to the Gospel. To meet this state of the 
public mind, evangelistic leaders were naturally led to lay special emphasis 
upon the absolute and eternal dominion of God, as the infinitely wise and 
benevolent ruler of the universe and man as his subject, fallen, dependent, 
guilty, to whom pardon was offered, 

The third great movement was in 1830-1840. The tendency of the 
human mind is to grasp certain truths which have proved specially effective 
in one set of circumstances, and to press them into service, under differ- 
ent^circumstances, to the neglect of other truths. Thus the sovereignty of 
God, which had needed such peculiar emphasis in 1800, came to be urged 
to the exclusion of those truths which touch the freedom and responsibility 
of man. When, therefore, this third revival period began the truths most 
needed were the freedom of the will, the nature of the moral law, the ability 
and therefore the absolute obligation of man to obey God and make him-, 
self a new heart. Accordingly these were the mighty weapons which were 
wielded by the great leaders. 

The fourth Pentecostal season, which may be called national in its 
scope, was in 1857-9. At that time inordinate worldliness, the passion for 
gain and luxury, had been taking possession of the people. The Divine 
Soil it sei/ed this state of things to convict men of their sins. The result 
was a great turning to God all over the land. In this wakening no great 
leaders seem* to standout preeminent. But the plain lessons of the revival 
are God's rebuke of worldliness, the fact that it is belter to be righteous 
than to be rich, and that nations like individuals are in his hands. 

The latest evangelistic movements which are meeting this new era, and 
are destined to be as helpful to American Christianity as any preceding 
ones, are those under the present leadership of men like Messrs. Moody, Mills, 
and their confreres. These revivals, though perhaps lacking the tremend- 
ous seriousness and profundity of conviction which came from the Calvin- 
istic preachers dwelling on the nature and attributes of God, nevertheless 
exhibit a more truly balanced gospel than any preceding ones. They 
announce preeminently a gospel of hope. They emphasize the love of 
God, the sufficiency of Christ, the guilt and unreason of sin, the privilege 
of serving Christ, and the duty of immediate surrender. 

There can be no 'doubt that this form of evangelism we are considering 
has had a very helpful influence upon the. development of our American 
Christian life. Yet it must be said, in conclusion, that these powers of 
evangelism are liable to be attended by one serious peril. Some churches 
have been led by them to depend almost altogether upon outside evangelists 
and general movements for the winning and gathering of souls, rather than 
upon the regular work of the settled pastor, and tlie ordinary services of 
consecrated church members. In such cases church work becomes spas- 


modic, and the preaching of the pastor has often become educational instead 
of being also distinctively evangelistic. To guard against the evil two 
things are essential: 

First. A higher conception of the mission of the x local church. The 
fact should never be lost sight of that the local church itself is, after all, the 
responsible body for the evangelization of its own vicinity. 

Second. A more evangelistic ministry. That means men in the pulpits 
impressed with the infinitely practical reach of their work, the awful respon 
sibility of their position and their utter dependence upon the Holy Spirit. 

Perhaps the supreme suggestion of the whole subject for this rushing, 
conceited, self-asserting, money-grasping, law-defying, Sabbath-desecrating, 
contract breaking, rationalistic age is that we are to return to the profound 
teaching of the sovereignty of God. 


The division of Germany in a Catholic and a Protestan. population 
exists in all its force. With her strong discipline and the power she wields 
over the people, with the existence of r a numerous political 4 party that 
represents her interests in Parliament, the Catholic Church undoubtedly has 
a large influence. But this has also helped much to arouse the Protestant 
feeling of the nation a large Protestant association for the protection of 
the Protestant interests is gaining new adherents every day. The com 
memoration of the Luther Jubilee in 1883 has deeply stirred the heart of 
the nation, and the day will not easily be forgotten, when on the 3ist of 
October, 1892, the Empress, with most of the German princes and the repre- 
sentatives of the Queen of Great Britain, and of Ihe Kings of Sweden and 
Denmark, and the Queen of the Netherlands, publicly declared their adher- 
ence to the doctrines of the Reformation. Within Protestantism the old 
feud between Lutheran and Calvinist has made way to problems of greater 
importance. The free churches, Methodists, Baptists, Mennonites, even the 
highly honored body of the Moravian Brethren and the Directing Lutherans 
in Prussia, do a good work for the saving of individual souls, and weighed 
in the balance of heaven their work will not be accounted lightly; but their 
numbers are small and their influence on the national life of Germany is 
smaller still.' The great struggles and problems of the day are fofaght out 
withfa the national churches, and this is not only true in voluntary associa- 
tions, in the press and by simitar means, but also on the official battle- 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 




ground provided in the Synods. A large party in our church is striving at 
a greater independence from the state. 

The socialist movement spreads utter atheism among the working 
classes. Perhaps it has never before been uttered with such decided con- 
viction that there is no God. But after all this is only the case among the 
neglected masses of our large cities. In the country even the leaders of 
social democracy abstain from saying anything against religion because 
they know that it would compromise their cause. 

The so-called ethical movement found but few adherents. The great- 
est danger we are under is perhaps a new critical school of theology. The 
lately deceased Professor Ritschl has introduced a new system, superior to 
the old rationalism, eminently clever, yet undoubtedly dangerous. Biblical 
terms are used, but another meaning given to them. To this theology, 
Christ is not preexistent from all eternity, but only a man in whom divine 
life came to the highest development ; the great facts of redemption only 
symbols, prayer in some way only a gymnastic exercise of the soul, helpful 
as such to him who prays, but not heard in heaven. Numerous students are 
under the charm of this schcTol and many people think that it will soon have 
possession of our pulpits. I do not share this fear. The university 
alone does not train our future ministers.* There are too many forces of divine 
life in our congregations now to render this possible. We have faithful 
preaching in many of our churches, and where the Gospel is preached in 
power and in truth the churches are not empty. We have the great organi- 
zations of home mission work, in deaconesses institutions, reformatories, 
workingmen's libraries, city missions, and so forth. These are only exam- 
ples. We have a large religious press. The sermons published by the 
Berlin city mission are spread in 112,000 copies every week. A great num- 
ber of so-called Sunday papers, that is, not political papers, which appear 
on Sunday, but small religious periodicals, which intend to give good relig- 
ious reading to the people, are circulated besides the sermons, to a great 
extent by voluntary helpers. Our Bible Societies spread the Bible in large 
numbers. We are making way toward a better observation of the Lord's 
day. At the wish of our emperor, races no more take place on Sunday. 
The new law on the social question has closed our shops on Sundays, and 
the complaints raised against this measure at first have soon made way to a 
sense of gratitude for the freedom thus procured to the many people who 
have hard work during the week. 

Our emperor and empress have given a powerful impulse toward the 
building of new churches, and their regular attendance at the openihg ser- 
vices is a valuable testimony to the cause of religion. The empress tries to 
stimulate the ladies to more of what you call women's work, and a large 
assembly of 3,000 ladies, held at Berlin last winter, shows that her call is 
not in vain. Our Sunday schools have nearly doubled in the last three years. 
The impulse given by the late Professor Christlieb at Bonn to have evangelistic 


services, has been followed up. Some flourishing Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations lead young men to a decided religious life. Lay work, unknown in 
previous generations, quickly but steadily gains ground. Believing, evan- 
gelical Christianity in Germany is more a power now than it ever was 



I wish I could express to you the gratification I feel at being able to 
appear before you to-day, and that I could impress upon your minds the feel- 
ings of millions of Mussulmans in India, Turkey and Egypt, who are looking 
to this Parliament of Religions with the deepest, the fondest hope. 1 here is 
not a Mussulman on earth who does not believe that ultimately Islam will be 
the universal faith. It may surprise you to know that five times a day, regu- 
larly, year in and year out, from every Mussulman's heart goes forth the 
sentiment we have just sung "Nearer my God to Thee." To-morrow I 
expect to speak upon " The Influence of Islam on Social conditions," and I 
wank to say at that time, something about polygamy. 

But to-day I have been requested to make a statement, very briefly, in 
regard to something that is considered universally as part and parcel of the 
Islamic system. There are thousands and thousands of people who seem to 
be in mortal terror that the curse of polygamy is to be inflicted upon them 
at once. Now, I want to say to you, honestly and fairly, that polygamy 
never was and -is not a part of the Islamic system. To engraft polygamy 
upon our social system in the condition in which it is to-day, would be a curse. 
There are parts of the East where it is practised. . . . But we must first 
understand what it really means to the Mussulman, not what it means to the 
American. . . . x Now, I don't intend to go into this subject. With the 
gentlemen who first spoke, I am an American of the Americans. I carried 
with me for years the same errors that thousands of Americans carry with 
them to-day. Those errors have grown into history, false history has influ- 
enced your opinion of Islam. It influenced my opinion of Islam and when I 
began, ten years ago, to study the Oriental religions, I threw Islam aside as 
altogether too corrupt for consideration. 

But when I came tp go beneath the surface, to know what Islam really 
is, to know who and what the prophet of Arabia was, I changed my belief 
very materially, and I am proud to say that I am now a Mussulman. 

I have not returned to the United States to make you all Mussulmans in 

.- The few words omitted here opened a subject requiring more than a bald state- 
ment in five lines to be at all rightly understood. 


spite of yourselves; I never intended to do it in the world. I do not propose 
to take a sword in one hand and the Koran in the other and go through the 
world killing every man who does not say, La illaha illala Mohammud resonl 
Allah "There is no God but one and Mohammed is the prophet of God." 
But 1 have faith in the American intellect, in the American intelligence, and 
in the American love of fair play, and will defy any intelligent man to under- 
stand Islam and not love it. 

It was at first suggested that I should speak on the theology of Islam. 
There are some systems which have in them more theology than religion. 
Fortunately Islam has more religion than theology. 

There are various explanations of the meaning of the word religion. 
One has but to read Max M filler's gifted lectures to understand what a vari- 
ety of meanings there are to the word. We may simply consider that it 
means a system by which man hopes to inherit happiness beyond the grave, 
What the conditions may be beyond the grave may be questioned and spec- 
ulated upon, but in its broader sense religion is that system which leads us 
to or gives to us the hope of a future life. In order to understand Islam and 
its effects, to understand the spirit of Islam, it is necessary to take into con- 
sideration human natuie in all its aspects. 

Do you suppose that any active religionist who has studied only his own 
system of religion, who knows nothing alxmt any other system, can write 
fairly of any other system ? It is absolutely impossible. I have read every 
history of Mohammed and Islam published in English, and I say to you, there 
is not a single one of them, except the work of Ameer Ali, of Calcutta, which 
reflects at all in any sense the spirit of Islam. We will take the work of 
Washington Irving for example. Washington Irving evidently intended to 
be fair and honest ; it is apparent in every line that he meant to tell the truth, 
but his information came through channels that were muddy, and while he is 
appalled at what he considers the vicious character of the prophet, he ih 
completely surprised at times to find out what a pure and holy man he was, 
Now, the first book I ever read in English upon Islam was The Life oj 
Mohammed^ by Washington Irving, and the strongest feature of that work to 
me was its uncertainty. 

In one page he would say Mohammed was a very good, a very pure 
and holy man, and it was a shame that he was not a Christian, but hi* 
impious rejection of the Trinity shut him out from salvation and made him 
an impostor. These were not the exact words that Irving used, but they 
convey practically his meaning. After saying these things, he goes on to 
say what a sensuous, grasping, avaricious tyrant the prophet was, and he 
closed his work by saying that the character of the prophet is so enigmat- 
ical that he cannot fathom it. He is uncertain, finally, whether Mohammed 
was a good man or a bad man. 

Now, to understand the character of Mohammed and his teachings, we 
must learn to read between the lines ; we must learn to study human nature ; 


we must carefully analyze the condition of the Arabians at the time Moham- 
med lived; we must carefully analyze the existing social conditions; we 
must understand what woman's position was in the social system ; the vari- 
ous conditions that had possession of the whole Arabian nation. They 
were not, however, a nation at that time, but divided into predatory tribes, 
with all the vices and weaknesses that man possesses, almost as bad as 
men in some of the slums of Chicago and New York. Mohammed came 
among his people intending to purify and elevate them, to make them a 
better people, and he did so. The history of Mohammedanism we have in 
English, as I have shown, is inaccurate, untruthful, and full of prejudice. 

In order to understand the spirit of Islam, let us take the prophet as a 
child. He was born in Mecca. All historians and I shall simply now 
state what Christian historians have written of him are agreed that he 
was remarkable as a boy for the purity of his character. He was utterly 
free from the vices which afflicted the youth of Mecca. As he grew to 
manhood his character became unimpeachable, so so that he was 
known all over the -city as "the trusty." Those characteristics with which 
he is accredited by Christian writers were manifested in no degree what- 

He began life as a merchant, following his uncle's caravans to southern 
Europe and Syria, and he demonstrated the fact that he was an excellent 
business man. He was successful, so much so that the wealthy widow Kadi- 
jah, whose husband had died, selected him to take charge of her business 
interests. He had never displayed any disposition to associate with the fair 
sex ; sensuality was no part of his character at all. He married this widow, 
and with her accumulated a large fortune, with which he engaged in the 
same trade as his uncle, Abu Taleb. 

This marriage, by the way, was not brought about by Mohammed. He 
did not go to Kadi jah and ask her to be his wife, but she, taking perhaps a 
mercenary view of the situation, engaged him for life to be her business 
manager. Mohammed rejected the proposal at first and would have refused 
it altogether, but his uncle, Abu Taleb, said it was the best thing he could 
do and that he should marry her. Notwithstanding the fact that the laws of 
his country allow him to take as many wives as he pleased, Christian histo- 
rians agree that he was true to Kadijah for twenty-five years and never 
availed himself of the opportunity to take another wife. He was true to her 
until the day of her death. 

Now, let us see what the word Islam means. It is the most expressive 
word in existence for a religion. It means simply and literally resignation 
to the will of God. It means aspiratjon to God. The Moslem system is 
designed to cultivate all that is purest and noblest and grandest in the 
human character. Some people say Islam is impossible in a high state of 
civilization. Now, that is the result of ignorance. Look at Spain in the 
eighth century, when it was the center of all * the arts and sciences, when 



Christian Europe went to Moslem Spain to learn all that there was worth* 
knowing languages, arts, all the new discoveries were to be found in Mos- 
lem Spain and in Moslem Spain alone. There was no civilization in the 
world as high as that of Moslem Spain. 

With this spirit of resignation to the will of God is inculcated the idea 
of individual responsibility, that every man is responsible not to this man 
or that man, or the other man, but responsible to God for every thought and 
act of his life, lie must pay for every ,act that he commits ; he is rewarded 
for every thought he thinks. There is no mediator, there is no priesthood, 
there is no ministry. 

The Moslem brotherhood stands upon a perfect equality, recognizing 
only the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. The Emir, who 
leads in prayer, preaches no sermon. He goes to the mosque every day at 
noon and reads two chapters from the holy Koran. lie descends to the 
floor upon a perfect level with the hundreds, or thousands, of worshipers, and 
the prayer goes on, he simply leading it. The whole system is calculated 
to inculcate that idea of perfect brotherhood. 

The subject is so broad that I can only touch upon it. There is so 
much unfamiliar to Americans and Englishmen in Islam that I regret 
exceedingly I have not more time to speak of it. A man said to me in 
New York the other clay : " Must I give up Jesus and the Bible if I become 
a Mohammedan? " No, no? There is no Mussulman on earth who does 
not recognize the inspiration of Jesus. The system is one that has been 
taught by Moses, by Abraham, by Jesus, by Mohammed, by every inspired 
man the world has ever known. You need not give up Jesus, but assert 
your manhood. Go to God. 

Now let us work at the practical side of Islaih in reference to the appli- 
cation of the spirit of Islam to daily life. A Mussulman is told that he must 
pray. So is everyone else ; so are the followers of every other religion. 
But the Mussulman is not told to pray when he feels like it, if it does not 
interfere with business, with his inclinations or some particular engage- 
ment. Some people do not pray at such times ; they say it does not make 
very much difference, we can make it up some other time. A little study of 
human nature will show that there are people who pray from a conscien- 
tious idea of doing a duty, but there are a great many others who shirk a 
duty at every chance if it interferes with pleasure or business. 

The wisdom of Mohammed was apparent in the single item of prayer. 
He did not say, " Pray when you feel like it," but "Bray five times a day at 
a certain time." The Mussulman rises in the morning before daylight, 
because his first prayer must be said before 'the first streaks of light appear 
in the, east. At just the first trace of dawn he sinks upon his knees and 
offers his prayer to God. The prayer can be said at no other time. That is 
the time to say it. The result is he must get up in the morning to do it. It 
encourages early rising. Now, you may say that is a slavish system. Very 










true. Humanity differs very materially. There are men who need a slavish 
system. We have evidences of it all around us, in every religious system 
known. They want to be slaves to a system, and let us take that system 
which will accomplish the best results. His next prayer is said between 
twelve and one o'clock, or just as the sun is passing the meridian. At no 
other time. The third prayer is between four and five o'clock. The fourth 
prayer is just as the sun has sunk in the west. The light of the day is dying 
out. The last prayer of the day is repeated just before he steps into bed. 

There is a difference of opinion among those who want to argue over 
doctrinal matters, as to the exact time of this evening prayer, but there is no 
doubt about the other ones. Some Mussulmans will insist upon it that you 
can pray any time after the sunset prayer. Others say no, you must pray 
when you go to bed. I am inclined to believe from what I know of the 
prophet's character that he intended that that was to be the last prayer of 
the day, and that a man should go to sleep presenting his soul purified to 

Now, before that man says a prayer he must wash himself lie performs 
his ablutions. The result is that the intelligent Mussulman is physically 
clean. It is not optional with him to take his bath and perform his ablu- 
tions when he sees fit, but he must do it just before he prays. That system, 
as applied to the masses intelligently, must secure beneficial results. There 
are Mohammedans who say they do not need to pray. The other Moham- 
medans say, "That is between you and God, I believe I must pray." The 
system is so thoroughly elastic, so thoroughly applicable to all the needs of 
humanity that it seems to me that it is exactly the system that we need in 
our country, and that is why I am here, that is why I am in the United 

A gentleman asked me if we had organized a mission in New York. 
I told him yes, but not in the ordinary sense ; that we simply wanted peo- 
ple to study Islam and know what it was. The day of blind belief has 
passed away. Intelligent humanity wants a reason for every belief, and I 
say that that spirit is commendable and should be encouraged wherever it 
goes, and that is one of the prominent features of the spirit of Islam. 

We speak of using force, that Mohammed went with a sword in one 
hand and the Koran in the other. I want to show to you to-morrow that 
he did not do anything of the sort. No man is expected to believe any- 
thing that is not in perfect harmony with his reason and common sense. 

There is one particular spirit which is a part of the Islamistic idea that 
prevails among the Moslems* -and now I am speaking not of the lower 
classes, not of the masses of the, Moslems the missionaries see when they go 
to the East, but I am speaking of the educated, intelligent Moslems, and 
they are the safest guides. No one would expect me to go into the slums of 
Chicago to find a reflection of the Christian religion. You cannot expect 
to find it in the character and the acts and the thoughts of a poor, ignorant 


coolie, who can neither read nor write, and who has associated with the 
mosjt degraded characters all his life. 

But the spirit that prevails umong the Moslems of the higher class is 
indifference to this world. This world is a secondary consideration, and the 
world beyond is the world to strive for, the life beyond is the life that has some 
value to ito It is worth devoting all our lives to secure in that life happi- 
ness and perfect bliss. The idea of paradise naturally follows. It is popu- 
larly believed that Mohammed talked of a paradise where beautiful houris 
wre given to men, that they led a life of sensual joy and luxury, and all 
that sort of thing, That idea is no more absurd than the golden streets and 
pearly gates idea of the Christiait. Mohammed taught us a spiritual truth, 
he taught a truth which every man who knows anything of the spiritual side 
of religion ought to know. And he taught it in a manner which would 
most readily reach the minds and hearts of his hearers. 

The poor Arabs who lived in the dry, sandy deserts looked upon broad 
fields of green grass and flowing rivers and beautiful trees as a paradise. 
We who are accustomed, perhaps, to that sort of thing, some of us run away 
with the idea, perhaps, that a golden street and pearly gates are better than 
that. His idea was to show them that they were to secure a perfect bliss, and 
to an Arab, if he could reach an open Held where the grass grew green under 
his feet, and the birds sang and the trees bore pearls and rubies, and all that 
sort of thing, it would be bliss. Mind you, Mohammed never taught that, 
but he is credited with teaching it, and i believe he taught something to 
illustrate this great spiritual truth that he was trying to force upon their 
minds, and it has been corrupted into the idea of a garden full of hourte. 

The next feature of the spirit of Islam is its fraternity. One of the first 
things that Mohammed did after being driven out of Mecca and located in 
Medina was to encourage the formation of a Moslem brotherhood, with a 
perfect community of property, a socialistic idea impracticable in this civili- 
zation but perfectly practical at that time. His followers assembled around 
him and contributed all they had. The idea was, "Do anything to help your 
brother, what belongs to your brother belongs to you, and what belongs to 
you belongs to your brother. If he needs help, help him." 

Caste lines are broken down entirely. We find on one occasion Omar, 
one of the most energetic and vigorous of his Caliphs, exchanged with his 
slave in riding on the camel. The daughters of Mohammed in the house- 
hold would divide the time grinding corn with the slaves. The idea was 
taught "your slave is your brother.' 1 Social conditions make him your 
slave, but he is none the less your brother. This idea of v close fraternity, 
this extreme devotion to fraternity, was the cause of the Moslem triumph at 
arms. In the later years, after the death of Mohammed, that idea was 
paramount in every instance, and it was only when that bond of fraternity 
was broken that we*fmd the decadence of the Islamistic power in Spain. 

Readers of history can very readily trace where the first serpent made 


its entry into the Islamistic social system, that serpent of disunion in divis- 
ion. We find the Christians coming up on the other side, closely knit in 
the same bond of brotherhood. Does that bond of brotherhood exist to-day? 
It exists among the Mussulmans of India. It exists among the better class 
of Mussulmans of Egypt and Turkey in a degree that would surprise you. 
I know an old man in Bombay who had lost everything and was being 
helped along by his Mohammedan brethren. A wealthy man, reputed to be 
worth something like half a million or a million and a half dollars, owned a 
very beautiful yacht, and this man went to him and said : " I want to 
borrow your yacht to go fishing." " Certainly, take it whenever you want 
il ; it is yours/' 

During my stay in the East, every time I visited Bombay, almost, that 
old fellow would go out fishing. I dined in the house of a wealthy Mus- 
sulman, and that same old man came in. As he entered the door he said, 
" Peace be with you." A chair was set for him at the table. We were eat-, 
ing at the table at that time, in deference to me, possibly. Usually they eat 
upon the floor, in the most primitive fashion, and with their fingers, but the 
better class of Mohammedans, or rather those who have acquired European 
ideas, eat with the fork and knife, with glass furniture on the table, etc. 
On that occasion we were at the table, and this old man was invited to sit 
down and take dinner with us. That fraternal idea impressed me more 
deeply, possibly, than anything else. 1 felt that I was among my brethren, 
and that Mussulmans were brothers the world over, and I know that is one 
of the basic principles of the system, and that belongs strictly to the spirit 
of Islam. 

In closing, I want to say this : that there is no system that has been so 
wilfully and persistently misrepresented as Isldm, both by writers of 
so-called history and by the newspaper press. There is no character in the 
whole range of history so little, so imperfectly, understood as Mohammed. 
I feel that Americans, as a rule, are disposed to go to the bottom facts, and 
to ascertain really what Mohammed was and what he did, and when they 
have done so I feel that we shall have a universal system which will ele- 
vate our social system at least to the position where it belongs. I thank 



Christ is the revelation of what God is and of what man must become. 
He revealed the character of God as love suffering for the sins of man. His 
whole conception of himself was summed up in these words, " Christ, the 
Saviour of the World," and we get the full thought of his revelation by 
emphasizing the latter part of thus supreme title, and realizing that he came 
not to save selected individuals nor any chosen race, but to save the whole 
world. There is a very real sense in which it was not necessary for Christ 
to come into the world in order that individuals might become acquainted 
with God. i 

But the mission of Jesus was to save the world itself. As a recent 
writer has well said, it is a deadly mistake to suppose that "Christ simply 
came to rescue as many as possible out of a wrecked and sinking world." 
He came to give the church a "commission that includes the saving of the 
wreck itself, the quieting of its confusion and struggle, the relief of its 
wretchedness, a deliverance from its destruction." 

This certainly was his own conception of his mission upon earth. This 
also seems to have been the understanding of his earliest followers. This 
certainly was the conception that Paul had of the mission of Jesus Christ, 
This was also the conception of the disciples of Jesus of the earlier cen 

- The mission of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world may b fe 
expressed, as has ahead y been suggested, in four conceptions. 

First. He was a new and complete revelation of God's eternal suffer- 
ing for the redemption of humanity. He showed that God was pure, and 
unselfish, and meek, and forgiving, and that he had always been suffering 
for the sins of men. He revealed the meaning of forgiveness and of deliv- 
erance from sin. It had been costing God to forgive sin all that it had 
cost man to bear it, and more. This had to be in God's thought before he 
made the world. In the words of a modern prophet, "The cross of Christ 
indicates the cost, and is the pledge of God's eternal friendship for man." 
Jesus Christ was in no sense a shield for us from the wrath of God, but "was 
the effulgence of God's glory and the very image of his substance," lie 
said to one of his disciples " He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." 
The heart of his teaching was, " that God so loved the world that he gave 
his only begotten Son." He came to show us that the world had never 
belonged to the powers of evil, but that in his original thought,, God had 

1 Gospel of John, ch. f, vs. x. 



decided that a moral world should be created ; and that in this decision, 
which gave to humanity the choice of good and evil, he had to take upon 
himself infinite suffering until the world should be brought back to him. 
The redemption of the world by Christ is a part of the creation of the 
world for Christ. 

Our second thought concerning the mission of Jesus is, that his life was 
the expression of the origin and destiny of man. We are told that Adam 
was created in the image of God, and if he had been an obedient child it 
may have been that he would have grown up to be a full-grown son of the 
Eternal ; but he sold his birthright for a mess o f pottage. The second 
Adam was the Son of Man, revealing to us that the perfect man differs in 
no respect from the perfect God. lie was God. He became man; not a 
man, but man. He was God and man, not two persons in one existence, 
but revealing the identity of man and God, when man should have attained 
unto the place that he had always occupied in the eternal thought. The 
marvelous counterpart of this revelation is that when God shall have per- 
fected his thought concerning us, that man shall have to become in all 
things like unto Jesus Christ. Mamee says that all depends on whether we 
decide the first or second Adam the head of the human race. " 1 would 
have you know," says the great apostle of the Gentiles, that " the head of 
every man is Christ." 

The blood of the world was poisoned, and needed an infusion of purity 
for the correction of its standards and bestowal of desire and power to attain 
unto its high possibility. This was a partial object and result of the mission 
of Christ. He showed that the destiny of man was to be one with God, and 
that infinite misery would be the result of the avoidance of this great oppor- 
tunity, and that God would count nothing " dear to himself," or to man, that 
this might be accomplished. 

The third great thought in connection with the salvation of Jesus Christ 
is, that through the completeness of his redemption there is no necessity nor 
reason for any form of sin in the individual. 

A great preacher has told us that Christ is able to save " unto the utter- 
most ends of the earth, to the uttermost limits of time, to the uttermost 
periods of life, to the uttermost length of depravity, to the uttermost depth 
of misery, and to the uttermost measure of perfection." The way of salva- 
tion for the individual through Christ is the knowledge of the love of God 
making atonement for the sins of the world ; the discerning the only real 
principles of power, in losing the life, in order to save it, and the glad for- 
saking of all things to become his disciple and to " fill up that which is 
behind of the afflictions of Christ, for his body's sake." It is here that the 
teaching and the life of Jesus are in glorious unity. The cross is not one 
thing and the Sermon on the Mount another. The kingdom which the 
Prince of Peace came to establish on earth had for its constitution those 
vital words which may be expressed by the one 'word love ; and he, him- 


self was the exhibition of what it meant to do as he had said, and even to 
joyfully suffer death for righteousness' sake. 

Faith in Christ is not so much the condition as it is the evidence of a 
man's salvation. "Jesus Christ is the touchstone of character." And faith 
in Christ is that quality of righteousness by which a man sees in Jesus that 
which he himself wishes to be, realizes that he may be and determines that 
he will be. God has no way of saving men, save by conforming them to 
the image of his Son. For a man who sees this, believes in the love of God, 
in the forgiveness of sins and the redemption of the world ; and surrenders 
himself to the mastership of Jesus ; this is not only a possibility but a cer- 

The last thought concerning the salvation of the world through Jesus 
Christ is, that the loving righteousness of God must be finally triumphant. 
One cannot conceive of a heaven in which man should not be a moral 
being and free to choose good or evil, as he is upon this earth; and the joy 
of heaven will consist largely in that glad fixity of will that shall eternally 
lose itself in God. 

But what a terrible conception comes to us of the lost world, when we 
conceive ourselves in spite of all the loving-kindness and sacrifice of the 
eternal God, as still choosing to go on in sin, determining to resist his love, 
conscious of it and yet without the power to escape it. No hell can extinguish 
the righteousness of God, and no flames consume his love, which is the mani- 
festation of his righteousness, and must pursue all unrighteousness in every 
sinner with a " worm that dieth not and a fire that is not quenched." 

And as for our conception of heaven ; when the world shall obey Jesus 
Christ, and when all those who have surrendered unto his heart of love and 
have been working with him throughout the -^Eons, in the establishment of 
righteousness, shall be with him in the new earth, no other heaven can be 

This must be the end of the atonement of the life and the death of Jesus 
Christ, and the keeping of his commandments, which are all summed up in 
the great name of God, which is love. 

With shame I confess, that all the disciples naming the name of Jesus 
Christ have not fully done his will in his spirit of self-sacrifice, and indeed 
have sometimes scarcely seemed to apprehend it. We have already in thij 
Parliament been rebuked by India and Japan with the charge that Christian: 
do not practice the teachings of Jesus. 

I might reply by pointing to our hospital walls and college towers am 
myriad ministries of mercy ; but I forbear. We have done something ; but 
with shame and tears I say it, that as kingdoms and empires and republic, 
as states and municipalities and in our commercial and industrial organiza- 
tions, and even in a large measure as an organized church, we have not been 
practising the teachings of Jesus as he said them and meant them, as the 
earliest disciples understood and practised them ; and as we must again sub- 


mit to them, if we are to be the winners of the world for Jesus Christ, It is 
no excuse to say that with Christians, the nation is not the Church* That is 
a still further confession of comparative failure. We have lacked the power 
of conquest, because organized Christianity has been saying " Lord, Lord," to 
her Master; and as regards politics and society and property and industry has 
not been doing the things that he said. Benjamin Franklin said that a genera- 
tion of followers of Jesus who practised his teachings would change the face of 
the earth. And it is true. When evil shall go forth with its deadly poison ready 
for dissemination, and find Christians who are meek and merciful and poor in 
spirit and pure in heart, and who count it all joy to be persecuted for right- 
eousness' sake; when it shall dart its venomed tongue at men and women 
who "resist not evil," who "give to him that asketh," and from the 
borrower do not turn away ; who " being struck upon one cheek turn the 
other also," who 'Move their enemies, bless those that curse them, do good to 
them that hate them, and pray for them that despitefully use them and perse- 
cute them," who forgive their debtors because God has forgiven them ; then 
shall the old serpent find no blood that shall be responsive to his poisonous 
touch, and shall sting himself unto the death, even as he did under that other 
cross ; which he looked upon as the token of the impotence of righteousness, 
but which was the wisdom and the power of God unto salvation and the 
prophecy of the triumph of eteinal love. 

Our brethren from across the sea have said all we need ask them to 
say, when instead of attacking the life and teachings of Jesus, they show 
that we fail, only because we may have said " Lord, Lord," and not done 
the things that he said. The only hope of Asia as of America, and of 
Africa as of Lurope, is in the love of God, and the establishment of his 
universal kingdom of peace, which must be set up on earth, and which slyill 
have no end. It is of universal application. Jesus was born in the East, 
and has gained his greatest present tnumphs in the West. When men shall 
have begun again to practice the teachings of Jesus in every walk and 
relationship of life, then there will be no social enigmas unsolved and no 
political questions unanswered, but men shall be in union with God and at 
peace with one another ; and heaven and earth shall be one, in the creation 
of "the new earth wherein dwelleth lighteousness." And there are indica- 
tions of such a triumph now. Every language may be translated into 
e\sery other tongue of man. The last religion of the world has been 
investigated and its teachings arc open to the eyes of all. The time is 
near when we shall clearly know what now we dimly see in Jesus Christ 
that "Love is righteousness in action," that God is love, and law is gospel, 
and sin has been transformed into righteousness ; then shall we see "that 
unto each one of us was this grace given according, to the measure of the 
gift of Christ, and we shall all "attain unto the unity of the faith and of the 
knowledge of the Son of God ; unto a full-grown man ; unto the measure 
of the stature of the fullness of Christ," 

















There are certain dicta of Scripture which are universal because fun- 
damental, and fundamental because universal. One of these is that saying 
of the Apostle John, " God is love, and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in 
God, and God in him." 

It is in the light of this fact of the universal Divine Love that the fallen 
condition of man finds its rerhedy disclosed. Fallen man was succored by 
the same Love that created him. The father of the prodigal does not sulk 
in his tent while some elder brother is left to search out the wanderer and 
bring him in, pointing to the wounds he got in rescuing him as a means of 
softening the heart of the father ; nay, the father watches the pathway with 
longing, and sends his love after the boy, and when the wayward one is yet 
a great way off, he sees, he hath compassion, he runs, he falls on his neck, 
he kisses him, he bids them bring the robe, the ring, the shoes, the fatted 
calf, he reproves the cold vindictiveness of the elder brother, he is all shep- 

Intellectually, man has not fallen. lie is as bright as he ever was. 

He is growing brighter. The evolution of intellect is indisputable. But as 

to the will, what is man ? We are making men shrewd, but we are not 

making them good. The human mind wants reaching in its depths. The 

motives behind our thinking want renewal. How should the Divine Love 

iccomplish the recovery of the lost state ? The remedy was within the 

ceeping of the Infinite Love and Wisdom, which had so far made and con- 

lucted man. 

If God would come with any mercy, he must descend to the place of 
the fallen. To take upon himself the nature born of woman would be his 
means of redemption. 

This was no merely vicarious act of a subordinate person. It was the 
act of God himself to restore the vital union between man and himself, that 
union which man had severed by increasing self-assertion, waywardness and 
wickedness, and which could only be renewed by contrition and return and 

Thus the will and the power to rescue and reconcile wayward souls 
sprang from the Infinite Love ; the method was, and is, that of the Divine 
order, and the result in the individual redeemed through repentance and 
regeneration is just what man's fallen state required and requires. As Paul 
said: ^"God was in the Christ reconciling the world unto himself." 





Of ethical ideas, not of ethical systems or doctrines, am I bidden to 
speak to-day. 

Let me say ethical sense. It will mean the same and be more simple. 
The universality of the ethical $ense. 

Gravitation is not more surely a fact, it seems to us, than is the unity of 
all life. If life is a whole, then that which is ai\ essential quality of cue part 
must be common to the whole. Through all life not only an eternal pur- 
pose runs, but an eternal moral purpose. Human history has been a struggle 
of man to understand himself and. the other selves, and beyond that the 
Infinite Self. 

Right and wrong can never be found in outer conditions, forces or results 
These may furnish data by which decisions may be made in regard to the use- 
fulness or uselessness of certain ways of doing, but there is no element here of 
rightness or wrongness. Not the flotsam and jetsam of exterior conduct, 
but the conscious purpose, the imperative I ought, I will, changing by virtue 
of divine necessity to I must this is the ethical intent of all religions. For 
out of the heart are the issues of life. The results of reasoning will inform 
conscience and man will discover higher incentive for action, newer inter- 
pretations of expediency and finer variations of choice, as he passes through 
God's judgment days by fhe way of intellectual development. Evil, yea, 
sin, will be found to be a necessary condition of advancement, the growing 
pain of the soul ; the unquenchable spirit will have its way with all these, 
yea, they shall serve. Thus man grows, humanity rises. 

This is not a question necessarily of theologies or churches. Humanity 
does not reach its best life through any scheme of redemption, but through 
an age of long struggle with God to help. It is^not " What shall I do to be 
saved ?" but "What shall I do to inherit eternal life?" The moral man is 
obeying the God-voice, whether he knows to call it that or not. Is he 
denied theological classification it will not be surprising if he enters heaven 
without a label. He who cannot hear God, see God, feel God, in the living, 
potent things of the every day, must buy a book and find God and his law 
there. But if the church disband or his book is burned, where shall he turn 
for authority ? May he lie --and steal now with impunity ? Pity the man 
whose moral nature is not a law unto itself. 

Strive from it though we may, the truth appears when we are honest 
with ourselves, that churches and creeds have never done the world's best 



work. The church has never freed the slave of any land. Even while the 
armies were gathering which eventually freed the slaves in this country, 
ministers were preaching that slavery was divinely ordained and riglvt 
according to the Word of God. But the spirit of eternal justice, revealing 
itself in the ethical sense of thousands of men and women, ignoring the 
dogma and its expounders, moved against 'the wrong and overcame it. 
There were those who could read but one page of God's word, but in the 
"terrible swift lightning" of that judgment day, men read the law written 
on human hearts. 

Try to evade the truth if you will, you must face it at last. No credal 
church and no form of ecclesiasticisrn has ever lent itself to the emancipa- 
tion of the woman-half of humanity. She has suffered, and still suffers, 
because of the results of dogmatic beliefs and theological traditions. But 
the ethical sense of the humanity of which she is a part is lifting her out 
into the fullness of religious liberty. She does not come into the fellowship 
to write creeds nor to impose dogmas, but to cooperation in such high living 
as shall make possible religiousness. She comes to help do away with false 
standards of conduct. By demanding morality for morality, purity for 
purity, self-respecting manhood for self-respecting womanhood, she will help 
remove odious distinctions on account of sex, and make one code of morals 
do for both men and women. This not alone in the western world, where 
circumstances have been moic propitious for woman's advancement, but in 
all parts of the world. Churches as a whole do not Jeed the hungry, clothe 
the naked, minister to the sick, turn prisons into reformatories, and unite to 
stay the atrocities of legalized cruelty. If churches were doing the humane 
work of the world there would not be needed so many clubs and associations 
and institutions for philanthropic work, and as outlets for the ethical sense. 
Men and women in the churches and out of them do this work, while theo- 
logians are busy with each other find the creeds; these men and women 
belonging to all countries and all races, who perhaps have not had time to 
formulate their beliefs about humanity, are busy working for it; who have 
never known how to define God, are finding him in their daily lives. Faith ? 
Yes, but " faith without works is dead." When the ethical intent has been 
removed from a theological system it is dead faith. Interesting as the his- 
tory of a religious evolution, arid not to be lightly estimated, but as a work- 
ing force in spiritual advancement it is useless. It was well said from this 
platform by the preacher from Brooklyn a few days ago, "Not Christianity 
but Christ I plead/' Many of us arc not particular about the Christian name, 
but we do care about the Christ spirit, that same spirit that has been the 
animating force in every prophet-life. The religious aspiration which gave 
birth to the ethical sense that made to be alive old forms, has passed on to 
vivify new forms and systems that yet shall have their day and give place to 
others. " It is the spirit that giveth life, the letter killeth." When you 
remember some of the things that have been taught and have been done in 


the name of Christ do you wonder that our brother from Japan said, "If 
such be the Christian, ethics, well, we are perfectly satisfied to be heathen. 1 ' 
Do you wonder that the calm-souled prophet from India pleads with us for 
a manifestation of the spirit that was in Jesus ? Do we need assurance that 
boasting of our religion will not prove us to be religious ? We talk too 
, glibly, yes, sometimes irreverently in our boastfulness about these high 
things. We need to learn humility. We are only beginners after all, all of 
us. When asked for definitions that define, man stands dumb, even before a 
giass blade, and he is growing more reverent in contemplation of the all- 
wise, the all-true, the all-good and all-loving. Even as a lijtle child is he 
learning to enter the kingdom. Spelling out the best name he knows for his 
highest ideal, and hoping, loving, trusting more than he can word or think. 


Music naturally belongs with the social side of religion rather than with 
its private side. The secret intercourse between the soul and God has no 
absolute need of music or any other sensuous formulation. Only so far as 
this inmost intercourse expands into a social institution, where outward 
expression is a necessity, is there a special demand for such a voice as that 
of music. The solitary worshiper may set his prayer and praise in forms of 
song as a fuller mode of utterance than cold words; but he is not likely to 
do this unless he has first learned the value of song as an implement of 
social intercourse. 

It is important for us to observe two ieatures of the visible working of 
religion in the world. The first of these is that, although religion is essen- 
tially a spiritual affair, all we can know of it, outside of our own souls, 
is through various sensuous embodiments ; it i made manifest in word -and 
deed and character. The second feature is that, although religion is essen- 
tially a personal affair between every individual and God, its necessity of 
outward manifestation makes it also a social affair. These two practical 
necessities in religion, the necessity of concrete manifestation and the twin 
necessity of social value in such manifestation, have their fullest expression 
in the institution, historic everywhere, of public worship. In public worship 
may always be seen some concrete manifestation of currents of intercourse 
43Oth from man to God and from God to man, and in this manifestation 
there is a decided social reaction of man upon man as they stand together 
in God's presence. 

These thoughts enable us to see why music plays so large a part in the 
social manifestations of religion in public worship. Music may have other 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 


reasonable applications ; but there should be no question about its religious 

Let us turn to the corollaries that issue from these thoughts. Religious 
music is a language, not a mere festal robe, not a spectacular display, not a 
lifeless apparition, but a language expressive of one personality and impres- 
sive upon other personalities. Assume that this is true, what follows? 

It follows, first, that as a language its message or content should be 
consonant with its occasion. Spiritual truth is the first of the qualities to 
be demanded in the thorough criticism of religious music. The message 
conveyed by such music must be a genuine one, a heartfelt one, and one 
germane to the ideal inter-relations between God and men and between 
men in his presence. 

Now regarding sacred music as capable of containing a message evi- 
dently and powerfully pertinent to the social manifestations of religion, 
particularly in public worship, we have three ways of controlling the nature 
of this content or message, three directions in which harmful misapplica- 
tions may be excluded, three paths always open for earnest and enterprising 
progress. These three directions are, briefly, the personality of religions 
musicians, the style of religious music, and the words chosen for musical 
setting for religious use, including the artistic consonance of the setting 
with the text. But the application of these principles is manifest. Not 
every musician is fitted to be a religious musician simply because he is an 
artist. Not all kinds of music are suited to be used as sacred music simply 
because artistically they are interesting or even beautiful. Setting words to 
music, however good, does not make the compound fit for religious use 
unless apart from the music they are thus fit, and unless the setting makes 
their fitness more apparent. These are cardinal principles, applicable to 
every phase of Christianity and to every sincere religious system whatso- 
ever. They are axiomatic principles, needing only to be stated to be 
accepted. So long as they are unobserved, religious music will be mean- 
ingless and neutral, if not false and positively injurious. 

But there is another equally important side to the matter. We have 
noted that if music be a language, its contents should" be consonant with its 
occasion. We s must now add that if Jt be a language, its actual effectivehess 
should be diligently cultivated and perfected. Spiritual truth is the first of 
the qualities demanded ; spiritual power is the second. The first quality is 
mainly to be secured by magnifying sincerity on the part of the one using 
such music. The second is mainly to be secured by developing skill and by 
providing favorable circumstances. It is unfortunately true that technical 
expertness without serious purpose often seems to be far more effective and 
valuable than even great earnestness of purpose without adequate skill. So 
it has come to pass too often that religious music has been entrusted to those 
to whom art is first and piety and edification second or worse. There will be 
unrest and difficulty wherever religious music is handled without due regard 
to both truth and effectiveness in conjunction and in due coordination. 



This brings me to two practical remarks. The first of these is, that in 
many communities there is altogether too much so-called religious music. It 
has been mechanically turned out by the yard and duplicated by the thou-, 
sand, until it is no longer a message from one heart to another, and until it 
has actually turned some hearts to stone. Christianity has borne consum- 
mate flowers of song, hymns that palpitate with precious heart-throbs, mel- 
odies that mount up on eagle's wings, anthems and oratorios that seem to be 
foretastes of the angelic prartses ; and yet these very blossoms have been so 
imitated and reproduced in clumsy wax and flimsy paper that thousands of 
would-be worshipers know nothing of the fragrant and fruitful originals, and 
are even disgusted with the sham and paltriness of everything called sacred 
music. This prevalent vulgarity of music in religious uses is a grievous evil. 
Music is too precious to be wasted or misused, least of all when on its golden 
petals is stamped the very image of God's love as revealed in the Christian 

This suggests the other practical thought. Merely negative restraints 
upon religious music will never make it good. They may cut off foolish and 
fraudulent simulations of it. But currency is not coined by suppressing 
counterfeits. Side by side with restriction must be positive education. What 
provision is being made by our chief religious agencies that of real religious 
music there shall be more and better ? This question is a pressing one. It 
is one to which little satisfactory answer is being given by our various relig- 
ious bodies. 

One of the surest signs of neglect of the subject is the rarity and pov- 
erty of literary work upon it. The luminous treatises upon religious music 
in its larger aspects may be counted on the fingers of one hand. Popular 
thought about religious music, Jiymns, tunes, anthems, cantatas, oratorios, 
especially as related to public worship, is notoriously defective, weak, fanci- 
ful, and unfruitful. Speaking in a large way, it is safe to say that the 
churches have only barely begun to master the skill to use music with thor- 
ough effectiveness, and have not yet begun to supply that atmosphere of 
'diffused popular appreciation of religious music, which is prerequisite to gen- 
eral and hopeful progress. 

I firmly believe that religious music as applied to Christian purposes is 
as yet only in its infancy. How it is with non-Christian religions I do not 
know ; but with us the actual and the typical are very far apart. Nothing 
but well considered and prolonged processes of education will bring them 

I do not share the belief of some musical enthusiasts that the coining 
century will see such a degree of musical progress as to set music as the 
exclusive language of higher sentiments of every sort. But I do believe that 
in music, both instrumental and vocal, there are hidden vast treasures of 
poetic truth and magazines of emotional power, which are now known only 
to the few and expended only for minor ends. 




Our thesis may be expressed as follows : Morality is complementary 
to religion, or it is the independent establishment of the laws of conduct 
which help to furnish the content of the undefined religious ideal. Let us 
look at certain facts in man's moral-religious history which appear to illus- 
trate one part of this thesis. 

First, it may be noted that, in the ancient world, about the same grade 
of morality, theoretical and practical, was attained by all the great nations. 
From this ethical uniformity we must infer that the moral development was 
independent of the particular form of religion. Another fact of the ancient 
world is that the ethical life stands in no direct ratio to the religiousness of 
a people or circle. Several great moral movements were characterized by 
an almost complete ignoring of the divine clement in human thought. 
These are Confucianism, Buddhism, Stoicism, and Epicureanism. Turning 
to modern Kurope, it is evident that progress in morality has been in pro- 
portion to the growth rather of general culture than of religious fervor. If 
religion alone could have produced morality, the crusades ought to have 
converted Europe into an ethically pure community; instead of which they 
oftener fostered barbarity and vice. The English Puritans of the seven- 
teenth century were among the most religious and the most barbarous and 
unscrupulous of men. In a word, religion has, as a rule, not been able to 
maintain a high moral standard against adverse circumstances, and has not 
exerted its proper influence. 

In order to understand the relation between religion and morality we 
must note their origins. Morality, in the first place, is simply a product of 
our social relations. The idea of honesty assumes the existence of prop- 
erty, and of property belonging to another. In an unorganized commun- 
ism, or in the case where I alone am owner, there can be no such thing as 
dishonesty. Further, the idea of property is at first physical, non-moral, 
involving the mere notion of possession. 

With the growing estimate of the worth of the individual and the 
increasing dependence of members of the community on one another, the 
rights of property are more clearly defined, and there is a greater disposi- 
tion to punish the slightest invasion of these rights. Recognition of the 
property-right becomes a duty, but always under the condition that gave it 
birth, namely, the well-being of the community. 

64 1009 


In the same way the duties of truthfulness and of respect for human 
life have arisen, and these are limited by the same condition. 

The same law of growth governs the history of the more general 
ethical conceptions. Love in its earliest form is non-moral it is mere 
desire or instinct. Two conditions must be fulfilled before love can rise to 
the ethical plane. First, it must be transformed from selfish desire into a 
single-minded wish to secure the well-being of its object, and then it must 
know what is well-being. Both these conditions are attained through 
social intercourse. 

It is no less true that it is from social intercourse that we gain the 
final and fundamental standard of conduct, the idea of justice. The indi- 
vidual comes to self-consciousness, to individuality, and therefore to rights 
and perfection only in society. At the same time, the content of justice is 
determined by social relations. It is only by experience that we can say 
that we owe just so much to each person. Love can do no more than * 
recognize the rights of every being, for to do more would be wrong. 

A great motive for right living is supplied by experience ; namely, the 
hope of worldly well-being, or salvation. Enlightened observation more 
and more shows that happiness attends virtue. What is more, from it the 
mind passes naturally to the broader ideal of the well-being of the world 
as the aim of life and the basis of happiness. 

Religion, the sense of relation to the extra-human power of the universe, 
introduces us to a new social complex. In morality the parties are man and 
man, in religion, man and God. In our moral relations with a person or 
government there are two classes of influence to be considered the moral 
power of the personality and the restraining or impelling power of his or 
its' physical power over us. The second of these is what we call sanctions, 
rewards and punishments. 

When religious sanctions arc spoken of it is commonly the supernat- 
ural sort that is meant. It is an interesting question how far the belief in 
these is now morally effective. It is becoming more and more the convic- 
tion of the religious world that the future life must be morally the continua- 
tion and consequence of the present. This must be esteemed a great gain^ 
it tends to banish the mechanical and emphasize the ethical element in 
life and to raise religion to the plane of rationality. Rational religious mor- 
ality is obedience to the laws of nature as laws of God. 

We are thus led to the other- side of religion, communion with God, as 
the effective source of religious influence on conduct. It is this, in the first 
place, that gives eternal validity to the laws of right. Resting on con- 
science and the constitution of society, these laws may be in themselves 
obligatory on the world of men, but they acquire a universal character only 
when we remember that human nature itself is an effluence of the divine, 
and that human experience is the divine self-revelation. 

Further, the consciousness of the divine presence should t)e the most 


potent factor in man's moral life. The thought of the ultimate basis of life, 
incomprehensible in his essence, yet known through his self-outputting in 
the world as the ideal of right, as the comrade of man in moral life, should 
be, if received into the soul as a living, everyday fact, such a purifying and 
uplifting influence as no merely human relationship has ever engendered. 

Religion, then, in itself furnishes us with no rules of conduct ; it 
accepts the rules worked out by human experience. The deepest, the ulti- 
mate source of our ethical codes, as actual phenomena, is social unity. The 
building up of this unity is the highest moral duty of us all, and offense 
against it is the blackest sin of which man is capable. Here we see the 
moral function of love. It has no code, but it is an impulse which tends to 
foster unity, * < 

Religion, accepting the ethical code established by man, identities it 
witfi the will and nature of Deity. The impetus which thus comes to the 
moral life is obvious. There is the enthusiasm which springs from the con- 
sciousness of being a pait of a vast scheme, buoyancy given by hopefulness 
or certainty of final victory, and the exaltation of loyalty to a great aim and 
a transcendent person. The true power of religion lies ip the contact 
between the divine soul and the soul of man. It must be admitted that to 
attain this is no easy thing. Most men look to God as their helper in 
physical things or as an outside lawgiver rather than as their comrade in 
mural struggle. 

Thus religion has not come to its rights in the world ; it still occupies, 
as a rule, the low plane of early, non-moral thought ; but is there any reason 
why it should continue in this nascent shape? Inadequate conceptions of 
God and of the moral life must be swept away, the free activity of the human 
soul must be recognized and relied on, the habit of contemplation of the 
ideal must be cultivated ; we must feel ourselves to be literally and truly 
co-workers with God. In the presence of such a communion woiild not 
moral evil be powerless over man ? 

Finally, we here have a conception of religion in which almost all, per 
haps all, the systems of the world may agree. It is our fiope of unity, 



There arc now many peculiar features in Japanese Christianity, which 
are seldom seen in other countries. 

I. One distinctive feature of the Japanese churches lies in the peculiar- 
ity of the constituency of their membership. (l) The proportion of female 
members to male is "about three to four. (2) Another fact is the abundance 
of young people in our churches. (3) One more point is the predomi- 
nance of " Shizoku " or the military class. They have been, and still are, 
the very brain of the Japanese people. Though they are not usually 
wealthy, they are far superior, both intellectually and morally, to other 

II. The next peculiar feature is lack of sectarian or denominational 
spirit. Japanese Christians are essentially undenominational. You may 
see that the church which adopts Presbyterian forms of government refuses 
to be called " Presbyterian " or *' Reformed," and adopts the broad name 
"It'schi," the " United ; " but not content even with this broad name It has 
recently changed it to a still broader name, "The Church of Christ in 
Japan." The church which has adopted an Episcopal form of government 
lately dropped the name of Episcopal and adopted instead the name of "The 
Holy Church of Japan." The church now called Kumiai, for a long 
time hcxd no name except the simple one, a church of Christ. When it was 
found necessary to adopt some name to distinguish themselves from other 
churches, its Christians reluctantly adopted the name of " Kumiai," which 
means " associated ;" for at that time they happened to form an associa- 
tion of churches which were until then independent of each other. They 
have always refused to be called "Congregational Churches," although 
they have adopted almost entirely the Congregational form of church 

III. The third distinctive feature is the prevalence of a liberal spirit in 
doctrinal matters. While missionaries are both preaching and teaching 
the so-called orthodox doctrines, Japanese Christians are eagerly studying 
the most liberal theology. Not only are they studying, but they are 
diffusing these liberal thoughts with zeal and diligence, and so I believe 
that with a small exception most of the Japanese pastors and evangelists 
are quite liberal in their theology. 

Though Japanese Christians are largely on the side of liberal theology, 

they are not in any way in favor of Unitarianism or even Universalism. 

Copyright, 1893, by J, H; B. 


Some years ago there was a rumor that Japanese people were, in general, 
inclined to Unitarian Christianity, This is true in one sense. Where there 
are bigoted, narrow Christians, these so-called Liberalists may have soil to 
thrive on ; but in a place like Japan they will find it hard work even to gain 
a foot-hold. 

There was a time when Christianity was making such progress that in 
one year it gained forty or fifty per cent. This was between 1882 and 1888. 
Since then the progress in our churches has not been as rapid as was 
expected. Not only have members not increased in such proportion as in 
years before, but in some cases there can be seen a decline of religious zeal 
and self-sacrificing spirit. Why these was such a decline it is not hard to see. 
Among various causes I may mention three principal ones. 

1. Public sentiment in Japan is constantly changing. It is like a pen- 
dulum, now going to one extreme and then to another. This movement of 
public sentiment within the last fifteen or twenty years can easily be traced. 
The years from 1877 to *882 I may regard as a period of reaction and of 
revival of the anti-foreign spirit. 

Then the pendulum went to the other side. It was a period of western 
ideas, and covers the years between 1882 and 1888. It was no wonder that 
people poured into Christian churches and that the latter made unprece- 
dented strides in their progress within that short period. 

But the pendulum swung to its extreme, and now another movement 
came in. The signs of reactionary and anti-foreign spirit might be seen in 
everything in customs, in sentiments, in public opinion. Then the cry, 
" Japan for the Japanese," was heard in all the corners of the empire. 
Buddhism which has been regarded for years as a religion of the ignorant 
and inferior classes is now praised as a superior religion, far above Christianity, 
and many who once favored the adoption of Christianity as the national 
religion are seen publicly in Buddhist ceremonies. A strong sense of national 
feeling has been aroused among all classes, and it is not strange that Chris- 
tians alsq^feel its influence. 

And thus doors to Christianity seem for a while to be closed, and we 
have a great decline in its growth. But now again the pendulum has 
reached the other extreme, and there are signs that a new era is about to 

2. The failure to unite the two most important churches of Japan, the 
Itachi and Kumiai, may be regarded as another cause of the decline. 

3. The last cause may be attributed to the unsettled state of theological 
opinions. Christians in Japan received the Gospel, at first much as young 
people do, without much deliberation. But when they come to see the 
things more deeply and begin to ask questions, they find that some of their 
positions are hard to reconcile with the light of modern science and philo- 
sophy, and that on many points there is large room for improvement and 
progress. And thus we have already done away with some Christian doc- 


trines which are regarded as essential in the western countries. This sifting 
of theological beliefs may he regarded as natural in the course of the evo- 
lution of oflr theological thoughts, and also as needful for Japanese Chris* 
tianity. But this sifting was unsettling to our faith, and thus greatly hin- 
dered for a time the progress of evangelistic as well as other Christian 
works in general. 

One word as to the future prospect. That Japan will not become a 
Christian nation in a few years is a plain fact. But that it will become one 
in the course of time is almost beyond doubt, and it is only a question of 
time. But there are many difficult problems pressing hard upon us for 
solution. * 

1. The first problem that comes under our notice is that of the relation 
between Christianity and our nationality, that is our national habit and spirit. 
And this cry against Christianity has become so popular among Buddhists, 
Shintoists and Reactionalists that they make it the one weapon of their 
attack against Christianity. 

2. The relation between missionaries and native Christians is another 
problem. Japanese Christians will never be contented to work under mission- 
ary auspices. To be useful to our country the missionaries must either 
cooperate with us or join native churches, and take their place side by side 
with nrftive workers. 

3. The problem of denominations and church governments is another 
difficulty. Of course we shall not entirely dispense with denominations 
and sects. We think we can reduce by a good deal the number of denomi- 
nations. But just how to sta^t and proceed with this movement is quite a 
hard problem. So also with the form of church government. To devise a 
form of government that will adapt itself to our country and its need, is 
quite a difficult task. 

4. Whether we need any written creed, and if so, what kind of creed it 
is best to have, is also a question. 

Japanese Christians must solve all these problems by themselves. I 
believe there is a grand mission for Japanese Christians. I believe that it 
is our mission to solve all these problems which have been, and still are, 
stumbling blocks in all lands, and also it is our mission to give to all the 
Oriental nations and the rest of the world a guide in true progress towards 
the realization of the glorious Gospel which is in Jesus Christ. 

0|TR MISS10M msniXH All IIIKSF I' K< i J',1 I \l S \VH1CII M\\K IJ I-. KN r AND A K I* Sllll. SITMIiLING 

BLOCK^ IN M I 1 ^ I . v .1 I 1 I 4 - MISSION |< i ' ,|\ 1 !< t \l } Mill'! 

1HK REST OF THE \\OKl D A (^UIIf ' ' M . K' I ss \M* \ 11 M I/ \ ! !' >\ < > I i< i < ,i < IK!' -i -. 




It is our intention in this paper to give a plain hut necessarily brief and 
imperfect exposition of the divine economy for the redemption and salvation 
of man through Christ according to the teaching of the Catholic Church. 

In order to understand the doctrine of redemption and salvation through 
Christ, it will be necessary to consider, first, the condition of man before the 
fall of Adam ; secondly, the condition of man after ttie fall and before the 
death 4 of Christ; thirdly, the condition of man after the price of redemption 
had been paid by Christ. 

In Adam there were three perfections. There was the perfection of 
nature, the body and the soul ; there was the supernatural perfection, or the 
indwelling of the Holy Ghost and of sanctifying grace; there was the pre- 
ternatural perfection of immortality in the body and of harmony in the soul 
in and with itself. According to Catholic doctrine, these perfections were 
not personal gifts granted to Adam as an individual ; they were given to 
him, by the bounty of God, as to the father and representative of the human 
race. He was to be their custodian, not only for himself, but also for his 
posterity. If he remained faithful, all these gifts, natural, preternatural and 
supernatural, were to have been transmitted to his descendants. Had Adam 
not sinned, his children would have been born perfect in nature, adorned 
with grace and supernatural virtues by the power of the Holy Ghost; they 
would not have been subject to death, and there would have been perfect 
harmony between all the parts of their nature ; the lower nature would have 
been obedient to the higher, because the higher and nobler faculties of man 
would have been subject to the commands of God by the direction of the 
Holy Ghost. 

By an act of free will all was lost. Adam chose to listen to the 
suggestions of the tempter rather than to obey the command of God. The 
Council of Trent (Sess. V. de Prec. Orig. Can. i) implicitly declares and 
defines that by the transgression of God's command the first man lost the 
justice and sanctity in which he had been constituted, "incurred the 
anger of God, together with the penalty of death, because a captive under 
the power of Satan ; and the whole man, both in body and soul, was 
injured and changed for the worse. His intellect was darkened, his will for 
good was weakened ; passion and an inclination to evil was the rule, not 
the exception ; the imagination, and thought of man's heart were prone to 



\ * 

evil from their youth, and he became the slave of Satan, for, writes St. 
Peter, " by whom a man is overcome of the same also is he the slave." 

Adam of his own free will upset the first order of God's providence 
and he now came under another order. He was powerless to repair the 
injury done, because the gifts and graces he had lost were gratuitous favors, 
not due to his nature, but granted through pure love aod goodness by God ; 
hence their restoration was subject to his good pleasure. 

Unfortunately for us this fall of the father of the human race affected 
his posterity. In consequence of his sin we too were deprived of the super- 
natural perfections that he possessed. This is what is meant by original sin ; 
it is the habitual state displeasing to God in which the souls of men are left 
since the father of the human race offended God by an act of proud diso- 
bedience. With the supernatural grace the preternatural gifts were -also 
lost. We became subject to death. We also experience the stings of con- 
science, the war of the flesh against the spirit, which would, in the benevo- 
lent designs of Providence, have been prevented by the subjection of the 
mind to grace* Our nature, also, was wounded, like the nature of Adam, 
with the three wounds of ignorance, weakness and passion. 

Immediately after the fall God promised a Redeemer the seed of the 
woman that was to crush the se rpent's head, but he did not send him imme- 
diately ; for 4,000 years man was left to experience the sad consequences of 
the fall. St. Thomas Aquinas (De Incarn. Qu. I, art. 5 and 6), and other 
theologians remark that the Redeemer did not come immediately after the 
fall, because man, who had sinned by pride, should be humbled so that he 
might acknowledge his own poverty and the need of a Saviour. Neither 
was the coming of the Redeemer to be deferred until the end of the world, 
because then man might have fallen into despair, forgetting God and his 
promises and the rules of morals. Moreover, had he come at the end of 
the world men would never have enjoyed the advantages of the sublime 
example given to all ages by the Saviour. This Redeemer was the Babe of 
Bethlehem, the Son of the Virgin Mary, and his name was called Jesus, 
because he came to save his people from their sins. 

And now we come to consider the work of that Saviour. In the first 
place, it must be borne in mind, that God could, if he willed, have chosen 
another method of redemption. Being Lord of all things he might have 
condoned Adam's offense and restored to man his lost prerogatives without 
demanding any atonement. He might, if he willed, have accepted in satis- 
faction for sin the salutary penance of Adam or some of his descendants 
(see S- Thorn, de Incarn. Qu. I, Art. 2 ad 2). But, says St. Athanasius (Serm. 
iii Contra Anianais), " in this wq must consider not what God could have 
done, but what was best for man, for that was chosen." Away then with all 
thoughts of excessive rigor on the part of God. He willed to redeem and 
save us through the suffering and merits of Christ, because it was better for 
us ; and at the same time he gave to the world the greatest manifestation 
ever known of his own goodness, power, wisdom and justice. 


The doctrine of Christ was sublime, pure, holy and salutary. But it is 
not sufficient to teach. Whoever \vi$hes to change men and convert them 
from their evil ways cannot be contented with mere words; To his words 
must be added the influence of his example, especially if his doctrine be 
disagreeable to those whom he wishes to convert. Thus it was with our 
Saviour. He required of men nothing that he did not practice. 

But the saving influence of Christ is to be found principally in his 
death ; because by his death he reconciled us with God, freed us from sin 
and satisfied God's justice, restored us to grace and justification, freed us 
from the power of Satan, and made us once more the children of God. 

After his ascension into Heaven he sent the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of 
truth and love, to abide forever with his church, which is to continue on 
earth the work of saving souls. Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit she 
is to teach men the way of truth ; she is the depository and dispensation of 
the graces merited for all men by Christ, she is the guardian of the sacra- 
ments, the ordinary channels through which grace is qonveyed to the souls 
of men whether they be infants or adults. Not that grace is conferred only 
by the sacraments : " The Spirit breatheth where he wills," and if we ask 
anything in Christ's name the Father will give it. Nay, more, the Spirit of 
grace is ^represented as continually standing at the gate and knocking, that 
the door of the sinner's heart may be opened to admit the grace of God 

which will excite within him -horror for sin and a desire to return to God. 

, \ 

After receiving these benefits, men must work out thei,r salvation in 
fear ^xnd trembling because man is weak and can fall again. Grace and the 
friendship of God and the right to heaven are restored ; but our nature is 
still & wounded nature ; the soul is not in perfect harmony ; the unhappy 
inclination to evil remains in us even after baptism and justification, for a 
trial and as an occasion to practice virtue, say the fathers of the Council of 
Trent. The struggle will last as long as we are in this world, and those 
who persevere unto the end shall be saved. Only those who have been 
saved and are now with God can see the full intent of the benefits conferred 
upon mankind in the life, teaching and death of the Redeemer. 


The Chinese are often supposed to he so poor that, even if they wished 
they would not he ahle to support Christianity, were it estahlished in their 

Such a supposition is a great mistake, not to mention the fact that they 
are at present supporting four l religions, viz.: Confucianism, Buddhism, 
Taoism and Mohammedanism ; a glance at the condition of any city 01 
village is enough to convince one of the fact, that whatever the Chinese wish 
to do, and undertake to do> they are abundantly able to do. 

The country swarms with people poor people people who are so 
very poor that there are, no douht, thousands who starve every year. It is 
said that just outside of the (Ch'ienmen) gate, which stands immediately in 
front of the emperor's palace, more than four hundred people froze to death 
in a single cold night during the past winter. In front of this gate is a 
bridge, called Beggars' Bridge, where halt naked men and hoys may he 
seen at any time except when the emperor himself passes - -eating food 
which would not he eaten by a respectable American dog. 

But while this is all true it does not alter the fact that there are more 
temples in Peking than there are churches in Chicago. There are temples ^ 
all sorts and of all sizes, from the little altar huilt outside the door of the 
watchman's house on the top of the city wall to the great Lama temple, 
which covers many acres of ground, having an idol of Buddha one hundred 
feet tall, and one thousand five hundred priests to conduct the worship. 

Similar to this great Buddhist temple is the great Confucian temple, 
not so large, and without priests, but equally well built and well kept. The 
large Taoist temple, immediately outside of the west side-gate, is expensive 
and well supported, and contains many priests, while the large grounds of 
the Mohammedans, with their twenty-one mosques, are worthy to be ranked 
with those above mentioned. Besides these, the Temple of the Sun, the 
Temple of the Moon, the Temple of Earth, the Temple of Heaven, and the 
Temple of Agriculture, are all immense structures of the most costly type. 
These are all state temples where the emperor performs worship for all the 
people, and the annual sacrifices of cattle and sheep are by no means inex- 
pensive. There are few churches in the United States which cost more than 
#500,000, but .some of those I have just mentioned would far exceed if not 
more than double that amount. The Roman Catholics have shown their 
wisdom in erecting cathedrals, which, though not o expensive, -far surpass 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 

* 10x9 


the others in beauty, design and workmanship. They have three very fine 
cathedrals the East, the South, and the North, the least of which would 
be an ornament to any city in the United States. 

There are temples in the enclosures of the gates ; temples beside almost 
every large well ; temples near many of the large, old trees ; while every 
grave (and the whole of China may be said to be a great cemetery) is an 
altar where incense and paper are burned every year. Add to this the fact 
that every home has its tablets and is in a certain sense a temple, and one 
can get some idea of the number of temples, and the amount of worship 
perforated in and about this great capital. There are more than two thous- 
and temples in Peking, and more than ten thousand domestic shrines (I 
have heard Chinese say that there are more than thirty thousand shrines) and 
yet the Chinese are often supposed to be lacking in the religious instinct. 

The Hills, fifteen miles west of Peking have likewise very many tem- 

These are not merely small temples. Some of them are surrounded by 
high walls, from the sides of which grow trees a foot or more in diameter, 
and seventy-five feet tall, while on top of a monument a Pi YUn Ssu, built 
several hundred yeajrs ago, during the Ming Dynasty, is a cedar m'ore than 
six inches in diameter. 

The number of temples in the city that are entirely out of repair is not 
smdll. In ^he purchase of our mission premises we have become the pos- 
sessors of no less than tliree temples, while one stands at our south- 
west, and another at our northwest corner, another at the southwest of our 
W. F. M. S. property, another in front of our hospital gate, and still another 
near a large well back of our houses. The first one purchased has been 
turned into a dining-room for the Preparatory School of the Peking Univer- 
sity. When the workmen came to take the gods out of this temple, they 
first invited them to go out, and then carried them out. 

Whether or not it may be considered a misfortune that the Buddhists 
priests are a company of beggars, is perhaps largely a matter of opinion. 
Buddhism was established by a prince who became a beggar that he might 
teach his people the way to enlightenment, and they are but following his 
illustrious example. But while they follow in the matter of begging, at least 
a large part of them, there is room for much doubt as to whether most of 
them make a very strenuous effort to enlighten the people.. Indeed, if all 
the facts brought to light in olir foreign hospitals, and especially those situ- 
ated near the Lama temples and visited by the priests, were set forth they 
would reveal a condition of things, among a class of priests, not very differ- 
ent, perhaps, from that which called forth Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. 
But these facts are of such a character as to be fit only for a medical 

It need not be considered a matter of wonder then that the morals of 


the people are not better than they are. " Like priest, like people*" 




" For if a priest be foul, on whom we truste, 
No wonder is it a lewid man to ruste !" 

says Chaucer; and it is by no means a matter of doubt that a large number 
of the Buddhist priests are " foul. " They are not all so. We have seen 
among them faces which carry their own tale ; wg have heard voices which 
carry their own recommendations, and we have seen conduct which could 
only proceed from a devoted heart. But of those with whom we have come 
in contact, this class has been the exception, not the rule. 

At Miao Feng Shan, a large temple, situated above the clouds, the 
priests themselves, I have been told by a Chinese teacher, support a com- 
pany of prostitutes. Certain it is that at the most prosperous of the temples 
are found some of the worst priests, as though when the getting of money 
for their support was off their minds, having little left to occupy them, they 
entertain themselves by the gratification of the passions. They may, how- 
ever, like many other priests, be misrepresented by their own people. 

By "the most prosperous temples" we mean those to which the 
most pilgrimages are made. Miao Feng Shan is forty miles west of Peking; 
and another fifty miles east is almost equally popular. To these in the 
springtime many thousands of people from all the surrounding country 
make pilgrimages, some of which are of the most expensive and self-denying 
character, while others exhibit almost every form of humiliation and self-tor- 
ment such as wearing chains as prisoners, tying their feet together so as to 
be able to take only short steps; being chained to another man ; wearing 
red clothing in exhibition of their sin ; or prostrating themselves at every 
one, three or five steps. The temple worship of the Jews, at its most pros- 
perous period, was not more largely attended than is this worship at these 

While the temples are enriched by * the gifts or subscriptions of these 
worshipers, they are at the same time robbed by those "pious frauds "^who 
are ready at all times to sell their souls for the sake of their bodies. 
At Miao Feng Shan they give candles at the foot of the hill to those pil- 
grims who arrive at night, to enable them to ascend the hill. Here these 
pious frauds get their candle, ascend the hill a little distance, then by a cir- 
cuitous route, join another company and get another candle, and so on as 
long as, by a change of clothes, they can escape the detection of those dis- 
tributing the candles. Thus, instead of worshippers they become thieves. 

One thing is noticeable as we pass through the country villages. The 
houses are all built of mud, mud walls, mud roof, paper windows and a dirt 
floor. But no matter how poor the people may be, nor what the character of 
.their houses, the temple of the village is always made of good brick. I have 
never seen a house in a country village better than the temple of the same 
village. 1 think that what I said in the beginning of this article is literally 
true : What the Chinese wish to do and undertake to do they are abundantly 
able to do. 


Dr. C. W. Mateer says : " It has' been estimated that each family in 
China spends, on an average, about a dollar and a half each year in the 
worship of ancestors, of which at least two-thirds is for paper money. China 
is estimated to contain about eighty million families, which would give 
eighty million dollars. A fair estimate for the three annual burnings to the 
vagrant dead would be about six thousand dollars to each hsien or county, 
which would aggregate about ten million dollars for the whole country. 
The average amount burned by each family in the direct worship of the gods 
in the temples may be taken as about half that expended in the worship of 
ancestors, or forty million dollars for all China. Thus we have the aggre- 
gate amount of one hundred and thirty millions of dollars spent annually 
in China for paper money for use in their worship.'* 

While it is impossible to make a correct estimate of the amount of burned by the Chinese in their worship, we can nevertheless get 
some idea. It is the custom to burn incense three times per day, morning, 
noon and evening. The amount burned thus by each family in the home and 
at the temple amounts to about four dorlars per year. The rich, of course, 
burn many times this amount, and some of the poor families perhaps not 
quite so much. But four dollars per year as an average is an under rather 
than an over-estimate of the amount of incense burned by ea<Mi family. This 
being true, the amount of incense burned by eighty million families would 
amount in one year to the enormous sutn of three hundred and twenty million 



Christ, the great individualist of history, was the great socialist as well. 
His hope for man was a universal hope. 

But how can it be that the same teacher can teach such opposite truths ? 
How can Christ appeal thus to the single soul and yet hope thus for the 
Kingdom ? 

We reach here the very essence of the Gospel in its relation to human 
needs. The two teachings, that of the individual and that of the social 
order, that of the part and v that of the whole, are not exclusive of each other 
or opposed to each otheif but are essential parts of the one law of Christ. 

Why is the individual soul of such inestimable value ? Because of its 
essential part in the organic social life. And why is the Kingdom of God 
set before each individual ? To free him from all narrowness and selfish- 
ness of aim. 

The way to make a better world is first of all to make your own soul 
better, and the way to make your own soul better is to stir it with the sense 
of the common life. And so the same master of the problem of life*, becomes 
at once the most positive of individualists and the most visionary of socialists. 
His first appeal is personal : "Sanctify thyself/' His second call is the 
common life: "For their sakes" and the end and the means together 
make the motto of a Christian life " For their sakes I sanctify myself.'* 
Such is Christ in his dealing with the social question. 

And now, having unfolded before ourselves the principle of his teach- 
ing, let us go on to see its practical application to the questions which con- 
cern the modern world. On the one hand, there is the problem of poverty, 
and on the other the problem of wealth, each with its own perils both to the 
persons involved and to the welfare of us all. There is the problem of the 
employer and the problem of the employed; each with its responsibility, its 
irritations and its threats. 

Christ comes into the midst of modern society with the principle he has 
made clear the principle of the Christian individual giving himself to the 
social order and the door of each one of these social problems swings open 
as he comes and Christ passes through from room to room, the master of 
them all* 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 1024 


What has Christ to say to the problem of poverty ? What is the Chris- 
tian's way of dealing with the poor ? As we look back over the long history 
of Christian charity, it might seem as if one would have to say of it that it 
was the history of one long and costly mistake. From the beginning till 
now Christians have, of all people, most indulged themselves in indiscrimi- 
nate almsgiving, fostering pious frauds, encouraging mendicancy, often 
holding poverty itself to be a virtue and often embarrassing the work of 
scientific relief. 

Such criticisms indicate how the Church of Christ has failed to grasp 
the method of Christ. The fact is that the Christian Church has been so 
deeply impressed with one-half of Christ's truth --the worth of the individ- 
ual that it has often forgotten the other half the service of the whole. 

Meantime, what is Christ's own attitude toward poverty ? Every soul, 
he says, no matter how humble or depraved, is essential to God's kingdom. 
It has its part to take in the perfect whole. Every soul ought to be given a 
chance to do and be its best. It must be helped to help itself. 

Thus Christian charity is not the mere relief of temporary distress, or 
the alms which may tempt to evil ; it is personal, painstaking interest the 
taking trouble to lift up ; the dismounting, as you pass, like the Samaritan, 
pouring into the wounds of the fallen one the oil and wine you had meant 
for yourself ; the putting the victim of circumstances on your own beast, and 
taking him where he shall be cared for and healed. 

Christian charity sees in the individual that which God needs in his 
perfect world and trains it for that high end. There is more Christian 
chanty in teaching a trade than in alms, in finding work than in relieving 

What Christ wants is the soul of his brother and that must be trained 
into personal power, individual capacity, self help. Thus, true Christian 
charity is at one with the last principle of scientific charity. It is the trans- 
forming of a helpless dependent into a self-respecting worker. 

Such is Christ in dealing with the poor. And now we turn, on the other 
hand, to the opposite end of the social order. What, I ask again, has 
Christ to say to the rich ? What is the Christian theory of wealth and its 
rights and uses ? One might again reply, as he looked at some sign of the 
time, that there was no such thing as a Christian theory of wealth in the 
modern world. The same awful warning which Christ once uttered against 
the rich of Ins time seems to be needed in all its force by many rich men 
to day. 

But, in reality, this condemnation of Jesus was directed not against the 
fact of wealth, but against the abuses and perils of wealth. He was thinking 
of men's souls, and he saw with perfect distinctness how wealth tends to 
harden and shrivel the soul. One of the severest tests of character which 
our time afiords has to be borne by the rich. Wealth provides a severer 
school for the higher virtues of life, and the man or woman who can really 



learn the lesson of that school has gained one of the hardest, but also one of 
the most fruitful experiences of modern times. Wealth is like any other 
gift of God to you, like your health, or your intellectual powers, or your force 
of character ; indeed, it is often the result of these other gifts, and the same 
responsibility goes with all. They are all blessings which, selfishly used, 
become the curses of life. Your bodily strength may be the source of destruc- 
tive passions; your intellectual gift may leave you a cynic or a snob; your 
wealth may shrivel up your soul. But, taken as trusts to use, the body and 
brain and wealth are all alike gifts of God which, the more they are held for 
service, the more miraculously they enrich and refresh the giver's life. There 
are three ways with which you may deal with such problems as the business 
world of to-day affords. One is to run away from them as the early monks 
and hermits ran away from the world of earlier times. Precisely this is the 
spirit of the new monasticism the spirit of Count Tolstoi, the spirit of many 
a communistic colony, calling men away from all the struggle of the world to 
seclusion and simplicity. It is not fighting the battle of life, but it is running 

A second way to deal with the world is to stay in it but to be afraid of 
it. Many good people do their business timidly and anxiously, as if it 
ought not to interest them so much. That is a very common relation of the 
Christian to business. His religion and his business are enemies. The 
world he has to live in is not God's world. 

There is a third way to take the world of business. It is to believe in 
it ; to take it as the test of Christian life in the modern age. It is not all 
clean or beautiful, but it has the capacity of being shaped to worthy and 
useful ends. It is as when a potter bends over his lump of clay and finds it 
a shapeless mass that soils the hands which work it, yet knows that his work 
is not to wash his hands of it, but to take it just as it is and work out the 
shapes of beauty and use which are possible within the limits of the clay. 
So the Christian takes the business world. In this warfare of industry, 
which looks so shapeless and unpromising, the Christian sees the possibili- 
ties of service. It is not very clean or beautiful, but it can be shaped and 
molded into an instrument of the higher life. That is the Christian's 
task in the business world. 

We hear much of the philanthropy of the present age, and certainly 
there never was an age, in which so many prosperous people telt so strongly 
called to generosity and benevolence. But the most profitable philan- 
thropy which this age is to see is, after all, not to come through what we 
call charity, but through better methods in the business world. 

In an English volume of essays, published a few years ago, the author 
describes what he calls, "Two Great Philanthropists." One was a founder 
of orphan asylums and charities, a kind and noble man ; the other was 
Leclaire, the beginner of the system which gives every employe an interest 
in the business of the firm ; and the second, so thought this essayist, was 
the better philanthropist. lie was right. 


The Christian in business to-day is looking for every stable relation 
between employer and employed. Cooperation is to him better than com- 
petition. He sees his own life in the light of the common good. The 
Christian in business discovers that good lodgings for the working classes 
are both wise charity and good business. The Christian in business holds 
his sagacity and insight at the service of public affairs. He is not ensnared 
in the meshes of his own prosperity. He owns his wealth ; it does not own 
him. The community leans on him instead of his being a dead weight on 
the community. 

Let us, finally, follow the principle of Christ one step further still. Be- 
yond the rich and the poor, beyond the employers and the employed of the 
present social world there appear on the horizon of modern society still larger 
schemes and dreams of some better future which shall make our present 
social problems superfluous. Now, what u Christ's attitude to such hopes as 
these ? What is the relation of Christ to the plans of Socialism ? 

First of all, as we have already seen, it is plain that Christ cannot be 
claimed for any one theory of the function of government or the order of 
society. He repeatedly refused to be involved in such questions. He dwelt 
not in the region of such special schemes, but in the region of universal prin- 

But let not the Christian suppose from this, that Christ's theory of prop- 
erty is more conservative or more encouraging to the hoarding of wealth than 
these plans of change. His theory is in reality much more radical. For it 
holds, not that part of your property is not your own and ought to be put at 
the service of the general community; Christ holds that all we get is a gift 
to us from the common life, and that we owe both it and ourselves to the com- 
mon good. 

We do not own our wealth ; we owe our wealth. This is no easy doc- 
trine. It is a more sweeping one than any revolution which the socialist 

The difference may be stated in a formula. The thorough-going indi- 
vidualist of the present order says : "Each one for himself; that is the best 
law of society. Each one of us is to be responsible for himself and himself 
alone." Then the socialist says : " No, that is mere selfishness and anarchy. 
Let all of us, on the contrary, be responsible for the life of each. Let us 
enlarge and strengthen the power of government, until at last the state, 
which is but another name for all of us, sees that each of us is happy." 

But Christ carries us beyond both the individualist and the socialist in 
his program of society, for, he says, the true order of the world is when each 
of us cares for all of us, and holds his own life, his power, money, service, 
as a means of the common good. The dream of Socialism and the reaction 
of Individualism are comprehended and reinforced by this teaching of the 
infinite value of the individual as the means by which the better society is 
to come in. The Socialistic dream of the future is of a cooperation which 


shall be compulsory a dictatorial government ; the Christian's dream is of 
a cooperation which shall be voluntary, free, personal. The one makes 
of society an army with its discipline ; the other makes of it a family with 
its love. In one we are officers and privates ; in the other we are brethren. 
So Christ stands in the midst of these baffling, complex questions of the pres- 
ent times questions of wealth and poverty, questions of employers and 
employed, questions of revolution and reform, questions of individualism 
and socialism. The two views seem in absolute opposition. Individualism 
means self-culture, self-interest, self-development. Socialism means self- 
sacrifice, self-forgetfulness, the public good. Christ means both. Cultivate 
yourself, he says, make the most of yourself, enrich yourself^ and then take 
it all and make it the instrument of self-sacrifice. Give the perfect devel- 
oped self to the perfect common good. The only permanent socialism 
must be based on perfected individualism. The Kingdom of God is not to 
come of itself, it is to come through the collective consecration of individ- 
ual souls. 

Such, I suppose, is the message which Christ has been from the begin- 
ning trying to explain to this world. Over and over again the world has 
been stirred by great plans of external change, political, legislative or 
social plans, and always Christ has stood for internal change, the reforma- 
tion of the community through the regeneration of its individuals. So 
stands Christ to-day. To every outward plan which is honest, he says : 
"Go on and God speed you with all your endeavors for equality, liberty, fra- 
ternity; but be sure of this, that no permanent change will rule the lives of 
men until men's hearts are changed to meet it." 

My friends, it is tune that the modern world heard once more, with new 
emphasis, this doctrine of Christ, which is so old that to many madern 
minds it may seem almost new. We are be^et by plans which look for 
wholesale, outright, dramatic transformation in human affairs, plans for 
redeeming the world all at once, and the old way of Christ, the way of 
redeeming one soul at a time, looks very slow and unpicturesque and tire- 

None the less, believe me, the future of the world, like its past, lies in 
just such inward, personal, patient, spiritual reform. Out of the life of the 
individual flows the stream of the world. It is like some mighty river flow- 
ing through our midst which we want to use fot daily drink, but which is 
charged with poison and turbid with refuse. How shall we cleanse this 
flowing stream ? Try to filter it as it sweeps by with its full current ; but 
the task is prodigious, the impurity is persistent, the pollutions keep sweep- 
ing down on us from the sources of the stream. And then the wise engin- 
eer seeks those remote sources themselves. He cleanses each little brook, 
each secret spring, each pasture bank, and then from those guarded sources 
the great river bears down purity and health to the great world below. So 
the method of Christ purifies the modern world. It seeks the sources of 


DR. J. A. S. CRANT (BEY). 


life in the individual soul, and then out of the myriad such springs which 
lie in the hearts of men the great stream of human progress flows into its 
own purer and broader future, and the nations drink and are refreshed. 




The first relatipn of religion to the erring and criminal classes is that 
of supplying the sense of right and wrong, by which we distinguish 
between actions as good and bad. Its second relation is that of a subtle 
and interior element in varying moral definitions. 

The shaipest contrast between the ancient and the modern dealing 
with the criminal and vicious lies in this, that in the old civilization the 
offender was at the mercy of the hasty and individual judgment of his 
superior and ruler, while in modern civili/ation the meanest and worst of 
evil-doers has the protection of a recognized code, which is based upon the 
agreement of many minds and wills. This change is largely due to the 
twin enlargement of the social and religious ideas by which the state took 
the place of the narrow family rule, and the church took the place of the 
local family altar. 

The history of modern penology is a part of the social and moral his- 
tory of the leading Christian nations. Modern progress in penology is 
marked by seven distinct steps, namely: I. The establishment of 'the 
rights of all free-born men to a trial by law. 2. The abolition of slavery, 
which brought all men under the aegis of one legal code. 3. The substitu- 
tion of the penalty of imprisonment for varied forms of physical torture, and 
the limitation of the death penalty to a smaller number of crimes and those 
more universally condemned by all men. 4. The recognition of national 
responsibility toward offenders by which each state accepts the task of con- 
trolling aixl caring for its own criminals instead of transporting them out- 
side its bounds. 5. The acceptance of the principle that even a convicted 
criminal has rights, rights to decent and humane treatment, which social 
custom must regard. 6. The inauguration of a system of classification, not 
only of offences as more or less heinous, but of offenders as more or less 
guilty, according to circumstances. .7. The beginning of experimental 
efforts in industrial and educational directions toward the reformation of 
the criminal and erring, that is, their making over into a required model of 

The radical changes in the treatment of the criminal and erring classes 
which mark so conspicuously the last forty years, changes which have revolu- 


tionized this branch of social relation, all proceed, whether consciously or not, 
from one fundamental principle, namely, that every man and every \voman, 
however criminal and erring, is still a man and woman, a legitimate mem- 
ber of the human family, with inalienable rights to protection and justice, 
This principle fibers itself upon three distinct contributions of the Christian 
religion to our Western civili/.ation. These three contributions are first, 
the democratic social idea; second, a conviction of the sacredness of all 
human life ; third, the elevation of tenderness to a high place in the scale of 
virtues. When the Christian religion declared that each soul was its own, 
whether of bond or free, Jew or Gentile, man or woman, its own to give to 
the Divine in loving service, it proclaimed a declaration of independence 
which must perforce eventuate in the recognized self-ownership and control 
of each human being's person and estate. The idea of the worth and use of 
the single soul which was at the heart of Jesus' doctrine of the Fatherhood of 
God and the brotherhood of man gave to our civilization a conviction that 
the body of man in which the soul was enshrined should not be hurt or slain. 
The ideal character which the Christian Church worshipped in Christ, plac- 
ing as it did tenderness, sacrifice and service at the regal height of human 
virtue, gave an irresistible impulse to those sentiments and inspired a passion 
of human love. The contribution of the Christian religion to our civilization 
has borne direct fruit in the great change from tyranny and brutality to jus- 
tice and humanity in the administration of the accepted moral law. 

The most recent tendencies of religion in this field are reformatory, 
those which aim to make the criminal and erring over into law-abiding and 
respectable members of society. There are two sides of this new reform- 
atory movement in penology, one which touches medical and one educa- 
tional science. The first is busied with the pathology of crime and vice, or 
the influence of heredity and original endowment, the other has to do with 
the culture of the morally defective and makes much of the effect of 
environment and training upon that original endowment. The new sci- 
entific element in religion has given us social science of which enlight- 
ened penology is part. The relation of this new religion to the criminal 
and erring classes is not only the tenderness of human sympathy which 
would not that any should perish; it is the consecration of human wisdom 
to social betterment that shall yet forbid that any shall perish. In this 
ideal the call is not only to justice for the criminal and erring after they 
come within the scope of social control, but it is the call also to a study of 
those conditions in the individual and in society which make for crime and 
vice : and above all it is the call for the lifting of all the weaker souls of 
our common humanity upon the winged strength of its wisest and best. 



The Christian Church was from the beginning always solicitous for the 
poor, even in her early struggles anil in the persecution she was then under- 

Under the auspices of the church the primitive Christians established 
means for the relief of the poor, the sick and travelers in distress or needing 
shelter, hospitals for lepers, societies for the redemption of captive slaves, 
congregations of females for the relief of indigent women, associations of 
religious women for redeeming those of their sex who were leading dissolute 
lives, and hospitals for the sick, the orphaned, the aged and afflicted of all 
kinds, like the Hotel-Diet!, founded in Paris in the seventeenth century and 
still perpetuated. 

The church was, it may be said almost unreservedly, the only almoner 
to the poor in primitive times up to the period when modern history begins ; 
for charity was not a pagan virtue, and man had not been taught it until the 
Redeemer's coming; so the religious houses, the monasteries, convents, asy- 
lums and hospitals were the great houses of refuge and charity the poor and 
needy had to resort to in their distress in later times. 

With the Lutheran movement began the suppression of the convents 
and monasteries, which had been the fortresses of the poor in the past, and 
the land and houses so devoted to charity and religion passed from the hands 
of their pious owners, by confiscation, into the control of the governments, 
thus leaving the poor without any organized means of aid or provision for 
their assistance. 

The church, keenly alive to the conditions arising, soon found her sons 
and daughters equal to the emergencies attending the disturbances of the 
methods of poor relief followed by her for centuries. Then came a grand 
procession of noble men and women, devoting their lives to the cause of 
charity and the salvation of their fellow creatures, and foremost in the ranks 
were Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier and their followers, to teach the 
ignorant and assist the poor, not only in European countries but in remoter 
regions of Asia and among the Indians and negroes of America, while the 
followers of St. Francis and St. Dominic labored in their pious ways at the 
work to which their saintly founders had consecrated their lives centuries 
before the government aid to the poor was dreamed of. 

But there appeared in the seventeenth century a man surpassing all who 
preceded him in directing the attention of mankind to the wants and necessi- 



ties of the poor and to the work of relieving them the great and good St, 
Vincent de Paul, whose name and memory will ever be revered while the 
Church of Christ endures. Born April 24, 1576, in the little village of Pouy, 
near Dax, south of Bordeaux, bordering on the Pyrenees ; he was ordained 
priest in 1600, and later fell into the hands of the Turks and was sold as a 
slave at Tunis. He escaped and found his way to Rome. After a time he 
resolved to devote his life to the poor. He established rapidly hospitals for 
foundlings, houses for the aged poor, a hospital for the galley slaves at Mar- 
seilles, the Congregation of Priests of the Mission, parochial confraternities 
for charitable work, Companies of Ladies for the service of the Hotel-Dieu, 
and the Daughters of Charity, who are better known in our country as the 
Sisters of Charity, and whose charitable and self-sacrificing lives serve as a 
constant reminder tons of our own duty to the sick and destitute. Saint Vin- 
cent de Paul's life closed the 27th of September, 1660. 

The work of founding ecclesiastical charitable organizations did not 
cease with his labors, nor has it ceased at the present day. It will be well to 
recall at this point a few of the many active rather than the contemplative 
orders and congregations that we may be reminded of the constant care exer- 
cised by the church over those in need, and here it should also be mentioned 
that while such deserving praise is given Saint Vincent de Paul for laying the 
foundations for the most active religious communities ever established under 
the auspices of the church, there were others who preceded him early in the 
same direction, but without achieving the sajne success, and conspicuously the 
Alexian, or Cellite Brothers, founded in 1325 at Aix-la-Chapelle, devoted to 
nursing the sick, especially in times of pestilence, the care of lunatics and 
persons suffering from epilepsy. In 1572 the congregation of the Brothers 
Hospitallers of Saint John of God was also founded for the care of the sick, 
infirm and poor. 

Twenty years after St. Vincent de Paul ended his life of charity there 
was founded at Rheims, in 1680, the congregation of the Brothers of the 
Christian Schools for the instruction of poor children ; in 1804 the Christian 
Brothers were founded in Ireland, mainly for the education of poor youths; 
at Ghent the congregation of Brothers of Charity in 1809, who devote their 
lives to aged, sick, insane and incurable men and to orphans, abandoned 
children, and the deaf, dumb and blind; at Paris in 1824 the Sisterhood of 
Bon Secours was established for the care of the sick; in 1828 the Fathers 
of the Institute of Charity; in Ireland in 1831 the Community of the Sisters 
of Mercy was founded for visiting the sick, educating the poor and protect- 
ing destitute children, and this religious body of women has now several 
hundred houses established in different parts of the world. For the reclama- 
tion and instruction of women and girls who had fallen from virtue the 
Nuns of the Good Shepherd were established in 1835. At St. Servan, in 
Brittany, some peasant women, chiefly young working women and domestic 
servants, instituted the Little Sisters of the Poor in 1840, having for their 


object the care of the aged poor, irrespective of sex or creed, and they, too, 
have hundreds of houses in nearly all the large cities of the world. 

Nearly all the orders, congregations and societies here mentioned are 
to-day represented by many hundreds of their members and houses through- 
out, not only the United States, but all the countries of North and South 
America. And some of them existed on this continent when the only path- 
ways across it were made by the Indian and the wild beast of the primeval 
forests; for Catholicity had its home here before the other denominations 
professing the Christian religion to-day had existence, and when the 
ancestors of all the people of the United States were professing the same 
faith as the great founders of many of the charities mentioned and were 
co-workers with them in their pious labors. 

The consideration of the relations of the church to the poor necessa- 
rily involves observing the relation-, of the state to the poor as well, that is, 
the reasoning on which is based the claim of the right of support by the 
citizen from the state in time of need, rather than from the church. Is the 
state the best almoner? 

Under the modern system of poor laws it is evident that all the work 
of charity is not accomplished by the governments either in England or in 
our own country, to which we transplanted the poor laws enacted by parlia- 
ment in their entirety. The thousands of private charitable and philan- 
thropic organizations which exist in England and the States of America 
to-day, to supplement the work of the overseers of the poor and other 
functionaries engaged in the administration of the public charities, is an 
overwhelming repudiation of the claim that laws for the relief of the poor 
make all the provision for them which is necessary. 

With the experience of the ages behind it the church goes forward in 
the work of assisting the poor rather than abandon the greatest of Chris- 
tian duties to the state to perform. - Other denominations of Christians are 
generally rivaling her in the work, and there they can meet on common 
ground with her. 

It is not improbable that within a few years great changes will be made 
by the Catholic Church itself in the administration of many of its charities 
throughout the world. Some of its organizations are greatly impressed 
with the importance of studying new systems and methods of relief growing 
out of the social conditions of the nineteenth century. The slejider equip- 
ment of the poor child in the past for the part he had to play in life ; the 
continuous, or casual, administration of alms to the destitute, instead of lead- 
ing them kindly and firmly forward from dependence on others to self-help 
and self-reliance, are not adapted to the needs of the present or to antici- 
pate the requirements of the future. 

In the United States there are over seven hundred Catholic charitable 
institutions, the inmates of which are maintained almost entirely by the 
contributions of their co-religionists, who, with their fellow citizens of other 






denominations, share in the burden of general taxation, proportionately to 
their means, in maintaining the poor at the public charitable institutions 
besides. A truly anomalous condition, but arising from the strong adher- 
ence of Catholics to the idea that charity is best administered, where not 
attended to individually, by those in the religious lite, who give to the poor 
of their means, not through public officers and bureaus, but through those 
who serve the poor in the old apostolic spirit, with love of God and their 
less fortunate neighbor and brother actuating them. In the scheme of the 
dispensation of public charity relief is extended on the narrow ground that 
there is some implied obligation on the part of the state to maintain the 
citizen in his necessities in return for service rendered or expected ; but the 
church imposes the burden on the conscience of every man of helping his 
neighbor in distress, apart from any service done or expected, and teaches 
that all in suffering are entitled to aid, whether they live within or without 
the territory; neither territory, nor race, nor creed can limit Christian 
charity. In its relation to the poor the church will always be in the future, 
as she has been in the past, in advance of the state in all examples of 

[Bishop Keane, who read the paper in the absence of Mr. Donnelly, 
paused during the reading and said : ] 

1 would like to interject three principles right here. First, I wish to 
draw a distinction between poverty and destitution. Christ would bless 
poverty, but Christ would never bless destitution. Christ was poor, his 
apostles were poor, but Christ and his apostles never were miserable or des- 
titute. It is a mistake to suppose that the Church of God gives any sanc- 
tion or benediction to destitution or wretchedness. % 

The second principle is this, as has been superbly shown this morning: 
Christianity stands for two great ideas individualism and communism, 
socialism. Our divine Lord said : " Whatever ye do for the least one of 
these ye do for me." He meant that whatever was clone for any individual 
soul, human like ours, though a miserable, poor, suffering body, that in it we 
are to recognize the great unity of all in Christ. 

The third principle was this : All these holy men and women, in order 
to consecrate themselves, lived in retirement, fully appreciating the fact that 
they were not running away from the world, but that they did so in order to 
do the Lord better service. And so, in the great normal schools and insti- 
tutions where they take in the greater fullness of the spirit of Christ, that 
they may go out and do better work. My heart was glad when I listened last 
night and heard our good friend, the Hindu, confess that for years he did 
not know where he was going to get his next meal. That was the way 
with these poor Franciscan monks. They were reduced to poverty in order 
that they might better consecrate themselves to the service of God evfery- 



It has been said to me more than once in America that the women of my 
country prefer to be ignorant and in seclusion ; that they would not welcome 
anybody who should attempt to change their mode of life. To these I would 
give answer as follows : The nobly born ladies, Zananas, shrink, not from 
thirst for knowledge, but from contact with the outer world. If the customs 
of the country, their castes and creeds allowed it, they would gladly live as 
other women do. They live in seclusion, not ignorance. 

They make perfect business women. They manage their affairs of state 
in a manner worthy consideration. 

The women of India are not all secluded, and it is quite a natural thing 
to go into homes and find that much is being done for the uplifting of women. 
Schools and colleges were open where the women may attain to heights at 
first thought impracticable. The Farsee and Brahman women in Bombay 
twenty years ago scarcely moved out of their houses, while to-day they have 
their libraries and reading-rooms, they can converse on politics, enjoy a con- 
versation and show in every movement culture and refinement above the com- 
mon. Music, painting, horsemanship come as easily to them as spelling the 
English language correctly. The princes of the land are interesting them- 
selves in the education of the women around them. Foremost among these 
is the Maharajah of Mysore, who has opened a college for women, which has 
for its pupils Hindu ladies, maidens, matrons and widows of the highest caste. 
This college is superintended by an English lady, and has all the departments 
belonging to the ladies' colleges of Oxford and Cambridge of England. 

There are schools and colleges for women in Bombay, Poona and 
Guzerat; also in Calcutta, Allahabad, Missoorie and Madras. The latter 
college has rather the lead in some points by conferring degrees upon 
women. The Victoria high school has turned out grand and noble women, 
so also has the new high school for women in the native city of Poona. 
These schools have Christian women as principals. The college of Ahme- 
dabad has a Parsee (Christian) ladv at its head. What women have done 
women can do. 

Let me mention the Pundita Rambai, and in companionship with her 
Cornelia Sorabji, B.A., LL.I). These are women for a nation to be proud 
of. There are others worthy of your notice the poet, Sumibai (ioray ; the 
physician, Dr. Anandibai Joshi, whom death removed from our midst just as 
she was about starting her grand work, and the artist of song, Mine. Thereze 
Copyiight, 1893, by J. H. B. 



Langrana, whose God-given voice thrills the hearts of men and women in 
London. My countrywomen have been at the head of battles, guiding their 
men with word and look of command. My countrywomen will soon be 
spoken of as the greatest scientists, artists, mathematicians and preachers of 
the world. 



I will explain the highest human enlightenment, Buddha, according to 
the order of its five attitudes : 

1. Denomination, Buddha is a Sanskrit word and translated as Kak- 
usha in the Chinese language. The word " Kaku " means "enlighten," so 
that one who enlightened his own mind and also enlightened those of others 
was respectively called Buddha. Buddha has three personalities. The 
first is entirely colorless and formless, but, at the same time, it hds the 
nature of eternality, omnipresence, and unchangeableness. The second is 
the personality of the result which the Buddha attained by, refining his 
action, a state of the mind free from lust and evil desire but full of enlight- 
ened virtues instead. It includes the enlightenment of one's own mind, and 
also the enlightenment of the minds of others. The third personality spon- 
taneously appears to all kinds of beings in any state and condition in order 
to preach and enlighten them equally. 

These three personalities are the attributes of the Buddha's intellectual 
activity, and at the same time they are the attributes of his one supreme 
personality. We also are provided with the same attributes. Then what is 
the difference between the ordinary beings and Buddha, who is most 
enlightened of all? Nothing, but that he is developed by his self-culture to 
the highest state, while we ordinary beings have our intellect buried in the 
dust of passions. If we cultivate our minds, we can, of course, clear off the 
clouds of ignorance and reach to the same cnlightenetl platform with the 

2. Personality. The person of Buddha is perfectly free from life and 
death. We call it Nehan cy Nirvana. Nehan is divided into four classes: 
(i) Honrai Jishoshojo Nehan is the name given to the nature of Buddha 
which has neither beginning nor end, and is entirely clear of lust like a per- 
fect mirror. But such an excellent nature as I just mentioned is not the 
peculiar property of Buddha, but every being io the universe has just the 
same constitution. (2) Uyo Nehan is the name ^iven to the state little 
advanced from the above, when we perceive that our solicitude is fleeting 
our lives are inconstant, and even that! there is no such thing as ego. In 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. 15. 


this state our mind is quite empty and clear, but there still remains one 
thing, the body. So it is called " Uyo " or " something left." (3) Muyo 
Nehan is the state in which our body and intellect come to entire annihila- 
tion, and there is nothing traceable. Therefore this state is called " Muyo " 
or " nothing left." (4) Mujusho Nehan is the highest state of Nirvana. In 
this state we get a perfect intellectual wisdom ; we are not any more sub- 
ject to birth and death. Also, we become perfectly merciful : we are not 
content with the indulging state of highest Nirvana ; but we appear to 
the beings of every class to save them from prevailing pains by imparting 
the pleasure of Nirvana. 

These being the principal grand desires of Buddhahood, the four merci- 
ful vows are accompanied with them, namely : I hope I can save all the 
beings in the universe from this ignorance ! I hope I can abstain from my 
inexhaustible desires of ignorance ! I hope I can comprehend the boundless 
meaning of the doctrine of Buddha ! 1 hope I can attain the highest 
enlightenment of Buddhaship ! 

Out of these four classes of NirVana the first and last are called the 
Nirvana of Mahayana, while the remaining are that of llinayana, 

3. Principle. The fundamental principle of Buddha is the mind, which 
may be compared to a boundless sea, into which the thousand rivers of Bud- 
dha's doctrines flow ; so it is Buddhism which comprehends the whole mind. 
The mind is absolutely so grand and marvelous that even the heaven can 
never be compared in its highness, while theeaith is too short for measuring 
its thickness. It has the shape neither long nor short, neither round nor 
square. Its existence is neither inside nor outside, nor even in the middle 
part ot the bodily structure. It is purely colorless and formless, and appears 
freely and actively in every place throughout the universe. But for the con- 
venience of studying its nature we call it True Mind of Absolute Unity. 
Every form or figure such as heaven, earth, mountains, rivers, trees, grasses, 
even a man, or what else it might be, is nothing but the grand personality 
of absolute unity. And as this absolute unity is the only object with which 
Buddha enlightens all kinds of existing beings, so it is clear that tke prin- 
ciple of Buddha is the mind. 

4. Function. Three sacred virtues are essential functions of Buddha, 
which are the sacred wisdom, the graceful humanity, and the sublime cour- 
age, (i) The sacred wisdom is also called absolute wisdom. Wisdom in 
ordinary is a function -of mind which has the power ot judging. When it 
is acting relatively to the lusts of mind it is called in Buddhism relative 
wisdom, and when standing alone, without relation to ignorance or super- 
stition, it is called absolute wisdom. (2) The graceful humanity is a pro- 
duction of wisdom. When intellectual light shines through the clouds of 
the ignorant superstition of all beings, they are free from suffering, misery, 
and endowed with an enlightened pleasure. The object of Buddha's own 
enlightenment is to endow with pleasure and happiness all beings, without 


making the slightest distinction among them. (3) Although the Buddha 
had these two virtues of wisdom and humanity, he could never save a being 
if he had not another sacred virtue, namely, courage. But he had such a 
wonderful courage that he gave up his imperial princehood, full of luxury 
and pleasure, simply for the sake of fulfilling his desire of salvation. Not 
only this, but he will spare no trouble or suffering, hardship or severity, in 
order to crown himself with a spiritual success. 

5, Doctrine. After Shaka Buddha's departure from this world, two 
disciples, Kasho and Suan, collected the dictations of his teachings. This 
is the first appearance of Buddha's book, and it was entitled " The Three 
Stores of Hinayana" (Sanzo), which means, it contains three different 
classes of doctrine : (i) Kyo, a principle the principle which is perma- 
nent and is taken as the origin of the law of Buddhism. (2) Ritsu, a law or 
commandment the commandments founded by the Buddha, to stop human 
evils. (3) Ron, an argument all the arguments or discussions written by 
his disciples or followers. 

These three stores being a part of Buddhist works, there is Another 
collection of three stores which is called that of Mahayana, compiled by the 
disciples of the Buddha. 

Both the Hinayana and Mahayana were prevailing together among 
the countries of India for a long time after the Buddha's departure. But 
when several hundred years had passed they were gradually divided into 
three parts. One of them nas been propagated toward northern countries, 
such as Thibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, etc. One has been spread eastward 
through China, Corea and Japan. Another branch of Buddhism still 
remains in the southern portion of Asiatic countries, such as Ceylon, Siam, 
etc. These three branches are respectively called Northern Mahayana, 
Eastern Mahayana and Southern Hinayana; and at present Eastern Maha- 
yana in Japan is the most powerful of all Buddhism. 

The difference between Mahayana ancj Hinayana is this : The former 
is to attain an enlightenment by getting hold of the intellectual constitution 
of Buddha, while the latter teaches how to attain Nirvana by obeying 
strictly the commandments given by Buddha. But if you would ask a ques- 
tion, which is the principal part of Buddhism, I should say, it is, of course, 
Mahayana, in which is taught how to become Buddha ourselves, instead of 



Strictly speaking, the question whether the belief in the necessity of 
vicarious atonement is generally accepted, cannot be answered in the 
affirmative, for many savage tribes entertain only vague conceptions and 
obscure allusions to such atonement. And of the Asiatic tribes, the Indians 
especially took a different course in their religious views. The Brahman- 
ical and Buddhistic religions are, indeed, deeply permeated with the 
thought of redemption, holding that man was chained a thousand-fold to a 
sensual world which was replete with evil, and that he could be saved only 
by abstinence and seclusion, hence by a sacrifice of the most individual 

But the ancient Indian penitent, by self-torture, tried to release himself 
from contact with the evil world, and the teachings of Buddhism aim only 
at self -salvation, which no one can bring about for others and which every- 
body had to secure for himself, though Buddha points out the true road to 

Compared with Judaism and Christianity, on which it otherwise 
depended, Islam lays but little stress on sacrifices, though neither Buddhism 
nor Islam discard them entirely. 

It is an indisputable fact that tribes of various races and at different 
stages of civilization had some knowledge of vicarious suffering, from 
which they expected the conciliation of an enraged God. But a desire for 
salvation we find expressed everywhere in some way or other. Aside from 
Christianity, it is the strongest with the very Indian religions whose 
pessimistic conceptions of the world are entirely concentrated in the above 
mentioned desire. 

A consciousness of guilt, though more intense in some than in others, 
is present in all nations. It urges them to atone by voluntary suffering, 
for the voice of nature tells them that sin and punishment, guilt and 
atonement are inseparable. Hence the general custom of fasting, self- 
torture and eventually suicide. A desire for intercession was likewise, 
prevalent. As a rule, the priest was regarded the mediator, who interceded 
on behalf of the sinner. But even gods were sometimes implored to plead- 
for the guilty before other gods. We find this in the " penitential psalms " 
of the ancient Babylonians (composed two thousand years B. C.), which 
have become known to us by the deciphering of these old documents. 

* Translated by Mr. Martin Fricdberg, of Toledo, Ohio. 

66 1041 


These prayers, written in the touching, imploring language of the Baby- 
lonians, furnish a remarkable proof how vividly the light-minded Babylon- 
ians felt the sorrows of life and the stings of, conscience. By fasting, sacri- 
fices and long litanies they endeavored to pacify a raging deity. But what 
I want to emphasize in particular is the fact that they were in the habit of 
asking a kindly disposed god to .intercede for them with an indignant one. 
Frequently the petitioner applies to a number of gods to plead for him. 
Here we recognize the conviction that human gilts and human representa- 
tion are insufficient, but that a divine mediator and conciliator had to 
interpose for the sinner. 

On the other hand, we meet with numerous proofs that the atonement 
must emanate from the transgressor himself or "by one representing him. 
The animal sacrifice is looked upon as an installment on the surrender of a 
human soul. It is in the remotest ages, therefore, that we find human sac- 
rifices', where one man suffers death for another man by being offered to God 
in that manner. This would have been impossible had not the feeling of 
solidarity been developed in them more strongly than in modern genera- 
tions of individualistic tendencies. 

Man stands before his God not only as an individual, but a member of 
a family, tribe, or nation, so that the individual is charged with the sin of 
all, and all with that of the individual. Succeeding generations especially 
had to atone for the sins of their ancestors. In this respect, the story of the 
partly pagan Gibeonites related in the Bible (2 Sam. xxi. i) is exceedingly 
instructive. They demanded of David that, in atonement of a bloody deed 
committed by Saul, seven sons of the house of Saul be delivered unto them 
and be hung up unto the Lord, in order that the drouth which God had 
visited upon the land in punishment of Saul's misdeed, might cease, David 
complied with their request and " water dropped upon them out of heaven." 
This conception was common to both the Israelites and the heathens. In 
the Old Testament this solidarity of the nations is frequently emphasized ; 
it is the foundation ot Isaiah Hii., tor otherwise how could one just man suffer 
tortures* and death in atonement for the sins of a whole nation ? Moreover, 
this prophetic chapter shows most beautifully that a sacrifice, in order to 
atone for the sins of others, must be pure and voluntary. The purer, the 
nobler, and the more guiltless the sacrifice, the more voluntarily death on 
behalf of others is met, the more efficient the atonement Everywhere the 
priests, who had to perform deeds of atonement, were held to greater purity 
and sacredness than the lay members of the congregation. How powerful 
the desire for conciliation with their gods was, even with those nations that 
were the victims of paganism, is taught us by their terrible human sacrifices. 

lit must, indeed, have been a mighty force, which made mothers 
renounce their dearest children, which gave them strength to remain 
untouched by the moanings of their beloved, and to witness their agony 
without grief. It was the fear of God that performed such miracles of inhu- 


THAT ESTABLISHES THE SJ'lRlir'M f | vi| }'/. \T1ON OF 1HK 'IWKNTTMf! < ' *'"'r\ ? n MUST MR 


inanity, yet intense though this fear of incurring the wrath of God may 
have been, it lacked the essential element of purity. But vague as the con- 
ception of God was with those nations who considered the shedding of 
human blood a sacred act, it displays the influence of conscience, which 
made itself more or less felt. " By your violation of the divine order and 
commands you have brought upon yourself, the displeasure of the Deity, and 
forfeited body and soul, unless you atone for your sins by sacrificing what is 
dearest to you." 

Receiving all these expressions and manifestations of the different 
nations, we can arrive at but one conclusion. Only such religion will satisfy 
man as gratifies this burning desire for true conciliation by offering him an 
absolutely perfect sacrifice. x 

Christianity recognizes the desire for salvation, and without exception 
emphasizes it as firmly as Buddhism does, while more definitely than the 
alter it connects it with sin, by which all men are doomed to judgment. 
It denies that man through his own efforts or his own virtues can be released 
from the curse of sin. And for this reason a sacrifice for atonement con* 
stitutes its central figuni. 

The sacrifice that has made adequate amends for the sins of all men, is 
the Son of Man, who voluntarily delivers himself unto death. Being con- 
nected with all mankind by a feeling of solidarity, he can come to the res- 
cue of all. But, at the same time, he is not selected arbitrarily, but chosen 
by God and destined by him for his great mission. 

After eternal reflections of, love, God himself has made this reconcilia- 
tion with the world of sinners possible. Thus vanishes the conception of a 
passionate, raging God, who had to be appeased by man. 

But, on the other hand, Christianity embodies the thought that is extant 
in Mosaism, and to a certain extent in other religions, that where immor- 
ality prevailed or where sin had been committed, the holiness of God 
demanded atonement, and it required a sacrifice to reconcile God with the 
world of sinners. Jesus Christ was the lamb chosen by God as that sacri- 
fice. John the Baptist designates him (John i. 29) as " The Lamb of God, 
which taketh away the sin of the world." Jesus himself announced that the 
aim and object of his life in this world was to deliver it up for the salvation 
of mankind, or, in other words, to save others by his vicarious death. 

Especially in decreeing the holy communion, Jesus designated himself 
as significantly as possible^ as the victim, who dies for the benefit of all 
men, and whose death will secure eternal life for all, and his blood will be 
the means of taking away sin. No just critic can deny these words, and no 
impartial exegesis can misinterpret them. Without a single Exception the 
'Apostles testify to this divine fact. Their chief mission did not consist in 
promulgating a new religion, or a new morality of law, but to preach the 
Gospel and to bring glad tidings to man. The substance of these tidings 
was Christ, the Son of Man by his resurrection, whom they had recognized 


as the Son of God and the founder of a new heavenly life. They preached 
the risen Christ. But not the fact that a man had risen from the grave, but 
that this man was raised, he who had met death, according to his own words, 
for the purpose of atoning for the sins of all men, was the cause of their 
joyous faith. 

True, while they associated with him in life they had become convinced 
by his words and deeds that he was the Son of God in a much higher sense 
than other human beings, and that he had brought a truly new life to this 
world; but his resurrection from the grave gave them absolute certainty as 
to his divinity. 

He was the embodiment of, all the divine thoughts, indicated and 
expressed in their sacrificial rites and prophecies. He was the pure, fault* 
less Lamb, and, at the same ti me, the sublime High-priest, for he had deliv- 
ered up body and soul as a vicarious sacrifice for all mankind. He was the 
absolutely perfect ^ Servant of the Lord," who pleased his God when he 
walked in the humble disguise of a sejvant, and who renounced rank and 
dignity in the hour of his deepest disgrace and the anguish of death. But he 
was also the true Son of God, the " Messianic King," who had brought down 
to us the Kingdom of Heaven with all its might and all its gifts, and which 
is to be embraced by all the nations. 

To-day, where the researches into the history of religions affords us a 
wider perspective of the religious development of man than ever before, we 
can recognize anew and to a greater extent that Christ satisfies all the desires 
and fulfils all the hopes which had moved and inspired the ages of heathen- 
ism with relation to God. The deep woe ringing through the ages, and 
emanating from the poisonous sting of sin, the misery, brought on by a guilty 
conscience, by a sinful estrangement from God, finds on Golgotha consola- 
tion and forgiveness, for here the atoning sacrifice had been rendered by him 
who was the Son of Man, and who was bound to all men by the strong ties 
of solidarity. He conveyed to mankind the higher motives of life which 
overcome death. Jews and heathens alike felt this solidarity which, as we 
are constituted by nature, involves guilt and punishment ; but Christ, who 
was not of tliis world, introduced a new era of bliss .and life, which consti- 
tutes as the recipients of divine mercy all who embrace his teachings. 
Nobody ever solved the dark mysteries of life and death. But all ever 
attempted by man in this direction finds its explanation in the salvation 
offered by Christ. Man's former conceptions of sin and death appear as 
dark and seductive illusions when compared with the revelations of God. In 
Christ we find all that the noblest and best ever wished and longed for. 
Nothing is more wonderful in his revelation than that salvation comes 
through suffering, and indeed through the suffering of the just and guiltless 
for the sins of all. Here the deepest love is manifested as the mightiest 
power of salvation and redemption. It is the love of God, who, in the dis- 
guise of man, erected at the cross the most sacred altar for the bliss of all 




In order to realize the influence of IslUm^upon social conditions and to 
comprehend and appreciate the teachings of Mohammed, his whole life and 
apparent motives must be inspected and analyzed carefully and without pre- 
judice. We must learn to read between the lines of so-called history. When 
we have done this we shall find that the ethics he taught are identical with 
those of every other prominent religious system. That is to say, he presented 
the very highest standard of morality, established a system of worship calcu- 
lated to produce the best results among all classes of his followers and made 
aspiration to God the paramount purpose of life. Like every other truly inspired 
teacher he showed that there were two aspects or divisions of the spiritual 
knowledge he had acquired one for the masses who were so thoroughly occu- 
pied with the affairs of this world, that they had only a very small portion of 
their time to devote to religion, and the other for those who were capable of 
comprehending the higher spiritual truths and realized that it was better to 
lay up treasures for the life to come than to enjoy the pleasures of this world* 
But his purpose, clearly, was to secure the most perfect moral results by 
methods applicable to all kinds and conditions of humanity. 

In analyzing the sayings of the prophet, aside from the Koran, we should 
always bear in mind the social conditions prevalent among the Arabs, at the 
time he taught, as well as the general character of the people. Presuming 
that Mohammed was truly inspired by the Supreme Spirit, it is quite reason- 
able to suppose that he used quite different methods of bringing the truth to 
the attention of the Arabs twelve hundred years ago from those which he 
would follow before an audience of intelligent, educated people in this 
nineteenth century. 

There are a number of objections to Islam raised by Western people 
which I would like to reply to fully, but the very limited time allotted to me 
prevents my doing so. 

The chief objection, and the first one generally made, is polygamy. It 
is quite generally believed that polygamy and the Purdah, or seclusion of 
females, is a part of the Islamic system. This is not true. There is only 
,one verse in the Koran which can possibly be distorted into an excuse for 
polygamy, and that is, practically, a prohibition of it. I never met but two 
Mussulmans in my life who had more than one wife. There is nothing in 
the sayiitgs of the Prophet nor in the Koran warranting or permitting the 
Purdah, During the life of the Prophet and the early caliphates the Arabian 




women went abroad freely, and, what is more, were honored, respected and 
fully protected in the exercise of 'their rights and privileges. 

Isl&m has been called "The religion of the sword," and there are 
thousands of good people in America and Europe who really believe that 
Mohammed went into battle with the sword in one hand and the Koran in 
the other* 

The truth is that the Prophet never encouraged nor consented to the 
propagation of lslm by force, and the Koran plainly forbids k. It says : 

" Let there be no forcing in religion ; the right way has been made clearly 
distinguishable from the wrong one. If the Lord had pleased all who are 
on the earth would have believed together ; and wilt thou force men to be 
believers ?" 

And in the 2d Sura, 258th verse, it says : " Let there be no compulsion 
in religion. Now is the right way made distinct from error ; whoever, there- 
fore, denieth Taghoot (literally error) and believeth in God hath taken hold 
on a strong handle that hath no flaw therein. And God is he who lieareth, 

Our Prophet himself was as thoroughly non-aggressive and peace-loving 
as the typical Quaker, and, while he realized that a policy of perfect non-resist- 
ance would speedily have resulted in the murder of himself and every Mus- 
sulman in Arabia, he urged his followers to avoid, as far as possible, violent 
collisions with the unbelievers, and not to fight unless it was necessary in 
order to protect their lives. It can be shown, too, that he never in his life 
participated in a battle and never had a sword in his hand for the purpose of 
killing or maiming a human being. 

It has been charged that slavery is a part of the Islamic system in the 
face of the fact that Mohammed discouraged it, and the Koran forbids it, 
making the liberation of a slave one of the most meritorious acts a person 
can perform. But in weighing the evidence bearing upon this subject we 
should never lose sight of the social and political conditions prevalent in 
Arabia at the time the Prophet lived and the Koran was compiled. 

It has also been said that Mohammed and the Koran denied a soul to 
woman and ranked her with the animals. The Koran places her on a per- 
fect and complete equality with man, and the Prophet's teachings often place 
her in a position superior to the males in some respects. Let me read 
you one passage from the Koran bearing upon the subject. It is the 35th 
verse of the 336 Sura : 

"Truly the men who resign themselves to God (Moslems), and the 
women who resign themselves ; and the believing men, and the believing 
women ; and the devout men, and the devout women ; and the men of truth, 
and the women of truth ; and the patient men, and the patient women ; and 
the humble men, and the humble women ; and the men who give alms, 
and the women who give alms ; and the men who fast, and the women who 
fast ; and the chaste men, and the chaste women ; and the men and women 


who oft refnember God ; for them hath God prepared forgiveness and a, rich 

Could anything have been written to emphasize more forcibly the per- 
fect equality of the sexes before God ? 

The property rights which American women have enjoyed for only a 
few years have been enjoyed by Mohammedan women for twelve hundred 
years ; and to-day there is no class of women in the world whose rights are 
so completely protected as those of the Mussulman communities. 

And now, having endeavored to dispel some of the false ideas concern- 
ing Isl&m, which have been current in this country, let me show you briefly 
what it really is and what its natural effects are upon social conditions. 
Stated in the briefest manner possible, the Islamic system requires belief in 
the Unity of God and in the inspiration of Mohammed. Its pillars of prac- 
tice are physical and mental cleanliness, prayer, fasting, fraternity, alms-giv- 
ing and pilgrimage. There is nothing in it that tends to immorality, social 
degradation, superstition, nor fanaticism. . On the contrary it leads on to all 
that is purest and noblest in the human character ; and any professed Mus- 
sulman who is unclean in his person or habits or is cruel, untruthful, dishon- 
est, irreverent or fanatical, fails utterly t6 grasp the meaning of the religion 
he professes. 

But there is something more 'in the system than the mere teaching of 
morality and personal purity ; it is thoroughly practical, and the results, which 
are plainly apparent among the more intelligent Moslems, show how well the 
Prophet understood human nature. It will not produce the kind of civiliza- 
tion that we Americans seem to admire so much, but it will make a man 
sober, honest and truthful and will make him love his God with all his heart 
and with all his mind, and his neighbor as himself. 

Every Mussulman who has not become demoralized by contact with 
British civilization prays five times a day not whenever he happens to feel 
like it but at fixed periods. His prayer is not a servile, cringing" petition 
for some material benefit, but a hymn of praise to the one incomprehensible, 
unknowable God, the omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent Ruler of the 
Universe. He does not believe that by argument and entreaty he can sway 
the judgment and change the plans of God, but with all the force of his soul 
he tries to soar upward in spirit to where he can gain strength, to be pure and 
good and holy and worthy of the happiness of the future life. His purpose 
is to rise above, the selfish pleasures of earth and strengthen his spirit wings 
for a lofty flight when he is, at last, released from the body. 

Before every prayer he is required to wash his face, nostrils, mouth, 
hands and feet ; and he does it. During youth he acquires the habit of 
' washing himself five times a day, and this habit clings to him through life 
and keeps him physically clean. 

It is a significant fact that the only Musselmans who drink whisky and 
gamble, are those who wear European clothing and imitate the appearance 










and habits of the Englishmen, I have never seen a drunken Mussulman 
nor one who carried the odor of whisky or beer about with him. But I 
have heard that sojne of those who had become Anglicised and have broken 
away from the Moslem dress and customs actually do drink beer and 
whisky and smoke cigarettes. - 

I have been in mosques where from five hundred to three thousand 
Mussulmans were gathered to pray, and at the conclusion of the prayer, 1 
was hemmed in by a hundred pf them who were eager' to shake my hand 
and call me their brother. But I never detected those disagreeable odors 
which suggest the-need of extended facilities for bathing. I have repeat- 
edly recalled this fact while riding on the felevated railways in New York 
and in two or three public assemblages in London. 

Prostitution and marital infidelity, with scandalous newspaper reports of 
divorce proceedings, are quite impossible to a Mussulman community where 
European influences have no foothold. A woman toiling over a washtub to 
support a drunken husband and several children, and a poor widow with 
her little ones turned into the street for the non-payment of rent, are epi- 
sodes that never occur -where Islamic laws and customs prevail. Woman 
takes her place as man's Jionored and respected companion and help-mate, 
and is the mistress of, her home whenever she is disposed to occupy that 
position. Her rights are accorded to her freely. She finds her pleasure 
and recreation at home in the pure atmosphere of her husband's and chil- 
dren's love, and the peaceful refining occupations of domestic life. Both 
she and her husband, as well as their children, are taught and believe that 
it is better to retire at 9:00 P.M., just after the last prayer of the day, and 
arise before daybreak and say the morning prayer just as the first rays of 
the sun are gilding the eastern horizon. 

Another feature of the Islamic social life that has impressed me is the 
utter absence of practical joking. There is little or no sarcasm, bitter 
irony, cruel wit, among the Mussulmans calculated to cause their fellows 
chagrin, shame, or annoyance, wounding the heart, and breaking that bond 
of loving fraternity which should subsist between men. The almost uni- 
versal disposition seems to be to cultivate unselfishness and patience, and 
to place as little value as possible upon the things of this world. 

In the household of the tme Mussulman there is no vain show, no 
labored attempt to follow servilely the fashions, including furniture and 
ornaments, in vogue in London and Paris. Plainness and frugality are 
Apparent everywhere, the idea being that it is far better to cultivate the 
spiritual side of our . nature than to waste our time and money trying to 
keep up appearances that we hope will cause our neighbors to think that 
we have more money than we really have and are more aesthetic in our 
tastes than we really are. 

" But," some one may say, " what about the story that a Mussulman 
believes that he will go directly to paradise if he dies while trying to kill a* 


Christian ?" This is one of the numerous falsehoods invented by enemies 
of the truth, to injure as peaceful and non-aggressive a class of people as 
the world has ever seen. 

A Mussulman, if he is hungry and has no lodging-place, may walk 
into the house of a brother Mussulman and be sure of a cordial, hospitable 
welcome. He will be given a seat at the frugal meal, and a place where 
he can spread his sleeping mat One of the best of Isldmic social customs 
is hospitality. Many Mussulmans are glad to have the opportunity to give 
a home and food to a poor brother, believing that God has thus favored 
them with the means of making themselves more worthy to inherit para- 

The greeting, Assalam Aleikum " Peace be with thee," and the 
response, AJeikum salaam " With thee be peace " have a true fraternal 
sound in them calculated to arouse the love and respect of any one who 
hears them* 

I have seen it asserted that, under the Islamic system, a high state of 
civilization is impossible. Stanley Lane -Poole writes as follows : 

" For nearly eight centuries under her Mohammedan niters Spain set to 
all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened state . . . Art, 
literature and science prospered as they then prospered nowhere else in 
Europe. Students flocked from France and Germany and England to drink 
from the fountains of learning which flowed only in the cities of the Moors. 
The surgeons and doctors of Andalusia were 'in the van of science ; women 
were encouraged to devote themselves to serious study, and a lady doctor was 
not unknown among the people of Cordova. Mathematics, astronomy and 
botany, history, philosophy and jurisprudence, were to be mastered in Spain 
and in Spain alone. The practical work of the field, the scientific methods 
of irrigation, the arts of fortification and shipbuilding, the highest and most 
elaborate products of the loom, the graver and the hammer, the potter's 
wheel and the mason's trowel were brought to perfection by Spanish lords. 
In the practice of war, no less th&n in the arts of peace, they long stood 

And what has become of this grand civilization, traces of which we still 
see in some of the Spanish cities and the splendid architecture of the Mogul 
emperors of India ? It is to be seen here in Chicago, and wherever there is 
a manifestation of materialistic progress and enlightenment. 

So long as the pure teachings of the Prophet were followed the Moslem 
development was pure and healthy, and much tnore stable and admirable 
than the gaudy materialism that finally developed and brought with it utter 
ruin. True civilization, a civilization based upon purity, virtue and fraternal 
love, is the kind of civilization that exists to-day among the better classes of 
Mussulmans, and brings with U a degree of contentment and happiness 
unknown amid the tumult of the Western social system. 

The devout Mussulman, one who has arrived at an intelligent compre; 


hension of the pure teachings of the Prophet, lives in his religion and makes 
it the paramount principle of his existence. It is with him in all his goings 
and comings during the day, and he is never o completely occupied with 
his business or worldly affairs that he cannot turn his back upon them when 
the stated hour of prayer arrives and present his soul to God. His loves, 
>his sorrows, his hopes, his fears are all immersed in it ; it is his last thought 
when he lies down to sleep at night and the first to enter his mind at dawn, 
when the voice of the Muezzin rings out loudly and clearly from the minaret 
of the mosque, waking the soft echoes of the morn with its thrilling, solemn, 
majestic monotones, " Come to prayer ; prayer is better than sleep." 



The whole education conferred by Judaism lies in the principle that it 
did not assign to woman an exceptional position ; yet, ofi the other hand, by 
taking cognizance of the exceptional position assigned to woman by brute 
force, and occupied by her on account of her physical constitution and 
natural duties, Judaism made that education effectual, and uninterrupted in 
its effects. 

In the tangled maze of history, let us single out the thread that marks 
the development of Jewish woman. In Jewish history, as in that of the rest 
of mankind, leaders are only milestones. 

Our question calls for the spiritual data about the typical woman whom 
Judaism has prepared for nineteenth century work. To discover them, we 
must go back to twice nineteen Jiuncired years-ago, to the woman that pre- 
sided over the tent of Abraham. 

In that tent, whatever incipient Judaism did for man, that precisely it 
did for woman : it made man, created male and female, aware of his human 
dignity, and laid it upon him as a duty to maintain th^t dignity. With the 
defining of man's relations to his family, begins the refinement, the human- 
ity of 'civilization. 

Abraham stands out in a historic picture of mankind as the typical 
father. He it was of whom it was known that ^ he would "command his 
children and his household after him, that they shall keep the way of the 
Lord, to do righteousness and justice." 

What was Sarah's share in this paramount work of education ? Ishmael 
was to be removed in order that Isaac, the disciple of righteousness and 
justice, might not, by bad example, be lured away from " the way of the 
Lord. 11 In connection with this plan, wholly educational in its aims, it is 
enjoined upon Abraham : " In all that Sarah may say unto thee, hearken 
unto her voice." 


The next generation again illustrates, not the sameness in function, but 
the equality in position, of man and woman. Isaac and Rebekah differ in 
their conception of educational discipline and factors. 

Yet whatever may have be^n the difference of opinion between them 
with regard to interference in their children's affairs, before their children, 
father and mother are completely at one, for when the first suspicion of dis- 
pleasure comes to Esau, it reaches him in Isaac's name alone. We are told 
that "then saw Esau that the daughters of Canaan were evil in the eyes of 
Isaac, his father." Isaac, the executive, had completely adopted the tactics 
of Rebekah, the advisory branch of the government. 

In Rebekah we are shown the first social innovator, the first being to 
act contrary to tradition, and the iron-bound customs of society. She, 
refuses to yield to birth its rights, in a case in which were involved the 
higher considerations of the guardianship of truth. And this reformer was 
the traditionally conservative woman, Rebekah. 

Such are the ideals of equality between man and woman that have come 
down to as from the days of the Patriarchs. Such, furthermore, was the 
basis upon which the position of woman in Judaism was fixed, and such in 
turn, the ideal towards which the Jewish woman was to aspire. 

Women continued to be held in high esteem. We hear of the mothers 
of the greatest men, of Jochebed, the mother of Moses, and of Hannah, the 
mother of Samuel and the sole director of his career. We still hear of 
fathers and mothers acting in equal conjunction, as in the disastrous youth 
of Samson. The law ranges them together: "If a man have a stubborn 
and rebellious son, who hearkeneth not to the voice of his father, or to the 
voice of his mother, and they chastise him, and he will not hearken unto 
them, then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him." We have evi- 
dence of woman's dignity in the parallel drawn by the prophets between the 
relation of Israel to God and that of a wife to her husband, most beautifully 
in this passage which distinguished between the husband of a Jewish 
woman and the lord of a medieval Griseldis : " And it shall happen at that 
day, saith the Lord, that thou shalt call me Ishi (my husband), and shalt not 
call me any more Ba 'alt (my lord). And I will betroth thee unto me for- 
ever : Yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness and justite, and in 
lovingkindness, and in mercy. And I will betroth thee unto me in faith- 

But Israel was a backsliding nation. Even its purity of family life was 
sullied, as for instance at Gibeah, and by David. Yet it remains true that 
through good and evil times the ideals were maintained, and in the end 
practice was influenced into conformity with them. Subtler signs than 
gross historic events show both truths show that practice degenerated, 
and show that it was reconstructed on the basis of never-abandoned ideals. 
Emphatic assertions of the exalted position of women are dangerous. They 
involve the concession that man has the authority to establish or refuse, 


instead of leaving the economy of the moral world as God has ordained it. 
Any tendency to create an inequality, be it to the detriment or to the 
aggrandizement of woman, is fatal to her {rue dignity. 

The prophet Malachi sets forth the whole misery of those later days, 
culminating in disregard of woman, and *bn the other hand, the Jewish 
principle and ideal of woman's co-equality with man, as well as the cause of 
her dethronement from his side. Me says : " The Lord hath been witness 
between thee and the wife of thy youth against whom thou hast indeed 
dealt treacherously; yet is she thy companion and the wife-of tiny covenant" 

The last of the prophets, the contemporary of the Scribes, ushers us into 
the halls of the Talmud. Here the prophet's utterances still reverberate: 
* He who forsakes the love of his youth, God's altar weeps for him ;" " A 
man should be careful lest he afflict his wife, for God counts her tears/' 
Less suggestive of disordered affairs is : " He who sees his wife die before 
him has, as it were, been present at the destruction of the sanctuary itself, 
around him the world grows dark." " Love your wife like yourself, honor 
her more than yourself," smacks of the equivocal distinction of mediaeval 
times, and ot a convulsive desire to hide the existing condition of affairs. 
" If thy wife is small, bend down to her to take counsel from her, M indi- 
cates a return to natural, unstrained relations. " He who marries for money, 
his children shall be a curse to him," is a practical maxim applicable not only 
in ancient times, and finally, the early ideal is realized, in " A man's home 
means his wife." 

The question arises, How came it about that early realities turned into 
fit subjects for poetry, aphorism and chivalrous sayings, but were absent from 
every-day life sufficiently often to justify the prophet's wrath ? It all lies in 
this : Israel's sons married the daughters not of a stranger, but 6f a strange 

It was the Israelite's crown of distinction that his wife was his companion, 
whose equality was so acknowledged that he made with her a covenant. But 
this crown was dragged in the mire when he married the daughter of a strange 

Direst misfortune taught Israel the folly of worshiping strange gods, 
but the blandishments of the daughters of a strange god produced the enact- 
ment of many a law by the rabbis of the Talmud. Here was the problem 
that ponf rented them: Israel's ideals of womanhood were high, but the nations 
around acted according to a brutal standard, and Israel was not likely to 
remain untainted. They solved it in a truly Jewish way, both in the Jewish 
spirit and on a Jewish basis As always in Judaism, they dealt with a con- 
dition, and strove, by modifying it, to realize the ideals of their theory. 

Judaism had taken cognizance of the fact that the practice of the 
nations about, with regard to woman, varied widely from Jewish ideals. 
Clear of vision, the Lawgiver-Prophet could not fail to see that Israel, stiff- 
necked, unmindful of its mission, participating in the human fault of assert- 


ing brute strength over the physically weak, would soon adopt the lower 
standards unless restrained by iron-handed law Thus Mosaic legislation 
recognizes the exceptional position occupied by woman, and profits by its 
knowledge thereof to lay down stringent regulations ordering the relation of 
the sexes. We have the rights of woman guarded with respect to inherit- 
ance,* to giving in marriage, to the marriage relation, and with regard to 
divorce. But woman's greatest safeguard lay in the fact that both marriage 
and divorce among the Jews were civil transactions, connected with a cer- 
tain amount of formality. 

An authority describes the Jewish view of marriage as standing between 
that of the common law, which, according to Blackstone, "considers mar- 
riage in no other light than as a civil contract," and that of the Roman 
Catholic Church, which " holds marriage to be a sacrament and as such 
indissoluble." He says : " Between these two extreme views stands that of 
the Jewish law." The act of concluding marriage is there certainly also 
considered as a contract, which requires the consent of both parties and the 
performance of certain formalities similar to other contracts, and which 
under certain circumstances can be dissolved. But, inasmuch as marriage 
concerns a relation which is based on morality and implies the most sacred 
duties, it is more than a mere civil contract. In such a contract the mutual 
duties and rights emanate from the optional agreement of the contracting 
parties, while those who enter upon the state of married life must submit to 
the reciprocal duties which have been imposed by religion and morality. 
Adultery is not me ely infidelity toward the conjugal partner, but a violation 
of a divine order, a crime which cannot be condoned by the offended party; 
it invalidates the very foundation of that marriage, so as to make its con- 
tinuation absolutely impossible. l Under Jewish jurisdiction the husband 
was compelled to divorce his wife who had been found guilty of adultery. 

The laws and regulations of divorce are full and detailed. A passage 
often quoted, in order to give an idea of the Jewish divorce law, is the fol- 
lowing : "The school of Shammai" inclining to Biblical ordinances 
" says that a wife can be divorced only on account of infidelity. The 
school of Hillel says that the husband is not obliged to give a plausible 
motive for divorce he may say that she spoiled his meal. R. Akiba 
expresses the same idea in another way : he may say that he has found a 
more beautiful woman." And those that wish to throw contempt- upon 
the Jewish law add that the school of Hillel, the milder school, is followed 
in practical decisions. This is one of the cases in which not the whole 
truth is told. In the first place, a woman has the same right to apply for a 
divorce, without assigning any reason which motives of delicacy may 
prompt her to withhold. The idea underlying this seeming laxity is that 
when a man or a woman is willing to apply for a divorce on so trivial a 
ground, then, regard and love having vanished, in the interest of morality 
a, divorce had better be granted, after due efforts have been made to effect 


a reconciliation. In reality, however, Divorce laws were far from being lax. 
The facts that a woman who applied for a divorce lost her dowry, and in 
almost all cases a man who applied for it had to pay it, would suffice to 
restrain the tendency. t Rabbinowicz remarks about a certain law, that it 
shows that the rabbis sought to diminish divorces as much as possible. 
Moreover, and this is the clinching fact, divorces were very rare. 

The important points characterizing the Jewish divorce law, and dis- 
tinguishing it far beyond that of other nations of antiquity, are these : A 
man, as a rule, could not divorce his wife without providing for her; he 
could not summarily send her from him, as was and is the custom in East- 
ern countries, but was obliged to give her a duly drawn up bill of divorce- 
ment ; and women as well as men could sue for a divorce. 

Besides these important provisions regulating woman's estate, there 
are various intimations in the Talmud of delicate regard paid to the finer 
sensibilities of women. 

These and such are the provisions which, originating in the hoary past, 
have intrenched the Jewess' position even unto this day. Whatever she may 
be, she is through them. But what is she ? You have heard* of the Jewish 
custom which bids the Jewish mother, after her preparations for the Sabbath 
have been completed on Friday evening, kindle the Sabbath lamp ? That 
is symbolic of the Jewish woman's influence on her own home, and through 
it upon larger circles. She is the inspirer of a pure, chaste family life, whose 
hallowing influences are incalculable ; she is the center of all spiritual 
endeavors, the confidante and fosterer of every undertaking. To her the 
Talmudic sentence applies : " It is woman alone through whom God's bless- 
ings are vouchsafed to a- house. She teaches the children, speeds the hus- 
band to the place of worship and instruction, welcomes him when he returns, 
keeps the house godly and pure, and God's blessings rest upon all these 
things. 1 ' 


Christianity is a social force above everything else. Its social charac- 
ter is a distinguishing feature of Christianity. Other religions are also 
social forces, but it strikes me that in the degree to which Christianity car- 
ties its social nature we have one of its essential peculiarities. 

He who would understand Christianity must begin with a considera- 
tion of Judaism. While, as a general principle, this is admitted by all, it 
is overlooked by many in their treatment of the social doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. Judaism was a social forcfe which worked chiefly within national 
boundaries, and its aim within the nation was to establish an ideal common- 
wealth in which neither pauperism nor plutocracy should be known. But 













K- 1 



felllfe^i ; M:^^ 



we may go even further and say that it was the avowed aim that IsraeJ 
Should be kept free from both poverty and riches. This prayer of Agur is 
simply an expression of a national ideal never fully attained, but never for- 
gotten by noble souls in Israel. Every revival of pure religion meant an 
effort to reach this ideal of national life. The prophets were great social 
reformers who voic'ed the yearning cry of the nation for righteous social 
relations. The Jewish law was to the weak a bulwark, and to the oppressed 
a stronghold ; to assaulted feebleness a fortress ; for all, in time of distress, 
a refuge. It was thus that Israel found the law a delight. It is the social 
law of which we speak, and not the ceremonial law. The true Jewish priest 
and prophet regarded righteousness which did not include a brotherly 
aim as but filthy rags. All the legislation of Moses had in view the develop- 
ment of a national brotherhood, and as a means for the accomplishment of 
this end, it aimed to prevent the separation of Israel into widely separated 
social classes. Economic extremes in conditions weje dreaded and to pro- 
duce equality of opportunity was the desire of every true Hebrew leader. 
Facilities for the development of the taculties of all naturally followed from 
the faithful application of the fundamental principles of the Mosaic Jegisla- 
tion. At the same time the Hebrew commonwealth was never designed to 
to be a pure democracy. An aristocratic element was favored, because it 
was endeavored to secure the leadership of the wise and gifted, and obedi- 
ence to this leadership was enjoined on all. Sedition and rebellion were 
regarded as crimes. Equality of all in faculties and in fitness for govern- 
ment were absurdities not entertained. 

The provisions relating to land and interest were perhaps the most 
important features of the social legislation of Moses. The land belonged 
to the Almighty, and it was held by the children of Israel under strictly 
limited tenure. It was a trust designed to afford provision for each family. 
It could by no means be monopolized without an infraction of the funda- 
mental law, and such a thing as modern speculation in land violated the 
conditions of the land tenure. The purpose of the land was to furnish a 
subsistence and to promote the acquisition of a competence but by no 
means of a great fortune. 

The laws regulating interest were even more radical. Interest was 
forbidden by Moses because the receipt of interest would have militated 
against the fundamental social purposes which Moses desired to accomplish. 
Loans were to be made to assist a brother, and not for the sake of gain. 
41 Thou shalt open thine hand wide Ux thy brother, to thy poor and thy 
needy in thy land," At least two things were evidently dreaded in the 
taking of interest the growth of inequality among them and the oppor- 
tunity it afforded for economic gain without direct personal exertion. 

The regulations concerning slavery were also aimed at these dangers, 
and in them we find the enunciation of the truth that private property 
exists for social purposes. The institution of slavery was relatively mild 


x * 

among the Hebrews, and provision was made- for the release of the 
Hebrew bondman and bondworjian after a brief period of service. The 
foreigner was excluded from this brotherhood, and even when kind treat- 
ment of the stranger is enjoined, he, after all, is regarded as one separated 
from the range of complete ethical obligation. 

Jesus came with an avowed determination to do two things to break 
clown the ceremonial law, which confined within narrow limits the circle of 
brotherhood rendering it merely national, and, on the other hand, to extend 
to universality the benefits of the social law of Moses. And it was of this 
law that he said not one jot or tittle should pass away until all should be 
fulfilled, Jesus did not proclaim himself the Son of Abraham, which would 
have implied national brotherhood,, but the Son of Man, which implied 
brotherhood as wide as humanity. 

Christianity, then, as a social force, seeks to universalize the socio-eco- 
nomic institutions of the Jews. But it must be remembered in this connec- 
tion that it is the letter that killeth, but the spirit which giveth life. The 
exact law of Moses respecting land and interest, for example, cannot be 
reproduced in modern society. But all who profess allegiance to Christ 
must endeavor to universalize their spirit. The church is a universal anti- 
poverty society, or she is false to her founder. It is hoped that I will not 
be misunderstood in saying that she also stands for anti-millionairism, 
because extremes are subversive of brotherhood. 

Christianity, on the other hand, favors the development of the most 
diverse social institutions and the development of a grand public life, because 
these mean fraternity. What is private separates ; what is public draws 
together. Art galleries, for ^xample, when private, mean withdrawal and 
withholding the products of the mind of man, while public art galleries sig- 
nify public uses of that which is essentially public in its nature. As a social 
force, Christianity favors private frugality and generous public expenditures. 
We may express all this and something more in the statement that Chris- 
tianity means social solidarity, or it means nothing. Social solidarity means 
the recognition of the identity of all human interests, and, truly understood, 
it promotes the identification of oneself with humanity. Fullness of life in 
every department must be sought in human society. 

Individualism, as ordinarily understood, is anti-Christian, because it 
means social isolation and disintegration. Individual liberty, as frequently 
proclaimed, means the right of one man to injure others to the full extent of 
his capacity and resources. The claim to this liberty (which is not liberty 
at all in the true sense of the word) is anti-Christian. Individual salvation, 
in the strictest sense of the word, is an impossibility, because it implies a 
denial of that which is fundamental in Christianity. It is false Christianity 
which fails to recognize the needs of others and centers itself on individual 
salvation, neglecting what the Apostle James called " pure and undefikd 
religion," namely, ministration to one's fellows. 


The social life of this land of ours would proclaim the value of Chris- 
tianity, if it could in its true sense be called a Christian land. But we cannot 
be called such a land. We do not attempt to carry out the principles of 
fraternity, and any claim that we do is mere ignorance or pretense hypoc- 
risy of the kind condemned by Christ in the strongest language. It does 
not avail us to make long prayers while we neglect widows and orphans in 
need. He who did this in the time of Christ violated the principles of 
national brotherhood. He who does so now, violates the principles of uni- 
versal brotherhood. 

Shall aland be cilled Christian* which slaughters human beings need- 
lessly by the thousand rather than introduce improvements in railway trans- 
portation simply because they cost money ? That is exalting material things 
above human beings. Shall a city like Chicago be called Christian, main- 
taining its grade crossings and killing innocent persons by the hundred 
yearly, simply because it would cost money to elevate its railway tracks ? 
To make the claim for our country that it is a Christian land is a cruel 
wrong to Christianity. If we were animated by the spirit of Christianity we 
would do away at the earliest moment with such abuses as these and others 
which daily in factory and workshop maim and mutilate men, women and 

Christianity as a social force stands for progress. Christ gave the spirit 
to which the legislation of every country and every time should seek to con- 
form, and he established a goal far in advance of the men of the time, and 
inspiring all true followers with a desire to reach this goal and strengthen- 
ing them in their efforts to attain it. He gave an impulse which can never 
fail to make for progress so long as society exists. 

Christianity as a social force makes not only for progress, but for peace- 
ful progress, which in the end is the most rapid and secure progress. Christ 
encouraged patience and long suffering along with tireless effort and daunt- 
less couiage. Christianity carries with it in the true sense of the word an 
aristocracy Rulership was recognized and obedience to constituted author- 
ity taught as a Christian duty. But, on the other hand, all kings and rulers 
of men were taught that they held their offices from God as a sacred trust. 
We all know the parable of the talents and its interpretation is clear. All 
mental and physical strength and all material resources are to be used not 
for oneself, but for the promotion of the welfare of all humanity. Inequali- 
ties in attainment were implicitly recognized, but inequality was thus to be 
made an instrument of progress. Ignorance finds support in the wisdom of 
the wise : strength is debtor to weakness. 

We may thus say that Christianity as a social force stands for the con- 
servation of enefgy. It seeks the utilization of all human power for the 
advancement of the welfare of man, and it tends to preserve the achieve- 
ments of the past because it means peaceful progress. It may be thus said 
that Christianity stands for progress emphatically, but for conservative 


Christianity means a mighty transformation and turning of things 
upside down, and while it seeks to bring^about t)ie most radical changes in 
peace, it has forces within it which nothing can withstand and resistance to 
which is sure to result in revolutionary violence. Yet in the end the peace 
of Christ must triumph. 




By reform is meant a change of ourselves or of others from a lower to a 
higher moral level ; and the proposition I would illustrate is this : We can- 
not ignore socialized effort embodied in physical form wit /tout great loss of 
power and efficiency. 

Many of those who are zealous for social and communal enterprises do 
not always make it clear that they see the necessity for individual and spirit- 
ual regeneration of character. There is no real ground for difference 
between those who advocate personal action and those who plead for social 

Individual and spiritual effort are indispensable. The correlated and 
complementary truth is that individual effort at reform must be a part of 
a social plan, and spiiitiuil forces must become embodied if they are to be 

The materials for a man's life are on the field when he arrives ; are not 
created by him, but given to him. Nature gives the physical environment 
of our lives, colors our skin, shapes our frame, determines our temperament, 
limits our strength. Nature may be modified by human action, but within 
strict limits. Language is a social product. No single Cadmus invented the 
alphabet. Language is more than an instrument of individual thought; it 
is a social agent for determining in advance what each man shall think, and 
feel and do. In literature we discover the ripe fruits of the meditations, 
reflections, observations, sufferings, aspirations of all past races. Ceremon- 
ies, conventionalities, etiquette, customs, moral requirements, rites, maxims, 
proverbs arise by slow accretions out of the shadowy past. There have been 
no known authors ; the race is the author. Law exists, with government, 
before the man is born. It is a social growth, not a legislative creation out 
of nothing. It dominates the individual and his hand is lifted against it 
only to be palsied. 

To change the individual all this social environment must be consid- 
ered. So far as the social fact is helpful we may use it ; we ought to use it. 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B, 


When that environment is saturated with evil, we must have much charity 
for the individual trespasser, and attack the system which enslaves him. 

Let us bring these rather abstract statements into the light of concrete 

1. How can we reform the "abnormal man ?" The dependent pauper, 
the defective in mind, the delinquent criminal how shall we save these and 
help them to live a genuinely human life'? Schifflesays: " Social, and not 
merely individual evil, immorality and lawlessness grow to be a widespread 
power, and, temporarily, a collective power superior to law and morality. 
This power appears in the debasement and corruption of society. It organ- 
izes itself into a formidable army to fight against morals and law, as in. the 
'dangerous classes.'" These organized bandits have their halls, clubs and 
associations in all our great cities. They crack their whips over political 
conventions and dictate measures and nominations to mayors and governors 
and councils. These facts are enough to show that to save one abnormal 
man out of this ruin we must go systematically and unitedly to work. Guer- 
illa fighting has its place, but organization of armies alone will contend suc- 
cessfully with entrenched forces led by the prince of darkness. 

2. We may take the labor movement as an illustration of the necessity 
of united and geneial action. Back of all foul abuses of cooperation abuses 
which are the legitimate fruit of centuries of oppression, misrule and enforced 
ignorance is the sublime motive of this labor reform. There is a struggle 
of humanity to live a genuine human life. 

This movement has a profound religious significance, for its inmost 
impetus comes from God and its ideals lead to God. If for fifty years the 
labor agitators have been obliged to make their way with rude weapons along 
an obstructed path, the fault is not all their own. An intelligent and dis- 
criminating sympathy of religious people with what is good in the trades 
union movement would diminish the tendency to use the language and arms 
of militancy. 

3. Turn now to the commercial man. For him also, love, joy, right- 
eousness and peace are elements of the Kingdom of God. The bank and 
the factory are his sanctuary where God is praised or blasphemed. 

It is on this path of universal law and general labor unions that we 
must travel if our religious merchant can dare to be honest and humane. 
Wealth does not render the richest trafficker independent qf social help in 
the formation of his own character. To his aid must come the masses if he 
can wash the blood of guilt from his own garments. The sheltered preacher 
of individual morality declares that he does not need state law to make him 
honest, chaste, just, loving and benevolent. This is only in part true. Law 
has done more for his moral education than* he thinks. Christian people 
generally are greatly influenced in their moral standards by statutes of com- 
mercial law. Religious manufacturers were not aware that they were 
murdering their employes with dust until told by the inspector ! Drastic 


v) W 

G ** 

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o -^ 

H M 

2 O 

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in C 







legislation and trades union, pressure alone brought such men to their moral 
sense. Is there no need of social help for personal perfection? 

If any Christian man is ready to defend the thesis that these questions 
are secular and not religious, 1 am ready to say that that man is worse than 
an infidel. 

4. luternational Morality is made possible by social cooperation, and 
by that alone. France alone cannot disarm ; nor can victorious Germany. 
The great, powerful and rich nation must ask the consent of its neighbors 
to be able to obey one of the clearest and simplest duties of ordinary moral- 
ity, " Thou shalt do no murder." 

In missions the church meets the slave trade in the heart of Africa and 
the cursed'drink traffic on all continents. Does any man imagine that mere 
individual effort would be adequate here, or even sermons without legisla- 
tion ? 

The usefulness of Christian missions in India depends greatly on the 
discipline of the British army and on the habits of European sailors and 
merchants. " After thirty-one yeais spent in India, Archbishop Jeffries makes 
this terrible charge : * For one really converted Christian, as the proof of 
missionary labor, the drinking practices of England have made a thousand 
drunkards.' " British rum has not only reduced, but actually obliterated the 
Hottentot. In East Africa German merchants import liquor in face of 
Mohammedan protest. It is said the Congo land was bought with alcohol, 
and even savages protested against this factor of " Christian, " commerce. 
To endure this crime without protest is not meekness, but stupidity and 

In every city and in every commonwealth immense resources of money 
and energy are squandered and lost from want of understanding and fellow- 
ship between the churches. In many cities the teachers of vice and crime 
are permitted by the authorities to undo the work of the missionaries. The 
preacher begs for a hearing and the local political tyrant laughs and insults, 
bribes and domineers. 

But we are on the eve of a new era. Cooperation is the watchword of 
the hour. " Union in essentials " carries with it the promise of moral tri- 
umphs. The good citizen will use his political power to overthrow politi- 
cal obstacles to reform ; as head of a family he will make the domestic cir- 
cle the nursery of all virtue and charity and worship ; as a member of the 
church he will seek to associate his labors in harmony with his brethren for 
the common welfare ; the public schools will enlist his interest as the found- 
ation of universal intelligence ; and through all his individual efforts he will 
sink his egoism, his conceit, his pride, his vanity, his ambition, his partisan- 
ship, his sectarianism. Above all will be the banner of love, whose. symbol 
is the cross; the cross itself not a badge of a party but God's own sign of 
universal self-sacrificing Fatherhood and Brotherhood. 



" No man can outrage with impunity that human dignity which God 
himself treats with reverence, nor stand in the way of that highei life which 
is the preparation for the eternal life of heaven/ 1 This is the teaching of 
Pope Leo in our age of Christian civilization, and the same \vas the teach- 
ing of Peter at Rome and Paul at Corinth. 

The task of asserting the dignity of man was hut one of the solemn 
duties that confronted the new religion at its birth. It found the children 
of toil, who formed the majority in pagan society, slaves in bondage to a 
harsh, disdainful, ciucl and heartless minority. The church could not advo- 
cate the total abolition of slavery without completely overturning the state 
of society and creating social anarchy. Wiser than pagan philosophy, she 
knew how to confer a blessing on humanity and a benefit on labor without 
injustice or social revolution. " The first things that Christianity did for 
slaves was to destroy the errors which opposed, not only their universal 
emancipation, but even the improvement of their condition ; that is, the 
first force which she employed in the attack was, according to her custom, 
the force of ideas." 

The constant and uniform teaching of human equality could not fail to 
improve the unhappy condition of the ^lave. The laws of the church reg- 
ulating the marriage bond and inspiring reverence for the home and family 
ties, further protected the children of the blave and saved from hopeless 
servitude countless victims of "man's inhumanity to man." 

This fact must not be forgotten that this sublime task entrusted to the 
church to perform was the social and moral elevation of man. The church, 
faithful to its dutv, could not hazard the accomplishment of its by 
a rash attempt at temporary advantage. This observation LS, perhaps, nec- 
essary as a reply to those who, unmindful of the spirit of the age, the cus- 
toms and ideas of men, when the church began its marvelous work, are 
prone to censure religion for not having more promptly accomplished the 
total abolition of slavery. Liberty, priceless boon that it is, would cease to 
benefit men if the means of subsistence were wanting. Man above all other 
blessings requires first wherewith to live, and it was imperative that uni- 
versal emancipation be the result of gradual progress upward to be a lasting 
benefit to men and nations long accustomed to the degradation and wretched 
dependence of vile servitude. The man who tills the soil must learn to 
know how to care for the fruits of his labor, if he will reap the full benefit 
of his personal independence and freedom. To the church and to it alone 



belongs the undying glory of finally wiping out the curse of slavery among 
Christian nations. 

~ * The church having taught every child of Adam who earned his bread 
by laborious toil to assert his own dignity and to understand his own worth, 
and having led a hitherto hopeless multitude from the dismal gloom of 
slavery to the cheering brightness of the liberty of the children of God, 
bravely defended the rights and the privileges of her emancipated children. 
"The church has. guarded with religious care the inheritance of the poor/' 
None need the Divine Cqmforter more than the weary children of toil, and 
none need and have received the sympathy of the church as they do. 

In his exhaustive encyclical on the condition of labor Leo XIII. lays 
down the principle that the workman's wages is not a problem to be solved 
by the pitiless arithmetic of avaricious greed. The wage-earner has rights 
which he cannot surrender, and which no man can take from him, for he is 
an intelligent, responsible being, owing homage to God and duties to human ' 
society. His recompense, then, for his daily toil cannot be measured by a 
heartless standard of supply and demand, or a cruel code of inhuman eco- 
nomics, for man is not a money-making machine, but a citizen of earth and 
an heir to the Kingdom of Heaven. 

The definition of a minimum wage, given by Leo XIII., as " sufficient 
to enable a man to maintain himself, his wife and his children " in decent 
frugality, shows Kow clearly he understands the rights of individuals .and the 
best interests of human society. " Homeless men are reckless." The homes 
of the people are the safeguards of national stability. Religion sanctifies 
domestic life by sustaining the inviolability of the marriage bond, and by 
constantly reminding fathers and mothers of their first and holiest duty to 
their offspring, the duty of leading them to learn the love of God and the 
love of the neighbor. Hence the duties of the wife and mother should 
retain her at her own hearthstone. Modern society can never justly boast 
of its enlightenment and progress while because of insufficient wages paid 
to labor, mothers and children are chained to the wheels of industrialism. 

While the church shows such ceaseless concern for the welfare of labor, 
and has so bravely contended for the rights of the poor, she has not failed 
to remind them of the duties that they owe to capital and vested rights. 
Throughout all her contests with barbarism, feudalism and imperial tyranny, 
the church suffered her greatest persecutions in battling for the rights of 
the people against the encroachments of despotism. But " Thou shalt not 
steal," and "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods," are divine injunc- 
tions which the church has faithfully taught to all classes of men. She has 
guarded the rights of ownership, saved from destruction and caused to be 
restored to the rightful proprietors much of the goods of this world. 

Labor has a right to freedom ; labor has also a right to protect its own 
independence and liberty. Hence labor unions are lawful and have enjoyed 
the sanction and protection of the church in all ages. But labor must use 



its power for its own protection, not for invading the rights of others. That 
form of strike by which labor unions use unlawful means to prevent willing 
men, who are anxious to earn a livelihood for their families, from engaging 
in honest work, can in no way be defended and must surely fall under the 
unqualified censure of religion. 

Religion's duty is to teach the rich the responsibilities of wealth and 
the poor respect for order and law. Hers is the only influence that has 
been able to subdue the pride and the passions of men, to refine the man- 
ners and guide the conduct of human society, so that rich and poor alike, 
mindful of their common destiny, respect each other's rights, their mutual 
dependence and the rights of their common Father in Heaven. 




Religion and wealth are two great interests of human life. In a perfect 
social state what would be their relations-? 

What is religion ? Essentially it is the devout recognition of a Supreme 
Power. It is belief in a Creator, a Sovereign, a Father of men, with some 
sense of dependence upon him and obligation to him. In its most perfect 
expression religion conceives of the Supreme Being as infinite in power and 
wisdom and perfect in goodness, and represents him as holding communica- 
tion with his children, and seeking to make them partakers of his perfection 
and his blessedness. 

The religious life is the life according to God, the life whose key-note is 
harmony with the divine nature and conformity to the divine will. If all men 
were, in this highest sense of the word, religious, should we have wealth 
among us ? 

To answer this question intelligently we must first define wealth. The 
economists define wealth as consisting in exchangeable goods. But the popu- 
lar use of the word is hardly covered by the economic definition ; some meas- 
ure of abundance is generally connoted. There is vastly more in the hands 
of the men of Europe and America to-day than suffices to supply their 
immediate physical necessities. Our question is whether, if all men lived 
according to God, in perfect harmony with his thought, in perfect con- 
formity to his will, the world would contain such an abundance of exchange- 
able goods as that which we now contemplate. 

Through long periods and over wide areas the prevalent conception of 
religion has involved the renunciation of riches. Such asceticism could 
hardly be regarded as a precept, binding upon all, but must rather be held 
as a " counsel of perfection," applicable to the elect only. For some must 
dig else none can beg ; and the superior sanctity of the medicant is won 
through the worldliness of his neighbors. 

The monastic rule has had wide vogue, however, in Christian commun- 
ions ; and great numbers of saintly men have adopted the rule of poverty. 
It is not too much to say that for ages the ideal of saintliness involved the 
renunciation of wealth. There are many good Protestants, even in these 
Copyright, 1893, by J, H. B. 



days, who feel that there is an essential incompatibility between the posses- 
sion of wealth and the attainment of & high degree of spirituality. 

Doubtless the ascetic doctrine respecting wealth seems to find support 
in certain texts of the New Testament, but these must be interpreted in the 
light of Jesus' method, in which "complementary but contrasted elements of 
truth are set side by side, each of them being stated so positively as to lead 
to a verbal contradiction with the others." 

It is in the abuses of wealth, doubtless, that devout men have found the 
chief reason for their skepticism concerning it and their renunciation of it, 
A little elementary thinking upon these questions may be helpful to some 
minds. Let us resolve this abstraction, wealth, into its concrete elements. 
What is the wealth of America to-day ? It consists in the development of 
the earth's resources. These material resources of the earth readily submit 
themselves to this process of development under the hand of man, which 
processes have followed, for the most part, natural laws ; these grains and 
fruits and roots and living creatures have simply been aided by men in ful- 
filling the law of their own life. 

Those who are working for the improvement of natural products, and 
for the development of the earth's resources, and for the utilization of nat- 
ural forces, are workers together with God. It is clear, therefore, not only 
that there can be nothing inherently wrong in the production of wealth, but 
that it may be, and indeed ought to be, essentially a religious service. Fur- 
ther, for the attainment of the perfection to which man is called, wealth is 
the indispensable condition. In order that men may realize their own man- 
hood, may fulfill, in any adequate degree, the law of their own being, they 
must live beyond the reach of immediate want. In addition, only an abund- 
ance can give that leisure which will permit the higher interests of man to 
be cultivated. There must be opportunity for study, for meditation, for 
communion with nature ; there must be time and facilities for travel, that the 
products and thoughts of all climes may be studied and compared ; that 
human experience may be enlarged, and human sympathies broadened and 
deepened. The wealth which is represented in the vast aggregate of 
machinery the machinery of production and transportation for the mul- 
tiplication of the necessaries and comforts of life, and for the movement of 
men and things to the places where they are most needed ; the wealth which 
is represented in schools, colleges, libraries, cabinets, galleries of art, places 
of public assembly, parks and pleasure grounds, charitable, educational, and 
missionary funds, is part of the necessary provision for the elevation of the 
human race to its best estate. 

So much has religion to say concerning the production of wealth. I 
am sure that the verdict of the religious consciousness on this part of the 
question must be clear and unfaltering. 

But there is another important inquiry. What has religion to say about 
the distribution of wealth ? Can we. discover God's plan for this distribu- 


tion ? The existing practice is far from being ideal. To everyone accord- 
ing to his power, is the underlying principle of the present system of dis- 
tribution. Witness the recent occupation of the Cherokee lands. Such a 
system cannot be in accordance with the will of a Father to whom the poor 
and needy are the especial objects of care. 

What other rule of distribution can religion suggest ? According to 
the divine plan the function of wealth, as we have seen, is the perfection of 
character and the promotion of social welfare. Wealth is the material for 
character-building ; it is the foundation of the Kingdom of Heaven. The 
divine plan must, therefore, be that wealth shall be so distributed as to 
secure these great results. And religion, which seeks to discern and fol- 
low the divine plan, must teach that the wealth of the world will be rightly 
distributed only when every man shall have as much as he can wisely use 
to make himself a better man and the community in which he lives a better 
community so much and no more. 

It is obvious that the divine plan is yet far from realization. Other 
and far less ideal methods of distribution are recognized by our laws, and 
it would be folly greatly to change the laws until radical changes shall have 
taken place in human nature. But the inquiry of this paper is not what 
politics or economics have to say about the production and distribution of 
wealth, but what religion has to say about it. And the counsels of religion 
will furnish to us, as individuals, far higher and safer principles for the 
guidance of our conduct than those which are current in the political or the 
industrial world. 


Little Hawaii, the smallest of the nations, has at the same time more 
religion, considering its size, than any other I know of. In one Hawaiian 
town alone are a Roman Catholic church, four Protestant churches, speak- 
ing as many languages, a Chinese Confucian temple, and a Japanese Budd- 
histic temple. There was in that place some months ago a polyglot religious 
meeting, in which there were discourses and prayer in five languages 
Hawaiian, Portuguese, Japanese,- Chinese and English. The different nations 
of which that meeting was composed, heard, as at Pentecost, every man 
speak in his own tongue. 

I have had parliamentary conferences with the priests of Buddhism to 
learn from them their methods of solving the problems of existence, and 
have listened to them preaching in their own temples. Buddhism is a mis- 
sionary religion, as is testified by the erection of the Buddhist temple in the 
place of my residence by funds in part contributed by Japanese Buddhists. 
Hawaii is an important stopping place in the journey from America to 







and it is important that the United States assume the control of that nation, 
which is too small to govern itself. We desire civilized government, and 
90,000 people are not enough to constitute a sovereign independent nation. 
If the United States does not act the part of the Good Samaritan to Hawaii, 
John Bull will. The Atlantic Ocean is the present Mediterranean of the 
world, but the future Mediterranean of the world will be the Pacific Ocean. 
The possessor of the Hawaiian Islands will hereafter dominate the Pacific 
Ocean. Hawaii, the land where the hurricane is a gentle zephyr, the land 
of fire which contains the two greatest volcanoes on the face of the earth, 
the land which God has not yet finished creating (new land was actually 
formed there as late as 1877), the land of the bread-fruit, magnolia and 
palmthis land, though small, sends greeting to the whole world assembled 
in this Parliament. 



The worth of the Bible results, in the first place, from its entire faith- 
fulness to the strictly self-evident truths of reason and conscience. These 
truths are the supreme tests of certainty. They are the same in life and 
beyond death, yesterday, to day and forever. 

" The suin of the self-evident eternal truth," says Lotze, ftl is the model 
of action of Omnipotence, but not its product. " 

The worth of the Bible results from the fact that it and it alone con- 
tains the record of the life and teachings and death of Him who spake as 
never man spake, and whose sinlessness forbids His possible classification 
with men. 

The ^orth of the Bible results in the next place from its containing, as 
a whole, the highest religious and ethical ideals known to man. There is in 
the Bible, taken as a whole, and without a forced interpretation, a coherent 
system of ethics and theology and an implied philosophy dazzling any other 
system known to any age of the world. Max Miiller himself asserts that 
all other so-called sacred books taken together cannot for an instant compete 
with the Holy Scriptures. 

The worth of the Bible results also from "the fact that it contains a reve- 
lation of religious truth not elsewhere communicated to man. 

The worth of the Bible results also from its being the chief source of 
the highest civilization of the foremost nations. 

The worth of the Bible results from the fact that it is the most powerful 
agency known to history in promoting the social, industrial and political 
reformation of the world by securing the religious regeneration of individual 


lives. It is certain that men and nations are sick, and that the Bible, open 
and obeyed, heals them. 

The trustworthiness of the Holy Scriptures in revealing the way of 
deliverance from the love of sin and the guilt of it, has well been called 
religious infallibility. I provisionally define inspiration as the gift of infal- 
libility in teaching the way of life. In this sense and within this scope, the 
scriptures as a whole, I do most solemnly believe, are inerrant and infalli- 
ble. This theory defines inspiration as that influence which preserves the 
sacred writers from all errors in regard to doctrine necessary to salva- 
tion. I make a distinction between inspiration and dictation, but this defin- 
ition is not inconsistent with the fact that the very words in many passages 
of Holy Scripture, like the Lord's Prayer or the Ten Commandments, 
seem to have been given by processes equivalent to dictation. The defini- 
tion does not, injform, assert verbal inspiration, but secures it in effect in 
regard to whatever in Scripture touches the way of life. 

In asserting the religious infallibility of the scriptures, I assume only 
two things : 

1. The literal infallibility of the strictly self-evident truths of Scripture. 

2. The veracity of Christ. 

The inspiration of the scriptures is to be proved from their truth, and 
not their truth from their inspiration. There can be no inspiration of 
inveracity. The self-evident truths in scripture, as everywhere else, are not 
only unchangeable, unassailable and trustworthy ; they arc actually infalli- 
ble, and they are the spiritual summits on which the cathedral of the Holy 
Word, with all its columns, architraves and pinnacles, have been built. 

The columnar truths of Scripture form a cathedral and God inhabits it. 
The Old Testament is the nave with its transepts of psalm and prophecy, 
the New Testament is the choir with the Fourth Gospel as its holy of 
holies. As we open the Bible and enter the great portal of the remote nave 
of the cathedral of scripture, the unshaken columnar truths we meet are : 

1. Monotheism. It is a fact that the scriptures teach monotheism, not 
polytheism, not pantheism, not atheism, not agnosticism. It has resisted all 
attack and dominates the enlightened part of the world to-day. 

2. Marts Creation in the Image of God. This means God's fatherhood 
and man's sonship. It means God's sovereignty and man's debt of loyalty. 
It means the unity of the race. It means susceptibility to religious inspira- 
tion. It means free will with its responsibilities. 

3. The Family. The ideal of the family set up in scripture is mono- 

4. The Sabbath. A column set up early and seen far and wide across 
the landscapes of time, and dominating yet their most fruitful fields. 

5. A severe view of sin. This severe view of sin is found nowhere out- 
side the scriptures. This fall from the Divine Order is a fact of man's 
experience to the present hour. 



6. Hope of Redemption through undeserved mercy, or the Divine grace. 
"The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head." These words 
are the germ of the gospel itself. 

7. The Decalogue, the central portion of the earliest scriptures. All 
the laws in the books in which the Decalogue is found cluster around it. 
Even if it were not known where and when and how the Decalogue origi- 
nated, the prodigious fact would yet remain that it works well. It came into 
existence in the midst of polytheistic religions. It is monotheistic. It is 
the fountain of the right worship of the one true God. 

8. The Psalms are a whole transept of pillars. Nothing like them as a 
collection can be found in all antiquity. Greece has spoken, Rome has had 
the ear of the ages, modern time has uttered all its voices, but the Psalms 
remain wholly unsurpassed. 

9. The Great Prophecies, like the Psalms, a whole transept of pillars. 
A chosen man called out of Ur of the Chaldees was to become a chosen 
family, and that family was to become a chosen nation, and that nation gave 
birth to a chosen religious leader, who was to found a chosen church to fill 
the earth. This was to be the course of religious history, and it has been. 
The Jews were to be scattered among all nations and yet preserved as a 
separate people, and thev have been. A Messianic hope fills the souls of 
Old Testament prophets. He who was to appear has appeared. Jerusalem 
was to have been destroyed and it has been. The Gospel was to be preached 
to all nations, and it is filling the whole earth. 

10. The Sermon on the Mount stands where nave and transept of the 
Biblical cathedral open into the choir. There stands the clustered column, 
there it has stood for ages, and there it will stand forever. 

11. The Lord's Prayer. It has its foundations in the profoundest wants 
of man ; its capital in the boundless canopy of. the Fatherhood of God. 

12. The Character of Christ. This is the holy of holies of the cathe- 
dral of the Scriptures. The gospels, and especially the Fourth Gospel, are 
the inmost sanctuary of the whole temple. 

Soul whom dazzled ages scan, Sinless soul with God made one, 

Man in God and God in man, Seen but once beneath the sun, 
Who sees him the Father sees, With that Vision we content, 

Who loves him with God agrees. Futures veiled do not lament. 

Bliss were it to see afar Every star about him wheels; 

What Time's coming wonders are ; Every penitent he heals ; 

But One Highest hath been here ; Higher than the highest, he ; 

Higher never shall appear. Son and Soul of Deity. 

We are sinful and undone ; 

God and man the Christ makes one ; 

Rebels, perjured, lawless, we ; 

Ransom, Ruler, Healer, He. 

13. The identification of Christ with the Logos, or the Eternal Wisdom 
and Reason, and of Christ's spirit with the Holy Spirit. This is the 
supreme columnar truth rising from the side of the sanctuary in the holy of 
holies of the Biblical cathedral, 



14. The verifiable promise of the gift of the Holy Spirit to every soul 
self-surrendered to God in conscience. 

15. The founding of the Christian Church, which is with us to this day. 

16. The fruits of Christianity. These are the final cluster of pillars 
rising to the Eastern window that looks on better ages to come and is per- 
petually flooded with a Divine illumination. 

The foundation stones beneath all the pillars and beneath the altar in 
the cathedral of Revelation are the strictly self-evident truths of the eternal 
reason of the divine Logos, who is the essential Christ. God is one, and so 
the systems of Nature and of Revelation must be one. And all the strength 
of the foundation stones belongs to the pillars and the pinnacles of the 
cathedral of the Holy Word. And the form of the whole cathedral is that 
of the cross. And the cathedral itself is full of a cloud of souls. 

And to these hymns of the ages let us add, in this gathering of represent- 
atives of many religions, an anthem of our own, expressing the desire of 
every kindred and tongue and people and nation. 

On the glassy sea of green, 
Flooded with God's noontide keen, 
Can there be for sin a screen ? 
Omnipresence none can flee ; 
Flight from God to God must be. 

Evermore with God must I 
Dwell in strife or harmony ; 
Evermore my changeless past 
Gaze on me from out the vast ; 
Thou art first, and thou art last. 

Oh ! if now before thy face, 
In thy brightness I had place, 
With the past unscreened from me, 
Thou from whom 1 cannot flee, 
How could peace abide with me? 

Since fiom thee in heart estranged, 
If this instant, I, unchanged, 
Were in heaven, thou, God, dost know, 
Highest heaven were deepest woe, 
1 and it are varient so. 

God, O God ! thy 1 ikeness give ; 

In and of thee let me live ; 

God, O God ! for sin atone, 

By thy love awake my own ; 

I must face thy great White Throne. 

And to this cathedral hymn, in which we can all unite, expressing the 
profoundest spiritual necessities of men, let us add a supreme responsive 
anthem, known only to Christianity. 

Holy, holy, holy Cross, 
All else won I count but loss 
Sapphire suns are dust and dross 
In the radiance of the Face 
Which reveals God's way of grace 
Open to a rebel race. 

Ransom he and ransomed we, 
I/we and Justice here agree ; 
Let the angels bend and see 
Endless is this mystery: 
He, the Judge, our pardon wins; 
In his wounds our peace begins. 

Looking on the accursed tree, 
When we God as Saviour sec, 
Him as Lord we gladly choose, 
Him as King cannot refuse, 
Love of sin with guilt we lose, 
So the Cross the soul renews. 

In His righteousness we hide 
Last long woe of guilt and pride; 
In his Spirit we abide. 
Naught are we, our all is he ; 
Christ's pierced hands have set us free ; 
Grace is his beyond degree. 

Glory his above all height , 
Mercy, Majesty and Might; 
God in man is love's delight ; 
Man in God of God hath sight ; 
Day in God hath never night ; 

Love is God's throne great and white, 



The causes usually given for crime are many, such as poverty, evil asso- 
ciations, intemperance, etc. But these are rather the occasions than the 
causes of criminal conduct. The true philosopher looks behind all these 
and finds, in inherited tendencies, one of the most fruitful causes of crime. 
It is not the intoxicating cup but the weak will which causes drunkenness; 
not the gold within easy reach but the avaricious mind which prompts to 
robbery ; it is not the weakness of the victim but the angry^ passions of the 
murderer which makes the blood flow. A careful study of the subject by 
means of statistics has shown that evil deeds, in a very large proportion 
of cases, can be traced back to the evil passions cherished by the immediate 
ancestors of the wrong-doer, and our means of tracing such connections are 
so limited that we really know but a small part of the whole truth. In the 
majority of cases the criminal is a man badly born. So true is it that in all 
the relations of life men are dependent upon other men and each one is 
interested to have everybody else do right, especially his own ancestors. 
Dipsomania is now almost universally recognized as an inheritance from the 
drinking habits of the past, and all the evil passions of men bear fruitage in 
after generations in various forms of crime. 

'What can we do to check this great tide of criminality which perpetu- 
ates itself thus from generation to generation, gathering ever new strength 
and force with time ? How stop this supply of criminals ? 

There is but one answer : men must be better born. Our remedial 
measures are feeble and ineffectual unless we can begin at the fountain head ; 
for while we are reforming one criminal one hundred more are born. We 
must have better mothers. We are learning that not only the sins of the 
fathers, but the mistakes and unfortunate conditions of the mothers, bear 
terrible fruitage, even to the third and fourth generation. God has entrusted 
the mother with the awful responsibility of giving the first direction to 
human character. 

Old and New Testament Scriptures alike announce the Divine fiat that 
man is to leave all things^ his father and his mother if need be, and cleave 
unto his wife. His personal preferences, his ambitions, his business of the 
world, his early affections, all must be subordinate to this one great object of 
the marriage relation, the formation of noble human characters ; and in this 
creative realm woman is to rule supreme ; she must be the arbiter of the 
home, that in her divine work of moulding character she may surround her- 
self with such conditions and win to herself such heavenly communions that 











her children shall be indeed heirs of God bearing upon their foreheads the 
stamp of the divine. But how far have we come short of this grand ideal ! 
The race is stamped by its mothers, the fountain will not rise higher 
than its source, men will be no better than the mothers that bear them, and 
as woman is elevated, her mental vision enlarged and her true dignity estab- 
lished, will her sons go forth, armed -with a native power to uphold the 
right, trample out iniquity, and overcome the world. 




The aboriginal American's feeling concerning God seems to indicate a 
power, mysterious, unknowable, unnamable, that animates all nature. From 
this power, in some unexplained way, proceeded in the past ages certain 
generic types, prototypes of everything in the world, and these still exist, but 
they are invisible to man in his natural state, being spirit types, although he 
can behold them and hear them speak in his supernatural visions. Through 
these generic types, as through so many conduits, flows the life coming from 
the great mysterious source of all life into the concrete forms which make up 
this world, as the sun, moon, and the wind, the water, the earth, and the thun- 
der," the birds, the animals, and the fruits of the earth. 

Among these prototypes there seems to have been none of man himself, 
but in some vaguely imagined way he has been generated by them, and his 
physical as well as his spiritual nature is nourished and augmented through 
them. His physical dependence upon these sources of power is illustrated 
in his ceremonies. Thus he hunted, fished and planted, having first appealed 
to the prototype for physical strength through a ceremony which always 
included the partaking of food. 

When his spirit demanded strengthening he went apart and remained in 
solitude upon the mountain or in the recesses of the forest ; he fasted and 
mortified his body, sought to ignore it, denied its cravings, that some spirit 
prototype might approach him and reenforce his spirit with life drawn from 
the great unnameable power. Whatever was the prototype which appeared 
to him, whether of bird or beast, or of one of the elements, it breathed upon 
him and left a song with him which should become the viewless messenger 
speeding from the heart and lips of the man, to the prototype of his vision, 
to bring him help in the hour of his need. 

When the man had received his vision, before it could avail him, he had 
to procure something from the creature whose type he had seen, a tuft of 
hair, or a feather, or he had to fashion its semblance or emblem. This he 


carried ever after near him as a token of remembrance, but he did not wor- 
ship it. 

The belief that everything was alive and active, to help or hinder man 
prevented development of individual responsibility. Success or failure was 
not caused solely by a man's own actions or shortcomings, but because he 
was helped or hindered by some one of these occult powers. 

Personal immortality was universally recognized. The next world 
resembled this with the element of suffering eliminated. There was no place 
of future punishment; all alike started at death upon the journey to the other 
world, but the quarrelsome and unjust never reached it ; they endlessly wan- 

Religious ceremonials had both open and esoteric forms and teachings. 
They were comprised in the observances of secret societies and the elaborate 
dramatization of myths, with its masks, costumes, rituals of song, rhyth- 
mic movements of the body and the preparation and use of symbols. The 
ethics of the race were simple. With the Indian truth was literal rather 
than comprehensive. Justice was also literal and inexorable. To be valor- 
ous, to meet hardships and suffering uncomplainingly, to flinch from no 
pain or danger when action was demanded, was the ideal set before every 
Indian. Hospitality was a marked virtue in the race. The lodge was 
never closed, or the last morsel of food ever refused to the needy. The 
richest man was not he who possessed the most, but he who had given away 
the most. This deeply rooted principle of giving is a great obstacle in the 
way of civilizing the Indians, as civilization depends so largely upon the 
accumulation of property. In every home the importance of peace was 
taught, and it was the special theme and sole object of a peculiar ceremony 
which once widely obtained over the Valley of the Mississippi the Calumet 
or Sacred Pipe ceremony. 

In the beautiful symbolism and ritual of these Fellowship Pipes the 
initiated were told in the presence of a little child who typified teachableness 
that happiness came to him who lived in peace and walked in the straight 
path which was symbolized on the Pipes as glowing with sunlight. In 
these teachings, which transcended all others, we discern the dawn of the 
nobler and gentler virtues, of mercy and its kindred graces. 



1. The standpoint of this paper is not that of theology, but of positive 

2. The positive evidence thus far available is sufficient to justify 
sociologists, whether in sympathy with any theology or not, in adopting the 
working, hypothesis that the principles of ultimate social science will be 
reiterations of essential Christianity. 

3. Christianity and the churches are as distinct as gravitation and 
water-wheels, or steam and cylinders. The present discussion deals not 
with the force, but with the machinery. 

4. Whatever its formal theology, any church, named after Jesus Christ, 
has hidden between the lines of its creeds enough of the secret life to 
transform itself and the circle of its influence into a section of ideal 

What then distinguishes the religious problems of cities ? We answer : 

5. Life in modern cities presents human wants in their most importu- 
nate and complex forms. In cities, motives to concrete good and evil are 
intensified to their maximum. 

6. In city life the highest premiums are placed on selfishness of every 
sort, from the grossest to the most refined. 

7. In cities, the relative importance of economic advantage is put at 
the highest appraisal. 

8. The relations which occasion the greatest number of social contacts 
in cities are those which involve collision of economic interests. 

9. In cities the importance of personality tends toward the minimum. 

10. Essential values thus tend most strongly to reversal in cities. 
Instead of appraising goods by their service to manhood, men in cities are 
under the severest temptation to value manhoocl according to its produc- 
tivity of goods. Men are measured by the same standard as draught horses 
and steam engines. 

11. The social isolation of the majority in great cities increases with 
the growth of population. 

12. Under these circumstances personal irresponsibility develops. 

13. The foregoing conditions contain the principles of difference 
between the relations of men in cities and in smaller communities. To 
these conditions we may trace most of the evils or degrees of evil peculiar to 

14. Chief among the symptoms of these conditions, By no means wholly 



due to the circumstances of cities, and by no means confined to cities, but 
aggravated and accumulated in urban populations, are : 

(i) Poverty and crime. (2) Insecurity of labor. (3) Minimizing of 
wages. (4) Inhuman surroundings of labor in certain industries. (5) 
Unsanitary housing. (6) Under-nutrition ; not alone from low wages 
but from ignorance or neglect of domestic economy. (7) The drink curse. 
(8) The saloon curse. (Twin evils, but distinct in many causes and conse- 
quences ; thus constituting two separate social problems.) (9) The luck 
superstition; betrayed in speculation, betting, gambling, lotteries, prepos- 
terous endowment and insurance gift-enterprises, and the thousand and one 
similar something-for-nothing schemes. (10) Showy and extravagant 
business customs, especially of agents spending employers' money; conse- 
quent extravagance and ostentation in personal habits, and temptation to 
people of lower incomes. (11) Substitution of boarding house, apartment 
house or hotel for the home. (12) Bread winning by mothers. (13) 
Child labor. (14) Scaling of wages by sex instead of by work. (15) Deg- 
radation of women ; by which I refer to the whole hive of curses, physical, 
economic, domestic, political and moral that swarm about the institution of 
prostitution; a group of phenomena a hundred-fold more significant than 
public opinion has ever suspected. (16) Propagation of "defectives." 
(17) Political betrayals of the ignorant and weak. (18) Progressive 
widening of social distances between classes, along with reciprocal mis- 
understanding and distrust. (19) Organization and destructive warfare of 
mutually dependent industrial classes. (20) Abnormal materializing of 
the life of all classes; or viewed from another standpoint, (21) Aliena- 
tion of the intelligent and responsible, as well as the less prominent, from 
practical spiritualizing agencies. (22) Governmental control by ballots 
instead of by brains. 

15. The life of the great majority of residents in cities, is practically 
bounded by some or all of these facts. Within these limitations the masses 
live and move and have their being. To the masses, therefore, doctrines of 
humanity and 'duty and religion that do not deal directly with these realities 
are simply mythologies and riddles. 

1 6. The conditions thus specified are already schools of broader broth- 
erhood than has been possible in any previous century. They constitute an 
unique opportunity for the churches. Our question is : How must the 
churches improve the opportunity? 

We turn then to the present relations of the churches to the conditions 
in question. 

17. The churches, as such, do not think the thoughts nor talk the lan- 
guage, nor share the burdens which, for the masses in cities, contain the real 
problems of life. 

18. City churches are only partially conscious of the tendencies which 
threaten to reduce them to the status of class institutions. 


19. The churches have no explicit policy towards city problems ; 
they lack intelligent interest in them, they are even suspicious of every 
endeavor to commit the churches to cooperation in solutions. 

20. The churches owe it to themselves to settle the primary question of 
religious aim, viz.: Has or has not the church, besides its mission concern- 
ing man in his relations to God and eternity, a coordinate mission concern- 
ing man in his relations to his fellows, and the present time ? 

21. As already claimed, the ultimate solution of these problems will be 
Christian, but it remains to be seen how generally the Christian churches 
will be agents of solution. 

22. The churches have two alternatives, viz.: first, they may confine 
themselves to the functions of spiritual edification, of indoctrinating the 
children of their members, of defending their denominational orthodoxy, and 
of evangelizing at home and abroad. Second, the churches may accept the 
full responsibility of revealers and realizcrs of right relations of men to each 
other as well as of men to God. 

23. The choice of these alternatives does not turn upon denominational 
standards of theology. 

Assuming that the churches acknowledge responsibility in connection 
with the social problems of cities, the remaining theses contain hints toward 

24. The conditions and symptomatic evils considered can be modified 
only by systematic application of appropriate means to concrete ends. 

25. The means must be employed in actual contact with the evils to 
be remedied. The work of the social church cannot be confined to the 
church headquarters. 

26. The tasks imposed by the needs of city populations require the 
multiplication of church workers. 

27. Wise discipline and disposal of social force requires precise 
knowledge of social facts and mature judgment of social tendencies. 

28. No single church, not even the largest, can effectively proceed 
alone against each of the conditions or symptoms involving degradation of 
city life. 

29. On the other hand the tasks cannot be accomplished by distribu- 
tion among the churches. 

30. Cooperation and methodical division of labor among the churches 
would most effectively apply present resources, and would take the largest 
number of possible religious workers from the retired list into active 

31. Social cooperation between churches does not involve artificial 
denominational union. 

32. On the other hand, social cooperation of churches is the only 
creditable evidence of their belief that effective fraternity is a religious 
obligation more imperative than protection of denominational prestige. 



33. The basis of social cooperation should be common recognition of 
the obligation of brotherhood. 

Let us record the hope and the prediction that this Parliament of Religions 
will promote municipal cooperation of all men who love their fellows ; each 
respecting the other's right to worship God according to the dictation of 
his own conscience; each pledging to the other his loyal fellowship 
toward helping every brother man to achieve life in more and more 
abundance ! 



I. Insight. 'T\\e first gift conferred by Asia on the religious world is 
insight into' nature. The Oriental discovers, contemplates and communes 
with the Spirit of God who, in his view, fills all creation. 

Nature is not a mere stimulus to mild poetry ; Nature is God's abode. 
He did not create it and then leave it to itself, but he lives in every particle 
of its great structure. Nature is not for man's bodily benefit, but for his 
spiritual emancipation albo. It is not enough to say the heavens are God's 
handiwork, but the heaven is his throne, the earth is his footstool. Our 
Nanak said : " Behold the sun and moon are his altar lights, and the sky 
is the sacred vessel of sacrifice to him." In the vast temple of nature, Asia 
beholds the Supreme Spirit reigning, and worships him through the great 
objects his hand has made. 

Nay, more. The Oriental beholds in Nature the image of God. " I 
offer my salutations unto the bountiful Lord," says Yogavasista, " who, as 
the inner soul of all things, reveals himself in heaven and earth, in the fir- 
mament, in my own heart, and in all around me." To the Asiatic the Imma- 
nent Spirit embodies himself in nature's beauty and sweetness, to be immersed 
in which is to be immersed in God himself. We receive from every object 
we see a suggestion of something unseen, something higher, inner, some- 
thing divine and immortal. " Whatever is on earth," the Persian poet, 
Sadi, says, "is the resemblance and shadow of something that is in the 
spheres; again, that light is the shadow of something more resplendent, and 
so up to the light of lights." When no audible speech was heard, what 
meant the royal psalmist by saying, " The heavens declare the glory of God, 
day uttereth speech unto day and night showeth knowledge unto night ?" 
It was the law of the Lord, his statutes, his precepts, that filled David's 
heart, and he heard the celestial music of his contemplation reechoed in all 
the universe. "When," says the Bhagavadgita, " Arjuna, the faithful war- 
rior, looked up to the divine form, he saw there the glory of the mountains, 
the sweep of the rivers, the bloom of the flowers, and the animated beauty 


of mankind." This does not mean that nature and God are one, but 
nature is the primary form and image of God's Spirit, The book of crea- 
tion is in God's handwriting, it is his language. Nature is his revelation. 
The roar of the hurricane is a feeble echo of his eternal voice. The thun- 
ders of the sea, breaking in fury over the immovable rocks, are the faint 
utterances of his might. The midnight firmament, with its mighty arches 
of light, shows his vast bosom bending over the repose of the good and 
bad alike. 

The forces of nature strike the Asiatic not as blind or fantastic, but as 
the manifestations of a personal will. The life of nature is the life of God. 
Our own personality, which originates so many activities, unfolds a Person 
who originates and preserves the universal power of all things. In Asia, 
therefore, nature is not mere design or mere law or uniformity, but the arena 
of God's personal activity. But personal activity means Providence. When 
the Spirit fills all things, is imaged in all things, is revealed by all things, 
and as a person presides over all activities, the whole world is full of his 
Providence. It is for this reason that the Vedic sages beheld in every force 
and phenomenon of nature an inworking light of the Divinity. There was 
God in the sun, God in the Himalayas, God in the all-investing sky, God 
in the expanse of the round blue sea ; but all these gods merged into one 
supreme Brahma, the meaning of which word is " God is great, and makes 
everything great." Thus the senses and the soul form a vast organ, on 
which the contemplation of nature plays her august harmony, and through 
which insight makes her supernatural, yet most natural revelations. How 
then can we tire of our mountains and rivers, or the sacred solitude of our 
forests ? Mount Sinai is neither cold nor dumb, but there is no Moses to 
hear the commandments, or bare his feet to the burning bush. The roses of 
Shiraz are still in bloom, the nightingale's song still fills the midnight 
silence, but there is no Hafiz to realize that the Great Beloved dwells in the 
garden and welcomes his faithful devotees. The fountain Zemzem flows on 
by the side of Mecca, but the Prophet is forever gone, and the pilgrim 
hordes spread infection and uncleanness. Nature is spiritual still, but man 
has become material, and Asia calls upon the world to once more enthrone 
God in his creation. Reconciled with nature, at one .with the creation, 
inspired by the soul of beauty in all things, Asia is at one with God. 

2, Introspection. The second lesson which Asia teaches is introspec- 
tion. This means beholding the Spirit of God within your own heart, it is 
spirituality. Nature inspires the Old Testament, Job, David, Isaiah, the 
Rig-Veda, the Avesta ; the Spirit makes the New Testament, the Upani- 
shads, the religion of Sadi and Rowland Rouen. Is there any light of 
beauty or intelligence or harmony in outward things which has not its 
original seat in the mind of the observer? From observation to introspec- 
tion, the step is easy and natural. On the framework of your own soul the 
warp and woof of all the worlds are woven, the universe of light and order 



is to be seen within. There is no glory without which The soul did not put 
there from within itself. This marvelous creation is described sometimes 
as an objective dream, a medium of communion between the human and 
the divine, the self-manifestation of the Spirit who appeals through our 
senses to the kindred spirit within. 

Neither in scripture nor in nature nor in church nor in prophet, is the 
Spirit of God realized in his fullness, but in man's soul, and there alone, is 
the purpose of God fully revealed. Me who has found him there has found 
the secret of the sonship of man. " Believe me the hour cometh when ye 
shall neither in this mountain, nor yet in Jerusalem worship the Father. 
But the hour cometh and now is when the true worshiper shall worship the 
Father in spirit and in truth ; for the Father seeketh such worship. God is 
a spirit, and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth. " 
Until therefore we behold God as the spirit in the only spirit realm we have 
access to, namely, our own soul, how is true worship possible? The Taitirya 
Upanishad says, "When the devotee is established with the unseen, form- 
less, unspeakable Spirit of God in himself, only then is he perfectly fear- 
less. " This sense of the .supreme fact of the spirit's indwelling glows 
into attitudes of blessedness which intensify every other faculty of the soul, 
All mental powers turn themselves into channels through which the abund- 
ance of divine manifestation pours within. 

3. Progress of Spirituality. The sentiments, the imagination, the powers 
of intelligence, the resolutions of the will, are all kindled into that spirit of 
prophetic fire which glows in the inspiration of the Orient. 

And thus Asiatic philosophy, whether Hindu, or Gnostic, or Sufi is the 
philosophy of the spirit, the philosophy of the supreme substance, not of 
phenomena only. Ail Asiatic poetry breathes the aroma of the sacred 
mansions, glows with the light of the dawning heavens. The deepest 
music is spiritual music, the noblest architecture is raised by the hand of faith. 
When the Spirit of God indwells the spirit of man, literature, science, the 
arts, nay, all ideals and all achievements find their natural source, the whole 
world is spiritualized into a vision of the eternal. Has the spiritual nature 
any end to its possibilities? The Oriental mind does not really deny the 
being of the outward world, but seeing God within its own being, the outer 
becomes only a phase of the inner spirit. It is not logic nor observation, 
nor even scripture that reveals God to the rapt Oriental mind, it is through 
his own instincts that he has the deepest view of the unity and perfection 
of the Godhead. No dialectic subtlety or analytic skill is unknown in the 
East, but there the philosopher is the seer also. Asia has the seeing of 
God within her spirit, and what is seen cannot be disproved by what is 
said. The progress of true religion is not in the conversion of the so-called 
heathen, but in the conception, the inspiration and realization of the ideal 
of the man or spirit. 

4. Spirit Universal. The Supreme Spirit manifests himself in the soul as 


Reason, as Love, as Righteousness, as Joy. The product of reason is wisdom, 
and true wisdom is universal. " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God." What is true in Asia is true in 
Europe, what is true before Christ is true after Christ, because Christ is the 
spirit of truth. Whoever conceives the unmixed truth in science or in 
faith, in art, or in literature, conceives the imperishable and the eternal. 

In the high realm of that undying wisdom the Hebrew, the Hindu, the 
Mongolian, the Christian are ever at one, for that Wisdom is no part 
of themselves but the self-revelation of God. The Hindu books have not 
plagiarized the Bible, Christianity has not plundered Buddhism, but univer- 
sal wisdom is like unto itself everywhere. Similarly love, when it is unself- 
ish and uncarnal, has its counteipart in all lands and all times. The deepest 
poetry, whether in Dante, Shakespeare, or Kalidasa, is universal. The love 
of God repeats itself century after century in the pious of every race, the 
love of man makes all mankind its kindred. True holiness is the universal 
ideal, however much personal prejudices or passions stand in the way of 
the light. And hence Asia seeking the universal God in her own soul has 
discovered God to all the world. This process of seeking and finding God 
within is an intense spiritual culture known by various names in various 
countries ; in India we call it Yoga. The self-concentrated devotee finds 
an immersion in the depths of the indwelling Deity. God's reason becomes 
man's reason, and God's love becomes man's love. God and man become 
one. Introspection finds the universal soul, the over-soul of your Emerson 
beating in all humanity, and the human and Divine are thus reconciled. 

5. Impulse and Worship. Asia has taught the world to worship. Asia 
is the land of impulse. Religion there has meant always sentiment, joy- 
ousness, exaltation, excitement in the love of God and man. All this 
impulse the Asiatic throws into his worship. With us Orientals worship is 
not a mere duty, it is an instinct, a longing, a passion. There is a force 
that draws every drop of dew into the sea, a spark into the conflagration, a 
planet to the sun. They feel in the East a similar force ot impulse drawing 
them into the depths of God. That is worship. " As the hart panteth for 
the brook of living water, so my soul panteth for God." Routines and rit- 
uals are indeed known in the East, they are to keep the undevout in the 
practice of religion ; but for the spiritual the impulse to adore God is irre- 
sistible. The love of God is a growing passion, a wine that inebriates, a 
madness of the spirit. The holy festival of the East, whether it is song or 
ceremony, or praise or prayer, is an intense excitement. The longing for 
the companionship of the Spirit is half human, half divine. It is man call- 
ing after God, and God seeking after man. No devotional act is complete 
which is not an act of mutual advance on the part of God and man, no 
prayer is true which does not bring with it a blessed consciousness of accept- 
ance. But worship is then worthy of heaven when it is uttered in tearful 
and fervid love. When the devotee feels conscious that he is accepted, an 


ecstasy of trust fills him, the rapture of his love overpowers him. He cries, 
he laughs, he sings, he dances, he falls into a trance. Such phenomena are 
not confined to one religion or one country. The Hebrew Miriam danced 
and the congregation played upon clamorous instruments of music. Moham- 
med fell into fits of unconsciousness. Hafiz was reputed as a madman. 
The Vaishnavas of India dance and violently sing in their devotional excite- 
ment. The Vagavat Purana thus describes the condition of the devout 
worshiper : " He sings the name of the Dearest One, his heart is melted 
with holy love, he laughs loudly, or he cries, or ceaselessly prays, and at 
last, overcome by uncommon impulses, dances like a man beside himself." 

This kind of excitement cannot be agreeable or suitable to all men, but 
it shows the extreme to which devotional impulses run in Asia. The 
uttered worship of the East none can limit. Can any one number the songs 
of praise, the invocations, the entreaties which rise night and day like a 
ceaseless noise of many waters to the throne of Heaven ? The universe 
itself is to the Oriental like a vast devotee which uttereth ceaselessly the 
words of adoration, and we, each one of us, feebly respond to those utter- 
ances; blessed is he who responds from his deepest heart. But at last 
speech becomes inadequate, and devotion lapses into silence. Our worship 
is then profoundest when we find no language adequate to express our love 
and trust. The East therefore cultivates the habit of devotional silence. 

But silence also becomes too oppressive, and takes shape in the offerings 
and acts of worship. Flowers, incenses, sacrificial fires, sacramental food, 
symbolical postures, bathings, fastings and vigils, are oftentimes more elo- 
quent than words. There is no spirit without forms. Ceremonies without 
spirit are indeed dangerous, but when words fail before God symbols become 
indispensable. All true worship is twofold in its direction ; it is Godward 
and it is man ward. The honor and love of God are sure to lead to the 
honor and love of man. In Asia we almost worship our spiritual guides, we 
almost idolize the objects of our love. The man of God stands next to God. 
We do not understand spiritual democracy ; we look out for towering per- 
sonalities ; nay, even in loving our equals, we are fired by a divine enthusi- 
asm. Opposite moods are reconciled in the character of the spiritual man. 
Tenderness and sternness, rebuke and forgiveness mingle into a strange dig- 
nity. Meekness, penitence, gentleness, forgiveness, affectionateness, lofty 
indignation, weeping compassion, are the strange attitudes of the love of man. 
The devotee is not only kind to men but kind and compassionate also to all 
living things. The beatitudes of the sermon on the mount, the sweet 
humanity of Buddha, thus become realities of the true instinct of worship. 

Adoration fails, the flower fades, the fire quenches, the incense becomes 
dust, but when the spirit abides in the rapture of joy and love within the 
depths of God, it forgets the world's distractions, and when similarly the 
love of man becomes to it a passion it becomes one with mankind. Oneness 
with God and man, therefore, in perfect love, is the ideal of Eastern worship. 


6. Renunciation. What lesson do the hermitages, the monasteries, the 
cave temples, the disciplines and austerites of the religious East teach the 
world ? Renunciation. The Asiatic apostle will ever remain an ascetic, a 
celibate, a homeless Akinchana, a Fakeer. We Orientals are all the descend- 
ants of John the Baptist. Any one who has taken pains at spiritual culture 
must admit that the great enemy to a devout concentration of mind is the 
force of bodily and worldly desire. Communion with God is impossible so 
long as the flesh and its lusts are not subdued. Hence, renunciation has been 
always recognized as a law of spiritual progress in Asia. It is not mere tem- 
perance, but positive asceticism ; not mere self-restraint, but self-mortification; 
not mere self-sacrifice, but self-extinction ; not mere morality, but absolute 
holiness. The passion for holiness conquers the passion for self-indulgence, 
and leads to much voluntary suffering. Poverty, homelessness, simplicity, 
have characterized the East. The Brahmans do not charge a fee for teaching 
sacred knowledge, the missionaries of the Brahmo-Somaj never take a salary. 
The foxes had holes, the birds had nests, but the Son of Man had not where 
to lay his head. To the gates of Kapilavastu, where he was to have been 
lord and king, Buddha went as a wandering mendicant with his alms-bowl 
in~his hand, begging from house to house. The sight was too painful for 
the feelings of the aged king, his father, so that he entreated the illustrious 
modicant to go and beg elsewhere, and not bring shame to the royal house 
he had forsaken. Buddha calmly replied, " You, O king, are faithful to your 
ancestors who were kings, but I am equally faithful to my ancestors who 
were all mendicants." Mohammed lived in a cave and found enough nour- 
ishment in a few dates. The Fakeer in Moslem countries, and the Sadhu in 
India, are regarded with universal awe. Those orders of Christians who, 
like the Roman Catholics, have adopted this principle of renunciation, have 
made the greatest impression upon Asiatic communities. It is a sign of the 
thnes that even Protestant orders are reverting to the monastic principles of 
Asia. This has its danger, but it is still more dangerous to allow carnality 
and worldliness to mix in a spiritual life. Jesus presided at the marriage 
feast; Sakya Muni shocked his early disciples by eating hearty meals; 
Mohammed married wives; Nanak, the founder of the Sikhs, kept a shop; 
St. Paul stood upon his political rights as a Roman citizen, all, not because 
of worldly mindedness, but in the faithful discharge of their holy duties. 
Their hearts were austere and unselfish as ever. 

Once upon a time, so goes the Indian legend, the saintly ascetic 
Sukdeva visited the palace of the "royal devotee Raja Janak, The man of 
austerity was struck at the wealth and magnificence of his host. The throne 
on which he sat, his wives, his attendants, his robes, his chariots, disgusted 
Sukdeva. The Raja Janak by insight knew the thoughts of his simple- 
minded guest. To disabuse him Janak suddenly set on fire his palace by 
the power of magic. There was a fearful uproar, everybody hurrying to 
save what was most precious to himself. Even Sukdeva rushed to snatch 



away from the fire a narrow strip of fag, worn round his loins, his only 
belonging, which he had hung up to dry. Only Raja Janak sat calmly smil- 
ing, free from care. The fire was as soon put out as it had been started, and 
then the royal devotee, addressing the ascetic saint, said : " Thou, O 
Sukdeva,'lost thy peace when thy rag was threatened, but I could calmly 
look on while all my palace with its wealth was burning to ashes. Renun- 
ciation is not to abstain from much and to be overfond of little, but to retain 
our peace at the loss of everything we have, be it little or great." 

Self-conquest or renunciation is but one part of the culture of the will 
into spirituality. The other part is obedience, self-consecration, merging 
oneself into the supreme self of God, and the supreme service of humanity. 
Renunciation can never be an object in itself; where it has been it has led 
to monstrous extravagances. Self-discipline is only a means to the higher 
end of reconciliation and oneness with the will of God. The grain of wheat 
falls and dies in the earth that it may produce a hundred fold, and he who 
spends his life for God keeps it unto immortality. Death has been, shall 
always be the price ot the attainment of God and the service of man, death 
of all self and carnality. Who can say, who did say, " Not my will, but thy 
will be done ? " he who struggled with the last cup of agony, and who 
looked up to serve God and man while the murderer was at the gate. Call 
it renunciation^ call it stoicism, call it death, the fact is there that he only 
who dies to himself can find rest in God, or reconciliation with man. This 
great law of self-effacement, poverty, suffering, death, is symbolized in the 
mystic cross so dear to you and dear to me. Christians, will you ever 
repudiate Calvary ? Oneness of will and character is the sublhnest and 
most diffidult unity with God. And that lesson of unity Asia has repeatedly 
taught the 'world. 

7. Summary. Thus by insight into the immanence of God's spirit in 
nature, thus by introspection into the fullness of the divine presence in the 
heart, thus by rapturous and loving worship, and thus by renunciation and 
self-surrender, Asia has learned and taught wisdom, practiced and preached 
contemplation, laid down the rules of worship, and glorified the righteous- 
ness of God. But how can I, within a brief half-hour, describe the mystic 
spirituality of a great continent from which all religions, all prqphets, all 
founders, all devotions, and all laws of religious life have come ? I have 
utterred only one word, and leave the rest to your spiritual discernment. I 
know Asia has to learn a great deal from the West ; I know that even such 
qualities of the Asiatic as I have described require to be assimilated to a 
New Dispensation of God, the future religion of mankind. But Europe has 
gone out to the East, and the new religion has dawned in the Brahmo- 

It the West you observe, watch and act. In the East we contemplate, 
commune, and suffer ourselves to be carried away by the spirit of the uni- 
verse. In the West you wrest from nature her secrets, you conquer her, she 






makes you wealthy and prosperous, you look upon her as your slave, and 
sometimes fail to realize her sacredness. In the East nature is our eter- 
nal sanctuary, the soul is our everlasting temple, and the sacredness of God's 
creation is only next to the sacredness of God himself. In the West you 
love equality, you respect man, you seek justice. In the East, love is the 
fulfillment of the law, we have hero worship, we behold God in humanity. 
In the West you establish the moral law, you insist upon propriety of con- 
duct, you are governed by public opinion, In the East we aspire, perhaps 
vainly aspire, after absolute self-conquest, and the holiness which makes 
God its model. In the West you work incessantly, and your work is your 
worship. In the East we meditate and worship for long hours, ami wor- 
ship is our work. Perhaps one day, after this Parliament has achieved its 
success, the Western and the Eastern man will combine to support each 
other's strength and supply each other's deficiencies. And then that blessed 
synthesis of human nature shall be established which all prophets have fore- 
told, and all the devout souls have sighed for. Some years ago when I saw 
Professor Tyndall after his great Belfast address, he spoke to me thus : 
" The sympathies of such men as you are the crumbs of comfort left me in 
my unpopularity. Because I will not accept religion at the hands of those 
who have it not, they revile me. I complain not. True religion once came 
from the East, and from the East it shall come again." This, perhaps, was 
too great a compliment, at least I regarded it as such. But looking back 
into the past it cannot be denied that the world's religious debt to Asia is very 
great. In the East we are the subject race, we are talked of with contumely. 
The Asiatic is looked upon as the incarnation of every meanness and 
untruth. Perhaps we partly deserve it. Perhaps in being allowed to associate 
with you free and noble children of the West we shall learn what we have 
failed to learn hitherto. Yet in the midst of the sadness, the loneliness, the 
prostration of the present, it is some consolation to think that we still retain 
some of our spirituality, and to reflect upon the prophecy of Ezekiel, 
" Behold, the glory of the Lord cometh from the way of the East.' 1 




The question is how to evangelize the non-Christian countries. For 
nineteen centuries you have had Christianity in Europe. Only during the 
last three centuries have attempts been made to propagate it in the East, 
and with unsuccessful results. The platform you have built up must be 
entirely reconstructed if Christianity is to^make progress in the East- You 
must send men full of unselfishness. They must have a spirit of self-sacri- 
fice, a spirit of charity, a spirit of tolerance. We want the lowly and meek 
and gentle teachings of Christ, not because we do not have them now, but 
we want more of them. The missionaries sent to Ceylon, China or Bur- 
mah, as a rule, have not the tolerance that we need. The missionary is 
intolerant ; he is selfish. Why do not the natives mix with him ? Because 
he has not the tolerance and unselfishness he should have. Who are his 
converts ? They are all men of low type. Seeing the selfishness and intol- 
erance of the missionary not an intelligent man will accept Christianity. 
Buddhism had its missionaries before Christianity was preached. It con- 
quered all Asia and made the Mongolians mild. But the influence of west- 
ern civilization is undoing their work. 

It is left for you, this younger family of European nations, to change 
this. I warn you that if you want to establish Christianity in the East it can 
only be done on the principles of Christ's love and meekness. Let the mis- 
sionary study all the religions ; let them be a type of meekness and lowli- 
ness and they will find a welcome in all lands. 


This Parliament ought to result in the bringing about between Chris- 
tian Church and Christian Church of different denominations the same rela- 
tions of unity as now exist between member and member of the same 
church. Further, I sincerely believe that we can get this between the Chris- 
tian religion and non-Christian faiths we can establish such relations of 
mutual respect, toleration and love as now exist between Christian Church 
and Christian Church. These two things must go together the conversion 
of the world and the union of Christians. No individual church of Christen- 
dom adequately represents, nor the whole taken indiscriminately, until they 
shatt be united in one, ever can adequately represent what Christianity 

Coypright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



means. We have our gleams of light, and every Yeligious system existing 
on the face of the earth to-day exists to bear witness to some part of the 
truth which the rest of Christendom has ignored* or made light of. 

I am quite sure that this Chicago Parliament will act in a thoroughly 
missionary spirit. The Christian workers all around the globe are looking 
some of them, I am bound to say, with very serious mistrust, others with 
trembling hope to see what this Parliament has to say on the missionary 
question. I am sure that you will say this, that all we have heard from our 
brethren of other faiths, while it leads us to sincerely, unstintedly and joy- 
fully recognize the truth, the good, which entitles them to take their place 
as a part of the religious world, and as containing a part of the universal 
revolution of God still it will commit itself unreservedly to the principle 
that communication of the Christian ideas is of priceless value to the world. 

Redeeming grace stretches perpendicularly as high as heaven and 
reaches horizontally all around the equator and "out to both poles. Jesus 
Christ was the first Christian missionary. Me came farther, traveled more, 
bore more hardship in the cause of his religion than all his believing follow- 
ers put together, and therefore we shall never pause and never falter in the 
belief that our religion is to be given freely, unreservedly, with royal bounty 
to all the sons of men. 



If success be the criterion by which to gauge an undertaking, and if 
missionary success means the conversion of the Hindu, then it must be con- 
fessed that missionary work in India is a failure. But let none cast any 
aspersion on the missionaries. Their motive is a noble one. Among an 
unsympathetic people, toiling and striving, hoping for their reward, not 
from man, but from God, there they are, devoting their lives to the cause 
of their religion. 

Why, then, does not Christianity in India spread faster ? For this 
there are many reasons. Into the vexed questions as to the benefits the 
Hindus have derived from English rule I shall not enter, but the religion 
which a conquering nation, with an exasperating consciousness of superi- 
ority, condescendingly offers to the conquered must ever be disgusting to 
the recipient, however good it may be. Then, there is the difference 
between your temperament and ours. We are brought up so differently 
from you that the things that affect you do not affect us. Those parables 
in which you see so many beauties, those sayings and doings of the Saviour, 
which seem to be an all-sufficient guide for you through life, nay, your very 
belief in the necessity of a vicarious Saviour, which is the corner-stone of 
your faith, are to us mere words. They convey no impression. They carry 
no conviction. 

The character of the Hindus is a strange and unanalysable mixture. I 


do not know why it is so, but religion after religion has failed in India. At 
present the various new religions, such as the Brahmo-Somaj, and the Arya- 
Somaj, and the various other societies, do not have very many followers. 
Thus you will see that the religions which rise up among themselves are 
not welcomed with enthusiasm. No wonder, then, that a religion like 
Christianity, a religion of foreigners, containing ideas, some of them new, 
some of them strange, and some of f them repugnant to our preconceived 
notions, meets with such scanty welcome. 

Again, your missionaries, in their iconoclastic eagerness, attack some 
of our prejudices which are not necessarily unchristian. Thus our inter- 
mingling with other castes is made a necessary article of faith of the con- 
verted Hindu, and, let me tell you from my own experience, that it is to us 
a physical repugnance. There is another custom of the Brahmans, far more 
deeply ingrained and far more difficult to uproot. I mean their prejudice 
against animal food. So long as Christians, by tacit silence, make people 
believe that the eating of animal food is a necessary preparatory course to 
be gone through with before baptism, so long, then, will you find you have 
a stumbling-block in the way of the evangelization of India. 


In the city of Madras the converts of the Christian faith take a higher 
standard than the Brahmans. In the decade from 1871 to 1881 the census 
of the British government says that when the population increased 6 per 
cent, the Christian population increased 32 per cent. In the decade from 
1 88 1 to 1891, when the population of the country increased 10 per cent., the, 
native Christian community increased 23 per cent., and it is predicted that 
in a generation all the positions of influence and of responsibility will be in 
the hands of the Christian community of India. 

But as to the missionaries, we do make our mistakes. We are not as 
Christ-like as we ought to be. We confess it to you and to our God. We 
want to be better. We are willing to have our Buddhist and our Brahman 
friends tell us how we can be better. Anyone who will help us to be more 
humble and more wise will do us good and we will thank him, whoever 
he be. 

First on the relations of missionaries and non-Christians. We might 
some of us know their thoughts better. We ought to study their books more 
deeply, more intelligently, more constantly. We ought to associate with 
them in order to know their inmost thoughts and their feelings and their 
aspirations better than we do. Further, when we see Truth anywhere, we 
ought cordially and gladly to recognize it as from the Father of Light ; and 
it is jealousy of God if we think that half-truth or some measure of truth is 
to be a hindrance to our work. That it will be a hindrance or a help 
depends largely upon our attitude toward it. 


If we feel that this 5s, perhaps, some kind of hindrance to the univer- 
sal spread of the Kingdom, it will be through our instrumentality somewhat 
of a hindrance. We should not be afraid of the half-way houses to Chris- 
tianity, as we sometimes are. 

Another point which I desire our Christian brethren in this country to 
carefully bear in mind, is that there are phases of Christian truth and doc- 
trine which are put before Orientals as essential to Christianity which I do 
not believe and which some of us do not believe are essential to Christianity. 
There are things taught in the name of Christ which are only western 
theology, which are only western comprehensions of truth as we see it. 
There have been things put about the nature and person of Christ, about 
the character of his atoning work, about the doctrine of retribution, about 
the doctrine of scripture, which have, instead of attracting, repelled the 
minds of non-Christian people. 

What now is to be done by men who believe these western things ? It 
is hard for a man to say that he is to give another message than that which 
seems to him the truth, but I would have my brethren and sisters remember 
that even our Divine Master exercised a restraint in regard to what he 
believed to be true when he saw that men were not in a position to accept 
it ; and I, for my part, believe that it is sometimes better to teach less than 
what you believe to be the whole truth, when you have reason to know that 
the statements, as you would put them, instead of bringing men to the essen- 
tial Christ, to the heart of Christianity, drive them from it. 





Divorce: Special Dispensation to the Prophet. 

[The following passage was revealed on Mohammed's wives asking 
for more sumptuous clothes, and an additional allowance for their expenses ; 
and he had no sooner received it than he gave them their option, either to 
continue with him, or to be divorced.] 

Chapter xxxiii. " O prophet say unto thy wives, if ye seek this present 
life, and the pomps thereof, come, I will make a handsome provision for 
you, and I will dismiss you with an honorable dismission ; but if ye seek 
God and his apostles, and the life to come, verily God hath prepared for 
such of you as work righteousness a great reward." 

Another Dispensation to the Prophet. 

[Zeid was a slave bought, when still a child, by Mohammed, or as 
some say by Khadijeh before she married the prophet. Mohammed offered 
"to Zeid his freedom. Zeid refused it; whereupon Mohammad adopted 
him as his son, and gave him a beautiful girl, Zeinab, to wife. 

Some years after his marriage, Mohammed, going to Zeid's iiouse on 
some affair, and not finding him at home, accidentally cast his eyes on 


Zeinab and fell in love with her. Zeinab informed her husband, who after 
mature reflection offered to divorce her that Mohammed might marry her. 
To avert the unheard-of scandal of a man marrying the wife of his adopted 
son, the following verse of the Koran was sent from heaven.] 

Chapter xxxiii. "But when Zeid had determined the matter concern- 
ing her, and had resolved to divorce her, we joined her in marriage unto 
thee ; lest a crime should be charged on the true believers in marrying the 
wives of their adopted sons, when they have determined the matter concern- 
ing them ; and the command of God is to be performed. No crime is to be 
charged on the prophet, as to what God hath allowed him." 

Polygamy of the Prophet. 

Chapter xxxiii. "O prophet, we have allowed thee thy wives unto 
whom thou hast given their dower, and also the slaves which thy right 
hand possesseth of the booty which God hath granted thee ; and the 
daughters of thy uncle and the daughters of thy aunts both on thy father's 
side and thy mother's side, wha have fled with thee from Mecca, and 
any other believing woman, if she give herself unto the prophet ; in case the 
prophet desireth to take her to wife. This is a peculiar privilege granted 
unto thee above the rest of the true believers. We know what we have 
ordainedHhem concerning their wives and their slaves which their right hands 
possess ; lest it should be deemed a crime in thee to make use of the privilege 
granted thee ; for God is merciful and gracious. It shall not be lawful for thee 
to take other women to wife hereafter, nor to exchange any of thy wives for 
them, although their beauty pleases thee, except the slaves whom thy right 
hand shall possess." 

Polygamy and Concubinage. 

Chapter iv. "And if ye fear that ye shall not act with equity towards 
orphans of the female sex, take in marriage of such other women as please 
you, two, or three, or four, and not more." ..." Ye may with your sub- 
stance provide wives for yourselves." 


Chapter ii. " Ye may divorce your wives twice. But if the husband 
divorce her a third time, she shall not be lawful for him again until she marry 
another husband. But if he also divorces her, it shall be no crime in them 
if they return to each other." 

Chapter iv. "If ye be desirous of exchanging a wife for another wife, 
and ye have already given one of them a talent, take not anything away 
therefrom.' 1 . . "Ye are also forbidden to take to wife free women who are 
married, except those women whom your right hands shall possess as slaves." 

Instruction as to Religious Wars. 

Chapter Ixvi. " O prophet attack the infidels with arms." 

Chapter ii. " And fight for the religion of God against those who fight 
against you. And kill them wherever ye find them, and turn them out of that 
whereof they have dispossessed you"; for temptation to idolatry is more grievous 


than slaughter. Fight therefore against them until there is no temptation 
to idolatry, and the religion be God's/' . . . " War is enjoined you against 
the infidels, but this is hateful unto you ; yet perchance ye hate a thing which 
is better for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you.'* 

Chapter xlviii. " Say unto the Arabs of the desert who were left behind, 
ye shall be called forth against a mighty and a warlike nation ; ye shall fight 
against them or they shall profess Islam. Fight against them who believe 
not in God nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which God and his Apostle 
have forbidden, and profess not the true religion of those unto whom the 
Scriptures have been delivered ; until they pay tribute by right of subjection, 
and they be reduced low." 



There are those who think that the methods of missionaries can be 
improved. There are plenty of missionaries who recognize this ; but his is 
not a grateful task who essays to find fault with a foreign missionary. 
Nevertheless, at the risk of failing to make myself understood in so short a 
time, and, therefore, offending some, I venture to add my word in the direc- 
tion of emphasizing the need of improvement in missionary methods. 

Being from Japan you will naturally expect me to speak of the partic- 
ular phases of the missionary problem which are more or less peculiar to 
that field. Some may think that in Japan, at least, it is high time for mission- 
aries to mend their ways, or get out and let Brother Kosaki and his Christian 
countrymen work out their own salvation. 

If, in the great problems before the church in J apan, the problem of recon- 
ciling Christianity with the "National Spirit/' the problem of adjusting the 
relations between the missionaries and the Japanese Christians, the problems 
of denominationalism and church government, the problem of determining 
what are the essential doctrines of Christianity and of written creeds, the 
problems which affect the very life and continuity of Christ's Church in 
Japan ; if in these vital and perplexing questions the missionaries can be of 
no service, as Mr. Kosaki says : If the Japanese must work out these diffi- 
cult problems alone and are able to do it, the explanation of this strange 
situation must be either that the missionary has done his work so well that 
the pupil is now equal in all respects to the teacher, who might as well with- 
draw, or else the missionary has spent thirty-five years in grappling with the 
great problem of Christianizing Japan only to prove himself in the end a 
colossal and preposterous failure. 

And further, if the Congregationalists of Japan are substantially on the 
side of the very theology which the American board emphatically dfscount- 
enances ; if the Japanese Presbyterians almost to a man are on the side of 
Professors Briggs and Smith, while the General Association in America per- 
sistently declares that those learned men are dangerous leaders! if these 



two ^reat churches in Japan, which include the large majority of the Chris- 
tian population of the country, are so Wide of the mark of American ortho- 
doxy, the inference will be that the missionaries are either untrue to the 
churches that sent them out or that they are unable to influence to any con- 
siderable extent the converts they have made. 

And if the missionaries' influence in Japan is so startlingly small, it is 
only a question of a little time when the church of America will withdraw 
its support and leave the church in Japan to do its own teaching' and 
preaching, and pay its own bills. The Christians of America will not give 
money to maintain missionaries in a land where they can be only subordi- 
nate helpers, utterly impotent in solving the vital questions of the church, 
while so many other fields are drawing us with Macedonian cries which 
must be answered. 

Now I am not here to take exceptions to Prof. Kosaki's excellent paper. 
I know his sympathetic heart and kindly feeling toward the missionaries. 
I am only pointing out, from the view point of the audience which heard 
him, the inferences which must come from his statements. With other 
important modifications, which I have not time to make, but which I am 
sure Prof. Kosaki himself would accept, the paper gives a true picture of 
the situation in Japan. 

It is true, the missionary has not the influence he once had in Japan 
and still has in most other fields. And this cannot be explained wholly on 
the ground of our success there. Japan is not evangelized to-day. With 
40,000 baptized Christians out of 40,000,000 people, with the rate of annual 
increase in the church diminishing rather than increasing ; with all these 
unsolved problems pressing upon the infant church, let not Christian Amer- 
ica listen for one moment to one who would say that our work for Japan is 

And to those who may feel like advising us to leave the work to the Jap- 
anese workers, there ought to be sufficient answer in Brother Kosaki's frank 
portrayal of the unsteady gait of the national advance, and in the pathetic 
confession that in all the troublous questions before the church no light 
appears no prophet has yet arisen in Japan who is able to lead the church 
through the wilderness. In the ebb and flow of the conflict between the 
old and the new, it is too much to expect that spiritual stability which must 
underlie all real progress. At one time welcoming all things foreign with 
unthinking zeal, at another raising the war cry there is no room in such a 
condition for the calm vision which knows how to build for eternity. Every 
one knows that the perpetual motion of the pendulum is not progress. It 
only marks the progress of other things that do move. I am here to say 
that in my judgment Japan does need the missionary as* much and more 
than ever before. 





[The evening of the twelfth day of the Parliament was given to a cel- 
ebration of the thirty-first anniversary of President Lincoln's Proclamation 
of Emancipation. The venerable Bishop Payne, of the African Methodist 
Episcopal church, presided- during a part of the session. After the paper 
by Rev. J. R. Slattery, Bishop Arnett presented to Hon. J. M. Ashley, of 
Ohio, in behalf of the Afro-American League of Tennessee, a copy of Mr. 
Ashley's speeches. A copy of this souvenir volume was also presented to 
Dr. Barrows. The meeting was one of great interest and enthusiasm, in 
which Catholic and Protestant seemed to have equal delight. Bishop Arnett 
said :] 

In the name of my countrymen and fellow-sufferers of the past, I come 
with greetings and rejoicing this night, that our night has turned to day, our 
former prison has become a mansion, and we are now the legitimate heirs of 
the heritage of American freemen. 

It will be my privilege to review the work of the race for the past thirty 
years, and to follow some of the steps that have led to the marvelous tri- 
umphs of thirty years of labor in field, study and school-house. We are also 
to honor one to whom honor is due, and let him and his friends know that 
we are not unmindful of the workmen of the past. 

Thirty-one years ago the proclamation went forth, and millions of the 
slaves were made freemen in one day. The hut of the bondman was 
deserted, and the freedman, with his wife and with his children, was ban- 
ished from the old homestead, and they started to a land they knew not of; 
but with faith in God, and a trust in his word, and with a lively hope in the 
final triumph of right, truth and justice, they began their march to the land 
of liberty. They started out not as the Israelites from Egypt, with the 
clothes and jewels of the Egyptians, but they had only the garments that 
they wore in bondage, and their only jewel was the jewel of freedom. 

The scene was sad and joyful ; millions of people without a foot of land 
to stand upon, without a house or home to protect them from the storm of 
winter or the heat of the summer. They were landless, houseless and name- 
less* because hitherto they had borne the names of their masters ; now having 
no masters, they had no names, and each family had to choose a new name 
of freedom, and they named their children after the generals, the majors, the 
colonels and captains of the Union army, so that the roster of the army of 
Copyright,, 1893, by J. H. B. 



the Union is the key to the genealogical record of the new sons and daugh- 
ters of freedom. 

Now, what has the negro done with his thirty years of freedom ? The 
following are some of his achievements in the field of politics and govern- 
ment : 

In thirty years the negro has been elected, and served with honor to 
himself and to his race on the city council, on boards of aldermen, in state 
legislature, in state senate, in national congress and in the United States 
Senate, and in each of the deliberate bodies has he presided with dignity. 

That education is essential to the success of an individual, family, race 
or country, is a'common axiom. The following figures from the Hon. W. T. 
Harris, United States Commissioner of Education, tell the story of thirty 
years of freedom and education: Total enrollment, in 1889, in institutions 
of all grades, teachers, 24,038; students, 1,327,822; grand total, 1,353,352. 

The students in our colleges and seminaries have acquitted themselves 
nobly. They have made excellent records in the study of the classics, in 
the study of the higher mathematics. In the contests for class honors they 
have won victories against great odds. 

Before the war and before freedom, it was a strange thing to hear of a 
negro upon the platform. Whether in religious or political conventions, at 
home or abroad, the platform orators of the negroes have been heard and 
felt within thirty years. 

The negro has appeared upon the stage, and the dramatic power of the 
race has been tested, weighed and has not been found wanting. 

The women of the race, in the past thirty years, have had heavy burdens 
to bear, difficult tasks to perform, intricate subjects to consider and difficult 
questions to decide. They were moved froui the hut of slavery to the house 
of freedom without furniture, without any preparation. They had to leave 
many things behind that they desired to bring with them ; they brought with 
them many things that they ought to have left behind. Thirty years have 
made a wonderful change. To-day the model home of the negro is a place 
of refinement, culture, a home of song, a temple of industry, a sanctuary of 
religion, the citadel of virtue and the altar of patriotism, where obedience to 
human and divine law is taught in theory and by practice. 

During the civil war in Ajnerica from 1861 to 1865, there were 178,975 
negro soldiers who enrolled in the United States volunteer army, and in the 
449 engagements in which they participated they proved themselves worthy 
to be entrusted with the nation's flag and honor. In the last Indian war 
one of the colored companies distinguished itself for bravery and saved 
the army from defeat and destruction. They were commended by the com- 
manding general, thanked by the Secretary of War, and transferred from the 
field in the West to Washington, D. C., as a mark of honor and distinction 
for their bravery, and to-day they are guarding the nation's capital. 

The mechanic is an important factor in every community* We must 



encourage the industrial schools by sending our children to them, by contrib- 
uting of our means, by making friends for them. 

We must be able to build our own houses, make our own furniture, 
weave our, own carpets. We must teach our boys to make brick; to be 
blacksmiths ; to be tinners ; to be wagon and carriage makers. Our boys 
throughout the country have awakened to the situation and are preparing 
themselves for the future. 

The growth of the churches since the war has been marvelous. The 
statistics of the Methodist Churches show the following totals : Ministers and 
members, 1,326,950; houses of worship, 13,047; church and school prop- 
erty, $19,486,514. 

When the negro race assumed the responsibilities of freemen, we had no 
physicians of our own ; we had to depend on others to care for our sick and to 
relieve our ills. But since that day our young men have entered college, 
have graduated with honor, and now are practicing with eminent success. 

Our fathers in their bondage crystallized their sorrows and their woes 
into songs and fiymns, and when freedom came, and they marched out of 
their prison into the sunlight of liberty, the songs of the night were blended 
with the songs of the day, and the music of the freedmen became the hymns 
of liberty. 

The " Fisk Jubilee Singers" sang in the East, West, North and South; 
finally they went to Europe and collected means and built a temple to 
Christian education. Other companies have been organized, the Wilber- 
force Concert Company; the Hampton Singers, who sang in the interest of 
the Hampton College ; the Tennesseeans, who sang in the interest of Ten- 
nessee College. 

The press is a power. It was formerly used against the interest of the 
negro, but now the negro has his own papers and can speak for the race, 
demand his rights and present his wrongs to the world. We have r now 
about 150 newspapers, pleading the cause of the race every week, all since 
the emancipation. 

After having reviewed the progress of the race for thirty years, and 
witnessed the advancements they have made, it is with more than ordinary 
pleasure that I appear in the presence of this audience to show the world 
that we are not a race of ingrates, nor forgetful of the blessings received, 
when recording the wrongs we have suffered in this land of freedom. 

Now, Hon. James M. Astyey, when in 1865 I sat in the gallery of the 
House of Representatives and witnessed the great battle, the last Congress- 
ional battle, I did not think that I should be called to perform so pleasant a 
duty as this. I was there when the Speaker announced that the amend- 
ment had passed, I joined in the song of " My Country, 'Tis of Thee/' 1 
^ heard the cannons in the city carrying the glad tidings in the air. The bells 
of the city shouted .the joy, the paper we published was happy as I air 


We thought that to collect your speeches, which in their day were our 
arms and battle-axes, and became our victory and liberty, and to put them 
into a volume, would be better than a shaft of marble or a statue of brass, 
For the mart>le would crumble beneath the weight of years and the brass 
would tarnish in the breath of time, but this volume will be sent to the public 
libraries of this and other lands, and be read by the coming generations. 

Accept this token from the present generation, and on behalf of the 
coming generation I thank you for what you have done for them, and with 
you I rejoice that the door of our prison is closed forever and the gateway 
to freedom is open. 

[In accepting the gift thus presented to him, Mr. Ashley replied :] 

Monuments are usually erected by friends or by the public long after 
men are dead. In compiling and publishing this volume the American 
negro has builded me a monument more enduring than any which my family 
or my friends can erect after I shall have quit this mortal Jife. It is to me a 
more desirable monument than any other which my colored friends could 
have designed or presented to me, for I recognize that it was conceived by 
generous and grateful hearts, and built with honest hands. I accept it as 
the black man's tribute and testimony. It is a monument which the maligner 
cannot misinterpret, nor vandals deface, nor the hired assassin destroy. 


In the eyes of the Catholic Church the negro is a man. Her teaching 
is that through Christ there is established a brotherly bond between man 
and man, people and people. ' 

Our Christian advantages flow from our spiritual birth and adoption 
into the family of God. It is from truth that comes our dignity, not from 
color or blood. 

After the rise of negro slavery in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
the Catholic Church applied her great principles of the natural unity of the 
human race and the same supernatural destiny to that infamous traffic. 
Urban VIII., Benedict XIV. and Gregory XVI. condemned it. 

Wherever the Catholic Church has influAice there is no negro question. 
Brazil by a stroke of the peri emancipated her slaves, while the United 
States waded through oceans of blood to emancipate them. Whatever 
misery afflicts Spanish America, the Catholic instinct of human equality has 
delivered it from race antagonisms. There is no negro problem in Catholic 
South America. 

The Catholic Church forever restricts bondage to bodily service, the 
bondman being in her eyes a man, a moral being with a conscience of his 






own, which no master under any cloak may invade. For she has the one 
law for master and slave, one code of morality binds both ; each is account- 
able for his own deeds before the Just Judge. "God,' 7 says St. Augustine, 
" gave man dominion ovr the irrational creatures, but not over fhe rational." 
The church, moreover, always insisted on the Christian marriage of the 
slave, thereby holding that he is a person and not a chattel. 

It may be well, however, to emphasize the position of the Catholic 
Church still more. She asserts the unity of the race. The negro, then, is 
of the race of Adam, created by the same God, redeemed by the same 
Saviour and destined to the same heaven as the white man. 

If, then, the negro may be called a man among men and an heir to all 
the glorious privileges of humanity and also of Christianity, what, we may 
ask, are the means to be employed to place him in possession of this divine 
heritage ? There is, I believe, one true means for his advancement and 
that is the negro himself, guided and led by Christianity. 

His future demands the building of his character, and this is best 
done by the mingled efforts of brotherly white men and worthy black men. 
His temperament, his passions and other inherent qualities, in great measure, 
also his industrial and social environments, are beyond his control, and he 
needs the aid of the best men of his own race, but associated with and not 
divorced from the cooperation of the best of the white race. 

In the formation of his character, which is his weak spot, chief stress 
should be laid on moral training and education. External influences, con- 
trolled by noble men and women of both races, will count for more with him 
than with us. We can hardly appreciate how much the negro has to con- 
tend with while making his moral growth, for neither the antecedents nor 
surroundings of our black countrymen are calculated to draw out the noblest 
side of human nature. 

They must be given the ample charity of Christ in their development, 
just as they have been given the full equality of citizenship. 

Let us bear in mind that among whites of every kind there is an 
immense amount of partly Christian and partly natural tradition, which is 
weak among the blacks by no fault of their own. There is the home, the 
domestic fireside, the respect for Sunday, the sense of respectability, the 
weight of the responsibilities of life, the consciousness of duty the love of 
honesty, which is regarded as true policy, the honor of the family name, the 
fear of disgrace, together with the aspirations for a share in the blessings 
and privileges which our own country and civiiization afford. And while very 
many of our white countrymen are not Catholics, are even but nominal 
Christians, still these weighty influences wield a potent charm for good over 
their lives/ 

In regard to the negro race, however, these hardly exist ; at best they 
may be found in isolated cases, though it is true that very encouraging 
signs of them are seen occasionally. 




[Before the address of Mr. Hoyt, a letter was read from the Metropol- 
itan Bishop of Athens, Greece. It is here given.] 


MOST HONORABLE PRESIDENT, We have been very glacl in our 
hearts for ^that happy idea of assembling such a Religious Congress, in 
which with such scientific exactness and entirety, all the existing differ- 
ences of all the religions of earth will be examined and discussed, and 
that which surpasses will be brought to light, and that those who are far 
from the truth, if they do not come immediately into a realizing sense of 
the text of scripture which holds the promise that we will be one faith, 
one shepherd under our Jesus Christ, they will at least approach to it, and 
be gradually illuminated by the light of the true faith. A great sorrow 
holds me because I could not fulfill this my great desire either by my pres- 
ence or by representative. Meanwhile, being absent and far away bodily, 
but being present by my spirit, I never cease to send up my prayers to the 
Highest and to require a beam of light from the Divinity which shall illumine 
your great Congress and serve as a reward of your labors in bringing it 
together. With great respect I am yours truly, 


[Mr. Hoyt then spoke.] Religion is an outgrowth of the very constitu- 
tion of man with his numberless wants of body, intellect, will and undying 
soul. Because of this human constitution there will ever be need of a body 
of truth embracing such laws and sanctions as should entitle it to the accept- 
ance and respect of mankind. 

How far have the several religions of the world actually met these high 
demands of the race, and how far has the vital religious truth, found in all 
of them, been so obscured by the drapery of useless theories and forms as 
to have been made of none effect ? What religious system does not quake 
at this question ? 

And there is yet another question of even greater practical moment, 
namely : Whether religious faiths, conflicting creeds, may not be so harmon- 
ized upon the great essential truths recognized by all as to make their 
adherents cordial allies and earnest co-workers for man's redemption from 



the bondage of sin, and for his advancement to the dignity and glory of the 
ideal man ? The religion the world needs, and will at last have, is one thai 
shall make for the rescue and elevation of mankind in every realm and 
to the highest possible degree. 

There had been substantial and valuable expressions of it by great and 
good men long centuries before the Christian Era as by Moses, Confucius, 
Buddha, Socrates and Mohammed ; but, in my judgment, it had its first full 
and complete expression in Jesus of Nazareth, who, by his supreme teach- 
ings, sounded the depths and swept the heavens of both ethical and religious 



Every people on the face of the earth has some conception of the 
Supreme and the Infinite ; it is common to all classes, all races, all nationali- 
ties; but the Christian ideal, according to my own conception, is the highest 
and most complete ideal of all. It embraces most fully the Fatherhood of 
God and the brotherhood of mankind. The potent religious life is not a 
creed but a character. It is for this message that the waiting multitude lis- 
tens. We have many evidences of this. Among the recent deaths on this 
side of the Atlantic, which awaken world-wide echoes of lamentation and 
regret, there has been no one so missed and so mourned, as a religious 
teacher, in thiS country, as Phillips Brooks. One thing, above all else, that 
characterized the ministry of Phillips Brooks, was his interpretation of spir- 
itual power in the life of one individual soul. The one poet who has voiced 
this thought most widely in our own and in other countries, whose words are 
to be found in the afterpart of the general program of this Parliament, is the 
Quaker poet, Whittier. His words are adapted to world-wide use, by all 
who enter into the spirit of Christianity in its utmost simplicity. In seeking 
the grounds of fraternity and cooperation we must not look in the region of 
forms, and ceremonies, and rituals, wherein we may all very properly differ, 
and agree to differ, as we are doing here, but we must seek them especially 
in the direction of unity and of action for the removal of the world's great 

Among the exhibits at the White City is the great Krupp gun. It is a 
marvelous piece of inventive ingenuity. It is absolutely appalling in its possi- 
bilities for the destruction of humanity. Now, if the religious people of the 
world, whatever their name or form, will unite in a general league against 
war and resolve to arbitrate all difficulties, I believe that that great Krupp 
gun will, if not preserved for some museum, be literally melted and recast 
into plow-shares and pruning hooks. 


This Parliament has laid very broad foundations. It is presenting an 
object-lesson of immense value. In June I had the privilege of assisting here 
in another world's congress wherein were representatives of various nation- 
alities and countries. All these were tremendously in earnest to strike a blow 
ac one of the great obstacles to the progress of Christian life in Europe - 
state-regulated vice. I cannot de'al in detail with that subject now, but I may 
say that it is the most infamous system of slavery of womanhood and girlhood 
the world has ever seen. It exists in most European countries and has its 
champions in America, who have been seeking by their propagandism to 
fasten it upon our large cities. 

Now, what has America to do on this line? America has a fearful 
responsibility, though it may not have the actual system of state-regulation. 
We call ourselves a Christian country, and yet in this beloved America of 
ours, in more than one state, under the operation of the law called " age of 
consent," a young girl of ten years is held capable of consenting to her own 
ruin. Shame, indeed; it is a shame ; a ten fold shame. I appeal, in pass 
ing, for league and unity among religious people for the overthrow of this 
system in European countries, and the rescue and redemption of our own 
land from this gigantic evil which threatens us here. 

I now pass to another overshadowing evil, the ever pressing drink evil. 
There was another congress held here in June ; it was to deal with the vice 
of intemperance. It had the privilege of looking over forty consular reports 
prepared at the request of the late Secretary of State, Mr. Blaine. In every 
one of these reports intemperance was shown to be a producing cause of a 
large part of the vice, immorality and crime in those countries. There is 
need of an alliance on the part of religious people for the removal of this 
great evil which stands in the pathway of practical Christian progress. 

Now, another thought in a different direction. What the world greatly 
needs to-day in all countries is greater simplicity in connection with the 
religious life and propagandism. The Society of Friends, in whose behalf I 
appear before you, may fairly claim to have been teachers by example in 
that direction. We want to banish the spirit of worldliness from every land, 
which has taken possession of many churches, and inaugurate an era of 
greater simplicity. 


There is a unity of religion underlying the diversity of religions, and the 
important work before us is not so much to make men accept one or the 
other ot the various religions of the world, as to induce them to accept relig- 
ion in a broad and universal sense. This lesson which we have learned 
here, we shall, I hope, teach elsewhere, so that, from the Hall of Columbus 
as a center, it will spread and spread and spread, until it at last reaches the 
furtherest limits of the habitable globe. 

The clergymen are responsible mainly for the bigotry of the laity. I 
am glad you agree with me. You have got it from us. We have been 
bigots partly from ignorance, partly from our supercilious priestly pride. We 
have transferred our bigotry to the laity. We have kindled their bigotry 
into a flame. But there have been one or two glorious exceptions. I should 
like to quote you two or three verses from one of your own bishops : 

The parish priest, 

Of austerity, 

Climbed up in a high church steeple, 

To be nearer God, 

So that he might hand 

His word down to the people. 

And in sermon script, 

He daily wrote 

What he thought was sent from heaven ; 

And he dropped it down 

On the people's heads 

Two times one day in seven. 

In his age God said 
" Come down and die ; " 

And he cried out from the steeple, 
" Where art thou, Lord ? " 

And the Lord replied, 
" Down here among my people." 

Now, who are God's people ? What is religion ? Perhaps we may be 
able to arrive at a definite answer to this question if we try to discover 
whether there are any subjects in regard to which the great religious lead- 
ers of the world differ. Let me read you two or three extracts. The first 
words are taken from the old Hebrew Prophets : 

To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me ? saith the 
Lord. I delight not in the blood of bullocks or of he-goats. Bring no 
more vain oblations ; incense is an abomination unto me ; your new moons 



and sabbaths I cannot away with. Cease to do evil ; learn to do well. Seek 
judgment ; relieve the oppressed ; judge the fatherless ; plead for the widow. 

Zoroaster preached the doctrine that the one thing needful was to do 
right. All good thoughts, words and works lead to Paradise. All evil 
thoughts, words and works to hell. Confucius was so anxious to fix men's 
attention on their duty that he would enter into no metaphysical speculation 
regarding the problem of immortality. When questioned about it he replied : 
" I do not as yet know what life is. How can I understand death ? " The 
whole duty of man, he said, might be summed up in the word reciprocity. 
We must refrain from injuring others, as we would that they should refrain 
from injuring us. Gautama taught that every man has to work out his sal- 
vation for himself, without the mediation of a priest. On one occasion, 
when he met a sacrificial procession, he explained to his followers that it 
was idle to shed the blood of bulls and goats, that all they needed was 
change of heart. So, too, he insisted on the uselessness of fasts and pen- 
ances and other forms of ritual. 

'Neither going naked, nor shaving the head, nor wearing matted hair, 
nor dirt, nor rough garments, nor reading the Vedas will cleanse a man. . 
Anger, drunkenness, envy, disparaging others, these constitute unclean- 
ness, and not the eating of flesh." 

He summed up his teaching in the celebrated verse : 

To cease from sin, 

To get virtue, 

To cleanse the heart, 

That is the religion of the Buddhas. 

And in the farewell address which he delivered to his disciples he 
called his religion by the name of Purity. " Learn, " he exhorted, " and 
spread abroad the law thought out and revealed by me, that this Purity of 
mine may last long and be perpetuated for the good and happiness of mul- 
titudes. " To the same effect spoke Christ: "Not everyone that sayeth 
unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter 'into the Kingdom of Heaven, but he that 
doeth the will ot my Father." Mohammed again taught the self-same doc- 
trine of justification by works : 

It is not the flesh and blood ye sacrificed ; it is your piety, which is 

acceptable to God Woe to them that make a sbow of piety and 

refuse to help the needy. It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces in 
prayer toward the east or toward the west, but righteousness is of those 
who perform the covenants which they have covenanted. < 

This was the teaching of the great religious teachers of the world. But 
these old forms of religion are hardly now recognizable. You have only to 
read Davies' Book on Buddhism and the great poem to which reference has 
been made, and you will see how in modern times there is a wide departure 
from the original Buddhism and Mohammedanism how far they have 
diverged from the original plan of their fathers. And the same is true ol 
Christianity. Christ taught no dogmas, Christ laid down no system of cere- 


monialism. And yet, what do we Hud in Christendom? For centuries his 
disciples engaged in the fiercest controversy over the question, " Whether 
his substance " (whatever that may be -you may know, 1 don't) -" was 
the same substance of the Father or only similar." Thay fought like tigers 
over the definition of the very Prince of Peace. Later on Christendom was 
literally rent asunder over the question of "Whether the Holy Ghost pio- 
ceeded from the Father and the Son " (whatever that may mean). And my 
own church, the Church of England, has been, and still is, in danger of dis- 
ruption from the question of clothes. 

Now these metaphysical subtleties -these questions of millinery were 
started by theologians. They may be useful or not that is a matter of 
opinion* but they had nothing whatever to do with religion as religion was 
understood by the greatest teachers - the true religion which the world has 
had. That is a fact which all the great religious teachers of the world have 
agreed upon, that conduct was the only thing needful. 

But it may be objected that a religion of conduct is nothing but mor 
ality. Some people have a great contempt for morality, and I am not sur- 
prised at it. * They are accustomed to call men moral who restrain them- 
selves from mxxrder and manage just to steer clear of t\\e divorce court 
That kind of morality is a contemptible thing. That is not real morality 
We should understand by morality all around good conduct, conduct that i 
governed only by Jove, and in that true sense there is no such thing as mer 
morality; in that true sense morality involves religion. Don't misunder 
stand me ; I am far from denying the importance of an explicit recognitior 
of God. It is of very great importance. It affords us an explanation, 1 
hopeful explanation of the mysteries of existence which nothing else car 

lint explicit recognition of God is^not the beginning of religion. That 
is not the first which is spiritual, but that which is natural, and afterward 
that which is spiritual. " If a man love not his brother whom he hath seen, 
how can he love God whom he hath not seen ? n Nor is an explicit recogni- 
tion of God the essence of religion. Who shall define the essence of religion? 
If a man say that he loves God and hatcth his brother, he is a liar. It is by 
love of man alone that religion can be manifested. The love of man is the 
essence of religion. Religion may be lacking in metaphysical complete- 
ness; it may be lacking in original consistency ; it may be lacking in esthet- 
ical development ; it may be lacking in almost everything, yet if lacking in 
brotherly love it would be mockery and a sham. 

The essential thing is in right conduct, therefore it follows that there 
must be implicit recognition of God, I tell y u there is a strange surprise 
awaiting some of us in the great hereafter. We shall discover that many 
so-called atheists are, after all, more religious than ourselves. He who 
worships, though he know it not, peace be on the intention of his thought, 
devout^ beyond the meaning of his will. The whole thing has been summed 
up once and forever in Leigh Hunt's beautiful story of " Abou Ben Adhem." 

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Believing, as we all do, that the saving power of religion pure and sim- 
ple transcends all other forces that make for righteousness in human life, it 
is not too much to believe that when such a religion becomes a part of the 
breath and life, not only of the colored people, but of all the people in the 
country, there will be no place or time for the reign of prejudice and 
injustice. More of religion and less church may be accepted as a general 
answer to this question. In the first place, the churches have sent amongst 
us too many ministers who have had no sort of preparation and fitness for 
the work assigned them. With a due regard for the highly capable colored 
ministers of the country, I feel no hesitancy in saying that the advancement 
of our condition is more hindered by a large part of the ministry entrusted 
with the leadership than by any other single cause. No class of American 
citizens has had so little religion and so much vitiating nonsense preached 
to them as the colored people of this country. Only men of moral and 
mental force, of a patriotic regard for the relationship of the two races, can 
be of real service as ministers in the South. A man should have the quali- 
fications of a teacher, the self-sacrificing spirit of a true missionary, and the 
enthusiasm of a reformer tcf do much good as a preacher among the negroes. 
There is needed less theology and more of human brotherhood, less decla- 
mation and more common sense and love for the truth. 

The home and social life of these people are in urgent need of the puri- 
iymg power ot religion. In nothing was slavery so savage and so relent- 
ness as in its attempted destruction of the family instinct of the negro race 
in America. Individuals hot families, shelters not homes, herding not mar- 
riage, were the cardinal sins in that system of horrors. Religion should not 
utter itself only once or twice a week through a minister from a pulpit, but 
should open every cabin door and get immediate contact with those who 
have not yet learned to translate into terms of conduct the promptings of 
religion. There is needed in these new and budding homes of the race a 
constructive morality. The colored people are eager to learn and know the 
lessons that make men and women morally strong and responsible. In 
pleading for some organized effort to improve the home life of these people, 
we are asking -for nothing but what is recognized everywhere as the neces- 
sary protection to the homes of all civilized people. 

There is still another and important need of religion in behalf of our 
advancement. In nothing do the American people so contradict the spirit 



of their institutions, the high sentiments of their civilization, and the maxims 
of their religion, as they do in practically denying to our colored men and 
women the full rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The 
colored people have appealed to every source of power and authority for 
relief, but in vain. For the last twenty-five years we have gone to legisla- 
tures, to political parties, and even to churches, for some cure for prejudice ; 
but we have at last learned that help from these sources is merely palliative. 
It is a monstrous thing that nearly one-half of the so-called Evangelical 
churches of this country, those situated in the South, repudiate fellowship to 
every Christian man and woman who happens to be of African descent. 
The golden rule of fellowship taught in the Christian Bible becomes in 
practice the iron rule of race hatred. Can religion help the American 
people to be consistent and to live up to all they profess and believe in 
their government and religion ? What we need is such a reinforcement of 
the gentle power of religion that all souls of whatever color shall be included 
within the blessed circle of its influence. It should be the province of relig- 
ion to unite, and not to separate, men and women according to the super- 
ficial differences of race lines. The American negro in his environment needs 
the moral helpfulness of contact with men and women whose lives are 
larger, sweeter and stronger than his. The colored man has the right 
according to his worth to earn an honest living in every calling and branch 
of industry that makes ours the busiest of nations, but there is needed a more 
religious sense of justice that will permit him to exercise this right as freely 
as any other worthy citizen can do. 

I believe that I correctly speak the feeling of the colored people in 
declaring our unyielding faith in the corrective influence of true religion. 
We believe that there is too much potency in the sentiment of human broth- 
erhood, and in the still higher sentiment of the Fatherhood ot God, to allow 
a whole race of hopeful men and women to remain long outside of the pale 
of that ever growing sympathetic interest of man in man. 



In the beginning of Roman domination, international law had 
really no existence ; the Roman world was in fact a federation of peoples 
under the same ruler as sovereign arbitrator ; for the allies and confederates 
of Rome were subjects who preserved the appearance of liberty. This 
union of states did not resemble the society of free and equal states/ like 
that of modern times ; it was a society of states equally subject to Roman 
power, though the forms of subjection were different. At a later period 
appearances were abandoned ; the territories of allies, confederates and 
kings were divided into Roman provinces, subject to the imperial power. 

At the end of the sixth century, the Goths, the Fianks, the Saxons and 
the Vandals had divided the western provinces of the Roman Empire into 
different kingdoms, and to the subjection of the Crcsars succeeded the lib- 
erty of the peoples become independent sovereigns on their own territory. 
- The church alone, in the midst of this world of dissolution, was com- 
pletely and powerfully organized. The various states, conscious of their 
weakness, voluntarily sought pontifical intervention, until the pontifical 
tribunal became the resort of peoples and princes for the settlement of their 
controversies on principles of equity and justice. Again, during the tenth 
and eleventh centuries, the papal authority was the only moral force 
exerted in Europe to check the disorders and violence of the age ; to it was 
due " the peace and the truce of God." From that time until the sixteenth 
century the Pope was the acknowledged arbitrator, not only of controver- 
sies between nations, but of controversies between peoples and their rulers. 

The international regime of Christendom presupposed unity of faith 
among all the peoples composing it, adherence to the Catholic faith, and, as 
u consequence, general obedience to the decrees of the Pope. But the Pro- 
testant Reformation denied the authority of the church. This rendered 
papal arbitration no longer possible, and no other tribunal for the determin- 
ation of controversies between nations has been substituted in its place. 
Many schemes have since been prop&sed, many attempts have been sincerely 
made, to establish complete international arbitration. But the movement 
has not yet advanced beyond earnest agitation, although there have been 
many instances of arbitration between a few nations, which indicate what 
a glorious thing a perfect system of international arbitration would be. 

Modern society demands of states that they accept for themselves the 
law which they impose on their own citizens, that no person shall be a judge 
in his own case. In this society there are many patriots of humanity who 



believe that love of country may he reconciled with the love of humanity, 
and that the day is not far distant when for the happiness of nations and 
the tranquillity of governments, the policy of life will take a definitive step 
towards the suppression of the policy of death. F<Snelon said : "As the peo- 
ple of each state ought to be subject to the laws of their country, although 
those laws may sometimes conflict with their particular interest, so each sep- 
arate nation ought to respect the laws of the civili/ed world, which are those 
of nature and of nations, to the prejudice even of its own interest and 
aggrandizement. It is not lawful for one to save himself by the ruin of his 
family, nor to aggrandi/e his family to the injury of his country, noj- 
to seek the glory of his country by violating the rights of humanity." With 
treaties of arbitration commence the juridical status of nations, and states- 
men think that international wars will disappear before the arbitration tri- 
bunals of a more advanced civil i/ation. 

President Grant in his message to Congress in 1873 mystically said, 
"I am disposed to believe that the Author of the universe is preparing the 
world to become a single nation, speaking the same language, which will 
hereafter render armies and navies superfluous." In 1874 Congress, by a 
joint resolution, declared that the people of the United States recommend 
that an arbitration tribunal be substituted in place of war, and the President 
was authorized to open negotiations for the establishment of a system of 
international rules for the settlement of controversies without resort to war, 
In December, i8cS2, President Garfield announced in his message to Con- 
gress that he was leady to participate in any measure tending " to guarantee 
peace on earth." 

The United States in many instances has added example to precept. 
Since the year 1818 the United States has settled by arbitration all of its 
controversies with foreign nations. The differences with England as to 
the interpretation of the treaty of Ghent were submitted to arbitration in 
1818, and again in 1822, and the third tune in 1827. Arbitration disposed 
of the controversies with Portugal in 1851, with Great Britain in regard to 
slaves landed at Napan from the ship "Creole" in 1853, with Chili in 1858, 
with Paraguay in 1859, with Peru in 1863 and 1868, with (Jreat Britain as 
to Puget Sound in 1863, with Mexico in 1868, with Great Britain as to 
losses caused by Confederate cruiseis during the civil war in 1871, with 
Columbia in 1874, with France in 1880, with Denmark in 1888, with 
Venezuela in 1890, and only a few weeks ago the Behring Sea controversy 
with England was settled by arbitration in Paris. 

It is interesting to know that during the century from 1793 to 1893 
there have been fifty-eight international arbitrations, and the advance of 
public opinion toward that mode of settling national controversies may be 
measured by the gradual increase of arbitration during the of the 
rM\tnrv. Fiom 1793 to 1848, a period of fifty-live years, there were nine 
*i*mtrations ; there were fifteen from 1848 to 1870, a period of twenty-two 


years; there were fourteen from 1870 to 1880, and twenty from 1880 to 
1893. The United States and other American States were interested in 
thirteen of these arbitrations ; the United States, other American States and 
European nations, were interested in twenty-three ; Asiatic and African 
States were interested in three ; and European nations only were interested 
in eighteen. 

Peace leagues, and international conferences, and associations for the 
advancement of social science, have for over thirty years endeavored to 
elaborate an international code, with organized arbitration ; that is to say, 
a permanent juridical tribunal, as distinguished from a political congress. 
These associations see that economical solidarity dominates our age, that 
the mutual dependence of nations is manifested. Italy and France unite to 
pierce Mont Cenis ; Germany, Switzerland and Italy are united by the 
tunnel of St. Gothard ; England and America by the transatlantic cable. 
The French open to the world the Suez canal. By an analogous phenome- 
non, laborers group themselves into unions, and hold their international con- 
gresses, and substitute the patriotism of class for the patriotism of peoples, 
and form, as it were, a state in the midst of nations. 

This economical solidarity suggests success in formulating some plan 
for organizing a permanent juridical international tribunal of arbitration. 
No one wishes to consolidate all nations into one, and establish an uni- 
versal empire, the ideal state of the humanitarians ; for nations are moral 
persons, and are part of humanity as such ; they assume reciprocal obliga- 
tions, which constitute international right. A nation is an organism created 
by language, by tradition, by history, and the will of those who compose it ; 
hence all countries are equal, and have an equal right to inviolability. 
There may be some countries of large and some of small territories, but 
these are not large or small countries, because, as nations, they are equal, 
and each one is the work of man, which man should respect. 

The obstacles to an international code are not insurmountable, but the 
assent of nations to the establishment of a permanent tribunal of arbitra- 
tion depends upon the practicability of so organizing it as to secure impar- 
tiality. Many suggestions have been made by the wise and the learned, by 
philosophers, statesmen and philanthropists, but no one of them seems to be 
free from objections. 

Why should not the exceptional position of the Pope be utilized by the 
nations of the world ? lie is the highest representative of moral force on 
earth ; over two hundred millions of Christians, scattered throughout all 
nations, stand at his back, with a moral power which no other human being 
can command ; no longer a temporal sovereign, the ambition of hegemony 
cannot affect his judgment, religion and state are practically disassociated 
throughout Christendom, so that in matters of religion all are free to follow 
the dictates of conscience without fear of the civil power, and therefore 
political motives cannot disturb his equilibrium ; provision could be made for 





the exceptional controversies to which his native country might be a party. 
The Pope, if selected by all, would exert the authority thus vested in him by 
virtue of the assent of nations, and the nature of the authority would be 
civil, the exercise of which would commit no one to Papal supremacy, or to 
the ecclesiastical doctrines based upon it. 




If one were to attempt to analyze the character of the Jew on the basis 
of what has been said about him in history, in fiction, or other forms of liter- 
ature, both prose and poetry, lie would find himself confused and baffled 
before the greatest paradoxes. In this way so great an injustice has been 
done to the Jew that it will be impossible for mankind ever to rectify it or 
atone therefor. To cite but one example out of an infinite number, Shake- 
speare's portrayal of the Jew in his character of Shylock is untrue in every 
heinous detail. 

A dense ignorance exists about the Jews regarding their social and 
domestic life, their history and literature, their achievements and disappoint- 
ments, their religion, ideals and hopes. And this ignorance is not confined 
merely to ordinary men, but prevails also among scholars. 

Further, much of the prejudice against the Jews arises from the error of 
regarding them as belonging to a distinct race and nation, and partakes of 
that form of prejudice which is usually, though unjustly, entertained against 
aliens. But Jews do not form a distinct nationality or race. Hebrew is the 
name of an ancient race from which the Jew is descended, but there have 
been so many admixtures to the original race that scarcely a trace of it 
exists in the modern Jews. Nor is there any general desire to return to 
Palestine and resurrect the ancient nationality. \Ve form merely an inde- 
pendent religious community, and feel keenly the injustice that is done us 
when the religion of the Jew is singled out for aspersion, whenever such a 
citi/en is guilty of a misdemeanor. Jew is not to be used parallel with Ger- 
man, Englishman, American, but with Christian, Catholic, Protestant, 
Buddhist, Mohammedan or Atheist. 

Though Jews claim to be merely an independent religious community, 
even in this aspect they must continually face either ignorance as to their 
religion, or misrepresentation. It is well established that the essence of 
Judaism was not understood by the ancient heathen world. Those worship- 
ing many gods could never rise to a comprehension of the unity which the 
idea of God in Judaism represented. The invisible God of the Hebrews 


was too visionary for the heathens who bowed down before an idol. And 
this sublime idea of a unity, indivisible and invisible, has not found its 
worthy appreciation even in modern times. Judaism is represented as the 
rankest heresy, as a tribal religion. It is strange, yet true, that many believe 
the Judaism of to-day to have retained the old form of the ancient Levitical 
cult and priestly practices. The evolution which Judaism has undergone in 
the past two thousand years, seems to be an unknown quantity in the 
minds of many. 

So little is Judaism understood by even educated men outside of our 
ranks that it is commonly believed that all Jews hold the same form of faith 
and practice. Here we have a common error of reasoning. Because some 
Jews still believe in the coming of a personal Messiah, or in bodily resurrec- 
tion, or in the establishment of the Palestinian kingdom, the inference is at 
once drawn by many, that all Jews hold the same belief. Very little is 
known by the public of the several schisms in modern Judaism denominated 
as orthodox, conservative, reform and radical. It is not my province to 
speak exhaustively of these sects and it must suffice to merely remark here 
that orthodox Judaism believes in carrying out the letter of the ancient 
Mosaic code as expounded by the Talumudic Rabbins ; that reform Judaism 
seeks to retain the spirit only of the ancient law, discarding the absolute 
authority of both Bible and Talmud, making reason and modern demands 
paramount; that conservatism is merely a moderate reform, while radicalism 
declares itself independent of established forms, clinging mainly to the 
ethical basis of Judaism. Reform Judaism has been the specially favored 
subject of misunderstanding. Far from breaking up Judaism, reform has 
strengthened it in many ways and retained in the fold those who would 
have gone over, not to Christianity, but to Atheism. 

To prevent the inference that Judaism is no positive quantity and that 
there are irreconcilable differences dividing the various sects, I will say 
that all Jews agree on essentials and declare their belief in the unity and 
spirituality of God, in the efficacy of religion for spiiitual regeneration and 
for ethical improvement, in the universal law of compensation, according to 
which there are reward and punishment, either here or hereafter, in the final 
triumph of truth and fraternity of all men. It may be briefly stated that the 
Decalogue forms the constitution of Judaism. 

We are often charged with exclusiveness and clannishness, with having 
only narrow tribal aspirations and with being averse to breaking down social 
barriers. Few outside of that inner close circle that is to be met in the Jewish 
home or social group know aught of the Jew's domestic happiness and social 
virtues. If there is jyiy clannishness in the Jew it is due not to any con- 
tempt for the outside world, but to an utter abandon to the charm of home 
and the fascination of confreres in thought and sentiment. However, if 
there is a remnant of exclusiveness in the Jew of to-day, is he to blame for 
it ? Did he create the social barriers ? The fact that Jews are, as a rule, 



averse to intermarriage with non-Jews has been quoted in evidence of Jewish 
exclusiveness. Two errors seem to underlie this false reasoning : the one, 
that Judaism interdicts marriage with non-Jews, and the other that the Jewish 
Church disciplines those who are guilty of such an act. The Mosaic law, at 
best, only forbade intermarriage with the seven Canaanitish nations, and 
though the only justifiable inference would be that this interdiction applies 
only to heathen, still by rabbinical forms of interpretation it has been made 
to apply also to all non-Jews. The historical fact is that the Roman Catho- 
lic council held at Orleans in 533 A. C. E., first prohibited its followers from 
intermarrying with Jews. This decree was later enforced by meting out the 
penalty of death to both parties to such a union. Jewish rabbis then, as a 
matter of self-protection, interdicted the practice of intermarriage, and 
though to-day men are free to act according to their tastes, there exists on 
the part of the Jew no more repugnance to intermarriage than on the part of 
the Christian. Such ties are, as a rule, not encouraged by the families of 
either side, and for very good cause. 



The four elements which make up the power for good in the English- 
speaking race and fit it to be the Divine instrument for blessing the world 
are: I. Its historic planting and training. 2. Its geographic position. 
3. Its physical and political traits. 4. Its moral and religious character ; 
which combined constitute its Divine call and opportunity, and result in 
its religious mission, its duty and responsibility. 

I. The Historic Planting and Training. In the beginning of the 
seventh t century the Saxon race in Britain embraced the religion of Christ. 
From that time through nine centuries the hand of God was training, lead- 
ing, discipliniAg and developing that sturdy northern race, until the hidden 
torch of truth was wrested from its hiding-place by Luther, and held aloft for 
the enlightenment of mankind, just at the time when Columbus discovered 
the continent of America, and opened the new and final arena for the 
activity and highest development of man. 

Was it an accident that North America fell to the lot of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, that vigorous Northern people of brain and brawn, of faith and 
courage, of order and liberty ? Was it not the Divine preparation of a field 
for the planting and training of the freest, highest Christian civilization, the 
union of personal freedom and reverence for law ? This composite race of 
Copyright, 1893, by J, H. B. 


Norman Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic blood, planted on the hills and valleys, 
by the rivers and plains, and among the inexhaustible treasures of coal and 
iron, of silver and gold, of this marvelous continent, were sent here as a part 
of a far-reaching plan whose consummation will extend down through the 

II. The Geographical Position. A map of the world with North Amer- 
ica in the center shows at a glance the strategic position of Great Britain and 
the United States. Their vast littoral, the innumerable harbors facing the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the maritime instincts of the two nations, their 
invigorating climate, matchless resources, world-wide commerce, facilities 
for exploration and travel, and peculiar adaptation to permanent coloniza- 
tion in remote countries, give these peoples the control of the world's future 
and the key to its moral and ethnical problems. 

- III. The Physical, Social and Political Traits of the English-Speaking 
Peoples are a potent factor in their influence among the nations. Restless 
and migrating, they are still home-loving and stable. They are diffusive, 
yet constructive ; free and liberty-loving yet reverent to law ; intolerant of 
tyranny, yet considerate of the lowly and the poor. Their strong individu- 
ality, their spirit of enterprise, their quiet self-control, their courage, tenacity 
and perseverance, their gravity and calmness, are elements of prodigious 
strength. In dealing with Orientals, their generosity, their innate sense of 
liberty and fair play have given them a firm and enduring hold upon the 
confidence of the 'people. They bear those traits and principles with them 
to the ends of the earth. If we add to this the phenomenal growth of sci- 
entific discovery and invention, we are prepared to expect from such a race 
the final and complete subjugation of the powers and forces of Nature for 
the benefit and uplifting of mankind. 

IV. The Moral and Religiotis Character and Training of these Nations. 
A Divine voice summoned the Anglo-Saxon race out of paganism into a 
positive faith and the cheering hopes of the Gospel ; but centuries of disci- 
pline and gradual growth were needed to fit them as a nation to be the 
messengers of light and life to the world. 

The native love of truth of these peoples has been confirmed and 
intensified by the English Bible. Integrity, veracity and impartial justice 
are to great extent national traits. These great nations are permeated with 
the principles of the Bible ; their poetry, history, science and philosophy are 
moral, pure and religious ; they are founded on a belief in the Divine exist- 
ence and Providence, and in final retribution ; in the sanctions of law and 
the supremacy of conscience ; in man's responsibility to God, and the ruler's 
responsibility to the people; in the purity of the family, the honor of 
woman, and the sanctity of home ; in the obligation to treat all men, white*, 
black and tawny, as brothers made in the image of God. Such principles 
as these are destined to mold and control all mankind. The Havelocks 
and Farraguts and Gordons, the men of sturdy faith and sterling sense, of 


pure morals and serene trust in God, are the men who are respected, trusted 
and loved, even to the remotest parts of the globe. 

With such a unique combination of historic, geographical, political, 
and religious elements, it is easy to see what constitutes the Divine Call 
and Opportunity, the religious mission and responsibility of these great 

The true ideal of the religious mission of a nation embraces its entire 
intellectual, moral and social relations and duties to its own people and to 
all other peoples. It is thus a home and a foreign mission. 

(a) To its own citizens this mission is one of religious liberty, the pro- 
motion of Sabbath rest, temperance, -social purity, and reverence for the 
laws of God. The fear of God cannot be enforced by legal enactment, but 
nations who owe their liberties and laws, their happiness in the present and 
their hopes for the future to the Word of God, should see to it that every 
citizen, native or adopted, shall be able to read, and be taught to reverence, 
this Divine Magna Charta of human rights and human happiness. 

It is treason to liberty, disloyalty to religion, and a betrayal of the 
sacred trust we hold from God for our children and our country, to surren- 
der the control of our educational system, our moral code, and our holy Sab- 
bath rest from toil, to our brethren from other lands, who have come at our 


disinterested invitation to share in these blessings, but who, as yet hardly 
free from the shell and the shackles of Old World absolutism, or the 
despair-begotten dreams of unbridled license, are not yet assimilated to our 
essential and vital principles of liberty and law, of perfect freedom of con- 
science, tempered by the absolute subjection of the individual to the public 
good. Let each rear his own temple for the worship of his God according 
to his own conscience, but let the school-house be reared by all in common, 
open and free to all, and patronized by all. 

() To the civilized nations this mission is one which can only be 
effective through a consistent, moral example. They are set for an exam- 
ple, to exhibit moral reform in act, to shun all occasion of war and denounce 
its horrors, to show the blessings of arbitration by adopting it as their own 
settled international practice, and to treat all social questions from the 
standpoint of conscience and equity. The Alabama and Behring Sea arbi- 
trations have been an object lesson to the world more potent in exhibiting 
the true spirit of Christianity than millions of printed pages or the persua- 
sive voices of a hundred messengers of the Cross. It is only ninety-nine 
years since the eminent Edmund Burke used language respecting the 
French people which would now be denounced as unworthy of a civilized 
man. It is the religious mission of the English-speaking nations to form a 
juster estimate of other nations, to treat all men as entitled to respect, to 
allow conscience its full sway in all our dealings with them. 

(e) To the semi-civilized and heathen nations our religious mission is 
one of helpfulness, uplifting and enlightenment. The sympathies of our 


Christian faith are all with the poor, the suffering, the ignorant, the 

The highly favored northern races are called by every prompting of the 
law of love to go to the help of the less favored continents of the South. 
Christ bids the strong to help the weak, the blessed to succor the unblessed, 
the free to deliver the enslaved, the saved to evangelize the unsaved. 

But we find ourselves confronted and thwarted at the very gateway of 
the Asiatic and African, as well as the Polynesian races, by that monster of 
hideous mien, the sacra auri fames, the accursed European greed for gold ; 
gold earned at any price, gold in exchange for opium, gold for poisonous, 
maddening liquors, degrading and crazing with their flood of foulness and 
death men, women and children, made in the image of God. We who are 
strong, are bidden by our Master to bear the infirmities of the weak, and 
instead of this, men bearing the name of Christians, are shamelessly taking 
advantage of their weakness for the lowest and most groveling motives to 
betray and destroy them. While we thank God 'for the great insurrection of 
the human mind in the sixteenth century against spiritual absolutism ; for 
our legacy of liberty, its principles, its maxims and its glorious results ; for 
our pure and peaceful homes ; for our sacred day of rest, instituted by God 
himself, honored and kept pure by our forefathers, reverenced and enforced 
by Washington and Lincoln in the critical emergency of war; for the dig- 
nity and honor with which our women are crowned ; for the growing abhor- 
rence of war ; for the spirit of moral and social reform, and for the Divine 
call and opportunity to go forth and bless the nations ; let us all resolve 
that our nation and people shall no longer be compromised by complicity in 
these accursed forms of sordid traffic. 

Our mission is one of peace. We are to guarantee to our sons and 
daughters of toil one full day's rest in seven ; an equitable adjustment of 
all social and labor questions that arise ; the protection of our children from 
the gilded tempting cup which at last " biteth like a serpent and stingeth 
like an adder." We are not to be ashamed of that Divine Book which has 
made the difference between North and South America, between Great 
Britain and the Spanish peninsula. 

This then is our mission : that we who are made in the image of God, 
should remember that all men are made in God's image. To this divine 
knowledge we owe all we are, all we hope for. We are rising gradually 
towards that image, and we owe to our fellow men to aid them in returning 
to it in the glory of God and the beauty of holiness. It is a celestial privi- 
lege and with it comes a high responsibility, from which there is no escape, 

In the palace of Behjeh, or Delight, just outside the fortress of Acre, 
on the Syrian coast, there died a few months since a famous Persian sage, 
the Babi saint, named Behd Allah the "Glory of God" the head of that 
vast reform party of Persian Moslems, who accept the New Testament as 
the Word of God and Christ as the deliverer of men, who regard all nations 


as one, and all men as brothers. Three years ago he was visilecl l*y a Cam- 
bridge scholar, and gave utterances to sentiments so noble, so Christ-like, 
that we repeat them as our closing words : 

44 That all nations should become one in faith and all men as brothers ; 
that the bonds of affection and unity between the sons of men should be 
strengthened ; that diversity of religion should cease and differences of race 
be annulled ; what harm is there in this ? Yet so it shall be. These fruit- 
less strifes, these ruinous wars shall pass away, and the* Most Great Peace * 
shall come. Do not you in Europe need this also ? Let not a man glory 
in this, that he loves his country ; let him rather glory in this, that he loves 
his kind." 



The Armenian Church is the oldest Christian church in the world. 

Because of its past it has a peculiar place among other churches. While 
the church is only one element in the lives of other nations, in Armenia it 
embraces the whole life of the nation. The Armenians love their country, 
because they love Christianity. 

The construction of the Armenian Church is simple and apostolic. It 
is independent and national. The ordinary clergy are elected by each par- 
ish. Each church being free in its home work, they are all bound with one 
another, and so form a unity. The people share largely in the work of the 
church. The clergy exists for the people, and not the people for the clergy. 

The Armenian clergy have always been pioneers in the educational 
advancement of the nation. They have been the bringers-in of European 
civilization to their people. They have been first in danger and first in civ- 

The spirit of the Armenian Church is tolerant. Every day, in our 
churches, prayers are offered for all those who call on the name of the 
Most High in sincerity. 

The Armenian Church does not like religious disputes. She has 
defended the ideals of Christianity more with the red blood of her children 
than with big volumes of controversies. She has always insisted on the 
brotherhood of all Christians. 

The Armenian Church has a great literature, which has had a vast 
influence over the people. But the purifying influence of our church appears 
chiefly in the family. For an Armenian the family is sacred. Ethnologists 
ask with reason : " How can we explain the continued existence of the 
Armenian nation, through the fire and sword of four thousand years ? " The 
solution of this riddle is in the pure family life. 



H- < 




Geographically, Armenia is the bridge betweeh Asia and Europe. All 
the nations of Asia have traveled over this bridge. One cannot show a 
single year in the long past, through which she has enjoyed peace. Every 
one of her stones has been baptised many times with the sacred blood of 
martyrs. Her rivers have flowed with the blood and tears of the Armenian 
nation. Surrounded by non-Christian and anti-Christian peoples, she has 
kept her Christianity and her independent national church. Through the 
darkness of the ages she has been a bright torch in the Orient of Christianity 
and civili/ation. 

All her neighbors have passed away -the Assyrians, the Babylonians, 
the Parthians, and the Persian fire-worshipers. Armenia herself has lost 
everything; crown and scepter are gone; peace and happiness have 
departed; to her lemains only the cross, the sign of martyrdom. Vet the 
Armenian Church still lives. Why? To fulfill the work she was called to 
do; to spread civili/ation among the peoples of this part of Asia, and she 
has still vitality enough to fulfill this mission. For this struggling and 
aspiring church we crave your sympathy. To help the Armenian Church 
is to help humanity. 



I come into your presence as a representative of the truths of the Ortho- 
dox Church and to greet you with our love. A man of Judea preached, 
saying ; " I am the Truth, I am the Light of the World, I will send to the 
world the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Truth, and he will say every 
truth/ 1 Has that man spoken the truth ? 

I read the scriptures and I see that our Jesus Christ sent his Holy 
Ghost, the Spirit of the Truth, to all the disciples without exception. The 
Apostles were the first Christian Church with the Spirit of the Truth. But 
the Apostles sometimes disputed among themselves upon religious questions. 
They decided it, however, by leaving it to the Apostles and elders of the 
church. Has the Orthodox Church kept this example of the Apostles ; 
namely, the discussion and the union after the decision ? Let us look at 
the history of the church. The Jews of Judea, according to the prophets, 
were waiting for a Messiah, When in the fullness of time a child was born 
in Bethlehem, and when he was old enough to preach the kingdom of 
heaven and that he was the Sop of God, he met great opposition until he 
was crucified. After his resurrection his disciples continued the work of 
their teacher, and the subject of their teaching was the person of Jesus 
Christ, the crucified. St. Paul, a learned Jew, at first a persecutor of Chris- 
tianity, finally became the chosen vessel of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ was 


to the Jews a scandal and to the Greeks a foolishness The apostles began 
at first their preaching among their compatriots, the Jews, but their followers 
were few. Then they, and especially St. Paul, applied to the nations, and 
especially to the Greeks of Asia Minor; afterwards to the Thessalonians 
and Philippians, of Macedonia, to Athenians, Corinthians and, at last, to 
Romans, or to the Jews and Greeks of Rome. 

Some Greek Christian churches had been established, and for that 
reason the evangelists wrote tneir gospel in the Greek language, as other 
disciples did their epistles. I said above that Christianity met a great oppo- 
sition. It was to fight against all the religions of that epoch. The emperors 
of Rome armed themselves against it, and the weapon cut off tender and 
feeble creatures. But Christianity became the religion of the Roman states. 
Meanwhile the opposition continued under other shapes of false Christian 
philosophy, that is, the heresies, and it began to enter the enclosure of the 
church under the shape of truth and agitated the peace of the church. 
Clouds of heresies troubled the ceremony of the church, which cut them off 
by the weapon of the true doctrine, by the weapon of the Holy Ghost accord- 
ing to the examples of the apostles, and they guarded the Christian doctrine 
far from any error. All these synods agreed about the Christian and evan- 
gelical truths and composed the Christian creed as it is to-day except the 
filioquc, which entered into the church without the ecumenical decision, at 
the ninth century. And the opinion of the whole church was one, and they 
had true love of Jesus Christ and the truth of the Holy Ghost. In that time 
have been seen most eminent theologians, Christian philosophers and 
writers of the Christian doctrine, and the most of them took part in these 

Unfortunately human interest and human pride united, entered at the 
ninth century the sacred inclosure of the church, and a great schism and 
division followed between the East and the West. This division resulted in 
retarding Christianity and in the progress of Mohammedanism, whose motto is 
" Kill the Infidels," because everyone who is not a Mohammedan, according 
to the Koran of the Prophet, is an infidel, is a dog. 

It is not my desire to speak about Turkish tyranny, but I will say a few 
words concerning the Christian kings of Europe. The people of the Orient 
suffered and still suffer; Christian virgins are dishonored by the followers of 
the Moslem Prophet, and the life of a Christian is not considered as precious 
as that of a dog. But the kings of Europe, the Christian kings, thinking 
only of themselves and their interests, see from afar this barbarous state of 
affairs, but without sympathy, and for that reason I stated that politics had 
entered the church. 

Regarding the Orthodox Church, we are true to the examples of the 
apostles ; we follow the same road in religious questions and after discussion 
do not accept new dogma without the agreement of the whole ecumenical 
church ; neither do we adopt any dogma other than that of the one united 


and undivided church whose doctrine has been followed until to day. The 
Orthodox Apostolic Catholic Church contains many different nations, and 
everyone of them uses its own language in the mass and litany and governs 
its church independently; but all these nations have the same faith. The 
patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops and bishops are all equal. There is 
no difference in their rank ; freedom, fraternity and ceremony range between 
them. This is, in short, the church which I represent, the church which 
does not request the authority over other churches or mix itself in politics 
the church of the Apostles who had the spirit of truth. And can we 
say that the truth, far from any error, is not found in such a church ? 

In finishing this short account of my church I raise my eyes on high and 
pray : 

(), thou Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Truth, thou who illuminated the 
Holy Apostles, thou who illuminated thy saints apostolic, thy united and undi- 
vided church and synods; () thou Holy Ghost who illuminates every man 
coming into the world; thou who didst illuminate Columbus the hero to give the 
whole continent to humanity; thou who didst illuminate this glorious people 
of America to fight against slavery and for freedom ; thou who didst illumin- 
ate the eminent presidents of this Religious Congress, from which an immense 
light will be spread over all the world ; () thou Holy Ghost, hear my humble 
prayer and grant us that all men of the earth may become one flock under 
one Shepherd and that our Jesus Christ, the one Head of the Church. 


It is only by justice that real amity between nations can be secured. 
The true basis for international conduct, as for that of the individual, is the 
golden rule. "Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do 
to you, do ye even so to them." Or the rule laid down by Confucius, which 
may be called a negative form of the golden rule, " What you do not like 
when done to yourself, do not do to others." Between the old brute law of 
44 might makes right " and the Christian teaching of justice, based on a love 
for our fellow-men, there is no middle ground. 

In order *hat there may be pleasant relations between nations, treaties 
are formed. Of course, the object of such treaties should be to secure and 
preserve peace and good-fellowship, and to do this by acting in accordance 
with the demands of justice and righteousness in all dealings with each 
other. Justice Field, of the Supreme Court of the United States, in his dis- 
senting opinion on the Geary law, well said: 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H* B* 


** Aliens domiciled within the country by its consent arc entitled to all 
the guarantees for the protection of their person and property which are 
secured to native-born citizens. The moment any human being comes within 
the jurisdiction of the United States, with the consent of the government 
and such consent will always be implied when not expressly withheld, and 
in the case of the Chinese laborers before us was in terms given by treaty 
he becomes subject to all their laws and amenable to their punishment and 
entitled to their protection. Arbitrary and despotic authority can no more 
be exercised over them with reference to their persons and property than 
over the persons and property of native-born citizens. They differ only 
from citizens in the respect that they cannot vote or hold any public office. 
As men having our common humanity they are protected by all the guaran- 
tees of the constitution. To hold that they are subject to any different law, 
or are less protected in any particular is, in my judgment, against the teach- 
ings of our history, the practice of our government and the language of our 

Certainly, the object of all treaties between nations must include and 
keep foremost the idea of securing exact justice to the citizens and subjects 
of the nations represented. If this be true, it is no less true that treaties once 
made should be faithfully kept by both parties to the agreement. This has 
always been the accepted principle of civilized nations. Nothing is con- 
sidered more sacred than a treaty, and by the constitution of the United 
States, the treaties made by the government were placed with the constitution 
and the laws enacted under it as the supreme law of the land. 

If the provisions of a treaty may be set aside at the caprice of one party 
without any consultation with the other, by mere legislative enactment, they 
become of little value. A Christian nation should repudiate any deflection 
from the original principles of fidelity to treaty obligations. 

In further pursuance of justice, it is evident that in case of disagreement 
between nations they should come to good understanding without resorting 
to the barbarous practice of war. Christian principle suggests in such cases 
that other nations be called in to arbitrate. 

In the light of justice the duty of strong -nations towards weak ones is 
clear. It is to treat them as weak children in a loving family are treated, the 
stronger ones emulating each other in a strife for preeminence in kindness 
of treatment toward those who need it most. Thus among nations just 
rights will be secured to all and injustice be prevented. The weak will be 
as well off as the strongest, because the strongest will combine to secure 
every just right to the weakest. 

One most important matter to be considered at this time is the applica- 
tion of these principles to the question of immigration. No just objection 
can be made to laws intended to secure the welfare of a country, to protect 
it against anarchists, law breakers and harmful immigrants of every kind. 
But any discrimination against any race or people, as such, is of the nature 


of an essential injustice and cannot he defended on any principle of Divine 
or human law. If, as an illustrious instance of how not to do it, we examine 
the conduct of the United States government in regard to the Chinese in the 
light of the principles laid down, we can only be filled with humiliation. 
Many instances might be given showing the hardships which were experi- 
enced under former laws, but in 1892 another Inw, still more unjust and 
oppressive, violating more fundamentally our solemn treaties with China, 
was enacted, which is known as the deary law. On this Justice Field well 
said : 

The punishment is beyond all reason in its severity. It is out of all 
proportion to the alleged offense. It is cruel and unusual. As to its cru- 
elty, nothing can exceed a forcible deportation from a country of one's resi- 
dence ami the breaking up of all telations of friendship, family and busi- 
ness there contracted. I will pursue this subject no further. The decision 
of the court and the sanction it would give to legislation depriving resident 
aliens of the guarantees of the constitution Jill me with apprehension. 
These guarantees are of priceless value to every resident in the country, 
whether citizen or alien. I cannot but regard the decision as a blow against 
constitutional liberty when it declares that Congress has the right to disre- 
gard the guarantees of the constitution intended for all men domiciled in 
the country, with the consent of the government, in their rights of person 
and property. 

These words are none too strong. Our treaty had promised to these 
men the same treatment accorded to the citi/ens or subjects of the most 
favored nation, but this solemn promise seems to have been utterly ignored 
when this unblushing violation of our treaty was enacted into so-called law. 
What apology is there for such action ? None whatever. The reasons 
urged against the Chinese have been frequently shown to be without weight. 

The true course for us to take in this matter is to recover from the 
fright into which we have allowed political demagogues to throw us, and 
in a manly and Christian way to proceed at once to conform our govern- 
mental action to the eadiest and best traditions of the republic. Only in 
this way may we expect the blessing of God and ultimate honor and success 
as a nation, for it still remains true that " Righteousness exalteth a nation, 
but sin is a reproach to any people," and the law of God still remains. 



'I HI- .K'KI k < ill iTTT, 



CHICAGO, Sept. 15, 1893. 

PRINCE SERGE WOLKONSKY. DEAR SIR: There will be a meeting 
next Monday, Sept. 18, at 4 P. M., in Room 23 of the Art Palace, to decide, 
if possible, upon a formula which may serve as a bond for universal brother- 

One representative of each faith and order will be invited. The invita- 
tion is hereby extended to yourself. Yours, respectfully, 


When I received the above invitation I did not know whether this would 
be a private gathering for a friendly exchange of ideas or a public session 
with regular speeches and addresses, but the appeal touched me too pro- 
foundly not to try to prepare myself for both. In the following lines I take 
the liberty of setting forth the ideas which have been suggested tome by Mr. 
Seward's invitation. 

Much has been spoken of universal brotherhood during these last weeks, 
and still a kind of doubt prevents us from trusting in any palpable result. 
For a long time I have been searching for the reason of that doubt, which 
never ceased trailing clouds upon the pure sky that shined over those broth- 
erly gatherings; and I think 1 finally have found the reason. 

We speak of brotherhood as of a thing to be founded. People seem 
to say : "We are not brothers, but let us try to become so. Yes, let us try 
to become brothers, though difficult it may be; let us strive, for we are civil- 
ized people, and there is no real civilization without brotherhood. Brother- 
hood is the crowning of all civilization." 

Alas, brotherhood is not the crowning it is the basis, and if a civiliza- 
tion is not built on that basis, no posterior efforts can remedy the evil. It is 
not to become brothers. We must try not to forget that we are brothers. It 
is not because we are civilized that we speak of instituting a universal broth- 
erhood on earth. It is because we are not or, far more, because we are 
wrongly civilized that we strain our brains to institute a condition that never 
ceased to exist. Not by instituting societies or associations shall we inspire 
feelings of brotherhood, but in breaking the exclusiveness of those which exist. 

We must not forget that associations are not the aim, but only the 
instrument. If we regard those "religious clubs'* as an aim in them- 
selves, our membership becomes a seclusion from the rest of humanity; an 
end instead of a beginning; it generates death instead of generating life. 
It is not what we do when we go to the meeting, nor the fact of our going 



that is important, but what we do when we leave the meeting. When we 
believe that, we will see that associations and clubs are not the principal 
thing. We will not breathe without full lungs until the day we understand 
that human brotherhood is not a question of badge, and that, if we really 
wish to bring brotherhood in life, we have to turn our eyes other ways. 
Where ? This is the great question. 

Our modern civilization or, rather, let us not use this word, for it sup- 
poses a perfection, and hence cannot be applied to anything that exists on 
earth no, we will say our ways of teaching and learning, there is the evil 
we must fight against if we want to deliver the idea of human brotherhood 
from the dust and smoke and mud which cover it, so that we are able to 
forget that it exists and speak of it as a new thing to be instituted. Our 
ways of teaching are the evil, so I said and so I repeat. For our ways of 
teaching are shameful. From childhood on we are taught that human 
beings are divided as civilized, enlightened, uncivilized, barbarians, etc, I 
do not know the exact definitions used in American school-books, nor do I 
know the exact group to which I have to belong, as being a Russian but 
the fact is that from our childhood on we are trained to divide those whom 
we call our brothers into different categories, according to their more or less 
proximity to those summits of civilization, the benefits of which we enjoy, 
and the more learning we want to show the more we accentuate and under- 
line these divisions of humanity. 

And when a few of us get rid of that habit of classifying our similars; 
when we at last become aware that all nations are composed of men like 
ourselves, then we consider this conviction as our highest personal merit 
and the greatest proof of our enlightenment and culture. Is it really to our 
culture we owe these feelings of ^brotherhood ? Is it not far more to the 
fact of having succeeded in shaking off from our souls the deposits of a 
wrong education ? 

Now, I ask you all : Is that the spirit which ought to animate all educa- 
tion ? Just allow me to tell you what happened to a Russian peasant, of 
course uncivilized. He one day undertook a journey. With a bag on his 
shoulders he started off and walked through Germany, France, a part of Italy 
and Austria without knowing a word of any other language but his own. 
When he came back his land owner, the civilized man, asked him, " How it 
was possible he could make himself understood in foreign countries among 
foreign people ?" And the peasant replied in the most genuine way: 
"Well, why shouldn't they understand me, are they not human beings like 
myself ?" 

I leave you to decide which of the two was the more civilized one, and 
whether I am wrong in affirming that our modern education does just the 
contrary of what it should do. 

We think that the question of universal brotherhood is an educational 
question that it ought to be put at the very bottom of the primary school and 


not at the very top of the university. And, v y the way, do you know what might 
become a school for teaching human brotherhood ? The Midway Plaisance 
at the World's Fair. You hardly believe that, and still it is so, and if I tell 
you why you will agree with me. 

The Midway Plaisance is generally considered as a resort of pleasure. 
For me it is the most sad thing I know, because it is human life exposed as 
a show, human beings deprived of their feelings and reduced to the state of 
a catalogued exhibit, a moving panorama of human empty forms. And we 
civilized people who go and buy our entrance to the Cairo street or the Ara- 
bian circus, we even do not inquire whether these human brothers of ours 
have a human soul under their interesting and picturesque costumes. We 
look at those Arabian riders, at their equestrian exercises, the showy colors 
of their dresses, their movings, their wavings, their cheering, and we stare at 
them like animals. But their language is a beautiful one. It is a jewel set 
in filagree. Their poetry is the finest dream humanity has dreamed. No, 
don't say they are barbarians ; don!t be afraid of them ; step closer. You 
will see they are men just as we. 

Remember, you cannot become a brother of a man if you do not feel 
that you are his brother. 

So, if you really wish that humanity should be united in feelings of 
universal brotherhood, do not go to the meeting, do not become a member of 
the association, but going home, gather your children and tell them : "Chil- 
dren, let us learn, for we must know what other people are, because other 
people are our brothers, and we must know our brothers, because if we do 
not know them we may not recognize them, and it is a crime not to recog- 
nize one's brother." 

These are my ideas on human brotherhood. I am glad to have had 
the opportunity of proclaiming them publicly ; for, after having written this 
paper, I did not go to that meeting, but I want those who asked me and 
expected me to go, I want them to know why I did not go and why I never 




It is not claiming too much for Christianity to assert that beyond all 
other systems it has made its influence felt in the morality of individuals 
and of nations. It is like the sun which not only floods the earth with light, 
but imparts the force that enables her to pursue her pathway. Says Sir J 
Mackintosh : " The peculiar characteristic of the Christian religion is that 
spirit of universal charity which is the living principle of all our social 
duties." And Lord Bacon says : " There never was any philosophy, relig- 
ion or other discipline which did so plainly and highly exalt that good, which 
is communicative and depress that good which is private and particular as 
the Christian Faith." 

It has been well said "that it is one of the glories of Christianity that 
it has caused the sentiment of repentance to find a place in the heart of 
nations." This is the sentiment that I desire to evoke. 

Let it not be forgotten that to China we are indebted for the best of 
our domestic beverages ; for the elegant ware that adorns our table ; and for 
those splendid dress materials that set off the beauty of our women. 

To China, moreover, we are indebted for at least one of our sciences 
one which is doing more than any other to transform and subjugate the ele- 
ments. Alchemy, the mother of our modern chemistry, had its original root 
in the Chinese philosophy of Tao one of the religions represented here 

To China, beyond a doubt, we are indebted for the motive that stimu- 
lated the Genoese navigator to undertake his adventurous voyage ; and to 
her he was indebted for the needle that guided him on his way. Without 
China for motive, and without the magic finger for guide, it is certain that 
Columbus would not have made his voyage ; and it is highly probable that 
we should not have been holding a World's Fair at this time and place. 
With such claims on our grateful recognition, is it not a matter of surprise 
that China is not found occupying a conspicuous place in this Columbian 
Exposition ? Could anything have been more fitting than to have had the 
dragon flag floating over a 'pavilion draped with shining silks with a 
pyramid of tea-chests on one hand, and on the other a house of porcelain 
surmounted by a gigantic compass and a statue of China beckoning Colum- 
bus to cross the seas ? 

As a matter of form, our government did send an invitation to China 

Coyprtght, 1893, by J. H. B. 

72 1137 


as to other countries, to participate in a national capacity. To Chinese eyes 
it read like this : " We have excluded your laborers and skilled workmen 
oecause our people dread their competition. We have even enacted a law 
that not one of them who turns his back on our shores shall be permitted to 
re-enter our ports. Still we would like to have you help us with our big 
show, and for this occasion we are willing to relax the rigor of our rules so 
far as to admit a few of your workingmen to aid in arranging your exhibit 
under bond, be it understood, that they shall clear out as soon as the display 
is over." What wonder that a proud and sensitive government declined the 
tempting offer, leaving its industries to be represented (if at all) by the pri- 
vate enterprise of its people resident in the United States ? 

Here is China's official reply as communicated by Minister Denby in a 
dispatch tt> the Secretary of State : 

Reporting an interview with the Chinese premier, Li Hung Chong, he 
says : 

44 1 then took up the subject of the Chicago Exposition, and advised 
him to send a fleet to Hampton Roads to show the world the great progress 
China has lately made in the creation of a modern navy, I found, however, 
that it was useless to argue the subject with him. He said he would not 
send a fleet; and that China would have no exhibition at Chicago. I 
expressed my regret at this irrational conclusion, and used some arguments 
to make him recede from it but without avail" 

" Who is my neighbor ? " is a question which every human soul is bound 
to ask, in a world in which mutual aid is the first of moral laws. The 
answer given by Him, who better than any other expounded and exemplified 
the laws of God, is applicable to nations as well as to individuals. It is an 
answer that sweeps away the barriers of race and religion, and shows us the 
Samaritan forgetful of hereditary feuds ministering to the wants qf the 
needy Jew. 

Thus China is our neighbor, notwithstanding the sea that rolls between 
us, a sea which, contrary to the idea of the Roman poe~t, unites rather than 
divides. Yes China which faces us on the opposite shore of the Pacific- 
China, which occupies a domain as vast and as opulent in resources as out 
own China, teeming with a population five times as great as ours and more 
accessible to us than to any of the great nations of Christendom China, I 
say, is preeminently our neighbor. What, then, is the first of the duties 
which we owe to her? It is unquestionably to make her people par- 
takers with ourselves in the blessings of the Christian religion. 

Here in this Parliament of Religions it is unnecessary to stop to prove 
that religion is our chief good, and that every man who feels himself to be 
in possession of a clew to guide him through the labyrinth of earthly evils is 
bound to offer it to his brother man. 

Who that believes that (in Buddhistic phrase) "he has found the wa> 
out of the bitter sea/' can refuse to indicate the path to his brother man I 


The latter may decline to follow it f but that is his lookout; he may even 
feel offended by an implied assumption of superiority ; but ought a regard 
for susceptibilities of that sort to dissuade us from the duty of imparting our 
knowledge? "Why should we not send religions to your country ?" 
once said tome a distinguished Chinese professor in the Imperial University 
of Peking. Careful not to say that it was " because water does not flow up 
hill,' 1 I replied " By all means; send them and make the experiment." 
"But would your people receive them with favor?" he asked again. 
"Certainly," said I, "instead of being a voice crying in the wilderness, 
they would be welcomed to our city halls, and their message would be heard 
and' weighed." Do you suppose that my esteemed colleague at once set 
about forming a missionary society? He was proud of his position as pro- 
fessor of mathematics, and proud to be the expositor of what he called 
"western learning;" but his faith was too feeble to prompt to effort for the 
propagation of his religion. He was a Confucianist and believed in an 
over-ruling power, which he called "Shangti"or "Tien;" and had some 
shadow of notion of a life to come, as evidenced by his worship of 
ancestors ; but his religion, such as it was, was wofully wanting in vitality, 
and marked by that Sadduceean indifference which may be taken as the 
leading characteristic of his school despite the excellence of its ethical 

Another religion indigenous to China is Taoism ; but, as the Chinese 
say of their famous Book of Changes, that " it cannot be carried beyond the 
seas" we may say the same of Taoism it has nothing that will bear 
transportation. Its founder Laotsze did indeed express some sublime truths 
in beautiful language ; but he enjoined retirement from the world rather 
than persistent effort to improve mankind. His followers have become 
sadly degenerate ; and not to speak of alchemy, which they continue to 
pursue, their religion has dwindled into a compound of necromancy and 
exorcism. It is, however, very far from being dead. 

Buddhism has a nobler record. It imported into China the elements of 
a spiritual conception of the universe. It has implanted in the minds of the 
common people a firm belief in rewards and punishments. It has cherished 
a spirit of charity ; and in a word, exercised an influence so similar to that 
of Christianity that it may be considered as having done much to prepare 
the soil for the dissemination of a higher faith. But its force is spent and 
its work done. Its priesthood have lapsed into such a state of ignorance 
and corruption that in Chinese Buddhism there appears to be no possibility 
of revival. In fact, it seems to exist in a state of suspended animation sim- 
ilar to that ft those frogs that are said to have been excavated from the 
stones of a Buddhist monument in India ; which, inhaling a breath of air, 
took a leap or two and then expired. Of the Buddhism of Japan, which 
appears to be more wide-awake, it is not my province to speak ; but as to 
that of China there is reason to fear that no power can galvanize it into even 


a semblance of vitality. One more service it has rendered in addition to 
those enumerated it has proven the possibility of a religion of foreign 
origin acquiring an ascendency over the Chinese mind. 

The religion of the state is a heterogeneous cult, made up of ceremonies 
borrowed from each of these three systems. And ot the religion of the peo- 
ple, it may be affirmed that it consists of parts of all three commingled in 
each individual mind, much as gases are mingled in the atmosphere, but 
without any definite proportion. 

Each of these systems has, in its measure, served them as a useful dis- 
cipline, though in jarring and irreconcilable discord with each other. But 
the time has come for the Chinese to be introduced to a more complete 
religionone which combines the merits of all three, while it heightens them 
in degree. 

To the august character of Shangti, the Supreme Ruler, known but neg- 
lected, feared but not loved, Christianity will add the attraction of a tender 
Father, bringing him into each heart and house in lieu of the fetiches now 
enshrined there. Instead of Buddha, the Light of Asia, it will give them 
Christ, the " Light of the World ; " for the faint hopes of immortality derived 
from Taoist discipline or Buddhist transmigration, it will confer a faith that 
triumphs over death and the grave ; and to crown all, bestow on them the 
energy of the Holy Ghost quickening the conscience and sanctifying the 
affections, as nothing else has ever clone. 

The native systems bound up with the absurdities of geomancy and the 
abominations of animal worship are an anachronism in the age of steam* 
boats and telegraphs. When electricity has come forth from its hiding- 
place to link the remotest quarters of their land in instantaneous sympathy, 
ministering light, force and healing, does it not suggest to them the coming 
of a spiritual energy to do the same for the human soul ? 

This spiritual power I hold it is preeminently the duty of Americans 
to seek to impart to the people of China. When Christianity comes to 
them from Russia, England, or France, all of which have pushed their ter- 
ritories up to the frontiers of China, the Chinese are prone to suspect that 
evangelization under such auspices is only a cloak for future aggres- 
sion. It is not Christianity in itself that they object to so much as its con- 
nection with foreign power and foreign politics. 

Now these impediments are minimized in the case of the United States 
a country, which, until the outbreak of this unhappy persecution of their 
countrymen, was regarded by the Chinese as their best friend, because an 
impossible enemy. Our treaty of 1858 gives expression to this feeling by a 
clause inserted at the instance of the Chinese negotiators to the effect that 
whenever China finds herself in a difficulty with another foreign power she 
shall have the right to call on America to make use of her good offices to 
effect a settlement. America holds that proud position no longer. To 
such a pass have things come that a viceroy who has always been friendly, 

t SK I s * 

ft? rlfi W ;!*<-' ,^ JiHf 



?-^ P I Ci 





and at times has been regarded as a patron of missionaries, not long ago 
said to an American missionary : " Do not come back to China, stay in 
your own country and teach your people the practice of justice and charity." 

This brings us to the duties especially incumbent on our government, 
and the first that suggests itself is that of protecting American interests. 
That, you may say, is not a duty to China, but one that it owes to its own 
people. True,' but Americans have no interest that does not imply a cor- 
responding good to the Chinese Empire. 

Take, for example, our commerce. Do we impoverish China by taking 
her teas and silks ? Do we not on the contrary add to her wealth by giv- 
ing in exchange the materials for food and clothing at a less cost than 
would be required for their production in China ? The value of our com- 
mercial interests in that empire may be inferred, better than from any minute 
statistics from the fact that within the last thirty years they have been a 
leading factor in the construction of four lines of railway spanning this con- 
tinent and of three lines of steamships bridging the Pacific. What dimen- 
sions will they not attain when our states west of the Mississippi come to be 
filled up with an opulent population; and when the resources of China are 
developed by the application of Occidental methods? 

Had Columbus realized the grandness of his discovery and had he, 
like Balboa, bathed in the water of the Pacific, what a picture would have 
risen before the eye of his fervid imagination, a new land as rich as 
Cathay -and new and old clasping hands across a broad expanse of ocean 
whitened by the sails of a prosperous commerce. Already has such a dream 
begun to be fulfilled ; and to the prospective expansion of our commerce 
fancy can hardly assign a limit. In that bright reversion every son of our 
soil and every adopted citizen has a direct or indirect interest. 

But what has the government to do with all that, beyond giving free 
scope to private enterprise? Much, in many ways; but not to descend into 
particulais, its responsibility consists mainly in two things, both negative ; 
viz., not by an injudicious tariff to exclude the products of China from our 
markets, and not to divert the trade of China into European channels by 
planting a bitter root of hostility in the Chinese mind. 

Our other great interest is the commerce of ideas the propagation of 
Christian faith. That, you will say, is an order of things with which our 
government, from the nature of its constitution, is incapable of interfering. 

True, it may not resolve itself into a missionary society, any more than 
it can turn itself into a commercial company. Yet it may have as much to 
do with religion as with trade, and almost in the same way. 

It cannot refuse to be interested in the propagation of the Christian 
'faith, if for no other reason, because the bulk of our people (some twenty 
million church members) are interested in it. But there are other reasons 
for favoring and encouraging the missionary enterprise. 

Does it make no difference to us, whether we have for our vis-i-vis on the 


other shore of the ocean a Christian or. a pagan power? How different 
would be our relations with Europe were the religions of Asia substituted 
for her Christian institutions ! It was the possession of a common religious 
faith that molded the independent states into one family, subject to a com- 
mon code, which Phillemore calls the "jus commune of Christendom." 
" Great and inestimable," says the same writer, " has been the effect of the 
doctrines of revelation on the jurisprudence of nations," It was precisely 
the want of these doctrines for the basis of a common code, which, as 
explained by Mr. Gushing, led the negotiators of our earlier treaties with 
China to refuse to allow our people to be subject to her territorial jurisdic- 
tion. And though, as Phillemore remarks, " Events which are now happen- 
ing are evidently preparing the way for a general diffusion of international 
justice among nations of different religious creeds," is it not obvious that 
the brotherhood of man can only be expected to follow on the acknowledg- 
ment of the Fatherhood of God ? 

If to any of the European powers it' be an object to prevent China from 
becoming rich and powerful, let them discourage her from the adoption of 
our Christian faith ; but such can never be the policy of the United States, 
as we have nothing to fear from her power and much to gain from her wealth. 
She herself is beginning to be dimly conscious of what she owes to the labors 
of missionaries; in preparing the way for that "renovation of the people," 
which Confucius declares it to be the duty of an emperor to promote. To 
the Roman Catholic missionaries she is indebted for the mathematics and 
astronomy of the sixteenth century; and to Protestant missionaries, since the 
latter half of the present century, she owns a series of text- books including 
the whole circle of modern sciences -carrying her scanty stock of mathe- 
matical knowledge to the highest branches ; substituting the astronomy of 
Newton for that of Ptolemy, and adding chemistry, physics, political economy 
and international law. 

To the importance of these sciences the Chinese are gradually waking 
up; nor can they long continue to ignore the renovating power of those 
religious principles which form the soul of our western civilization. The 
greatest obstacle in the way of their acceptance would be removed could the 
Chinese be convinced that they are not intended in any way to subserve the 
ends of foreign political ambition. 

That our country has no such ends to serve, they are well aware ; and 
that our missionaries are not political agents, they are fully assured. 

This is an immense natural advantage of the United States in their 
favor; but alas ! it is more than counterbalanced by prejudices created by 
the short-sighted policy of our government in pursuing the Chinese with as 
cruel legislation as that which is directed against the Jews in Russia. Let 
the Christian people of the United States rise up in their might and demand 
that our government shall retrace its steps by repealing that odious law which 
may not be forbidden by the letter of our constitution ; but which three emi- 


nent members of our supreme court have pronounced to be in glaring oppo- 
sition to the spirit of our Afagna Charta. 

I am not presenting a plea for unrestricted immigration. It is not expected 
by China that our gates should be thrown open to the Briarean arms of her 
laboring people, any more than that she should be compelled to admit the 
labor-saving machines of this country. 

In September, 1888, the Chinese government had under advisement a 
treaty negotiated by its minister in Washington, in which to escape the 
indfgnity of an arbitrary exclusion act, it agrees to take the initiative in 
prohibiting the emigration of laborers. That treaty would undoubtedly 
have been ratified, if time had been given for the consideration of amend- 
ments which China desired to propose. But the exigencies of a presiden- 
tial campaign led our government to apply the "closure "with an abruptness 
almost unheard of in diplomatic history, demanding through our minister in 
Peking the ratification within forty-eight hours on pain of being considered 
as having rejected the treaty. The Chinese government, not choosing to 
sacrifice its dignity by complying with this unceremonious ultimatum, our 
Congress, as a bid for the vote of the Pacific Coast, hastily passed the Scott 
law, a law which our Supreme Court has decided to be in contravention of 
our treaty engagements. 

Another Olympiad came round a term which we might very well apply 
to the periodical game of electing a president -and on the high tide of 
another presidential content a new exclusion law, surpassing its predecessors 
in the severity of its enactments, was successfully floated. 

Could such a course have any other effect than that of exciting in the 
mind of China profound contempt for our republican institutions, and an 
abiding hostility towards our people ? One of our leading journals has 
characterized that law as "a piece of buncombe and barbarous legislation," 
of which the administration would appear to be " heartily ashamed," to judge 
from the excuse they find for evading its execution. 

If it were put in force and any considerable number of Chinese sub- 
jected to the penalty of deportation, all the gunboats in our navy would not 
suffice to prevent our missionaries and merchants being chased out of every 
province in the empire. That mav not be ordered by the Chinese govern- 
ment, which makes it a point of honor to observe its treaties, and which 
always acts with a dignified deliberation quite in contrast with the hasty 
proceedings of our Congress ; but there are limits to its patience, and the 
tide of popular fury will be difficult to stem. 

Let a wise diplomacy supersede these obnoxious enactments by a new 
convention which shall be fair to both parties ; then will our people be 
welcomed as friends, and America may yet recover her lost influence in 
that great Empire of the East, 



I accept with the deepest gratitude the honor to-day conferred upon me, 
I owe it to the inexhaustible kindness of our estimable president, Mr. Bonney, 
and Rev. Dr. John Henry Barrows, who have in this way wished to show 
their sympathy for the old Armenian Church. Born in the shadow of this 
. church, I love it for its tolerant and democratic spirit. It is this spirit which 
has guided my steps toward this new Pantheon. In Europe and America I 
have met many skeptics, who think that the Parliament of Religions will be 
as the Falls of Niagara, a gigantic and barren effort. This black prophecy 
has not succeeded in breaking my faith, because the truly religious heart can- 
not but be optimistic. For me this august assembly, the highest theological 
school after that of nature, will have a result which will suffice to immortalize 
the memory of John Henry Barrows and his companions in arms. It will have 
laid the basis for a universal tolerance. Fifteen years ago I was present in 
the Armenian Church of Manchester, England, at an interview between the 
Greek Archimandrite and the Supreme Patriarch of the Armenian Church. 
To the words of union uttered by the brilliant Armenian the monk replied as 
follows: "If there be no harmony between our two churches, the fault is 
not with our peoples. They are like flocks of sheep which long for nothing 
more than to pasture together. It is with us the shepherds who separate 
them that the trouble lies." Since the beginning of this Parliament we see 
on the same platform the pastors ,>f all the nations, the representatives of the 
most diverse religions, who treat each other with respect, and what is more 
with sympathy and affection. 

This scene of reconciliation, that unfolds itself before the eyes of a large 
international gathering, united in Chicago on the occasion of the World's 
Fair, and the telegraph and the press transferring the scene before the eyes 
of an entire humanity, is certainly wonderful progress. What can result 
from this great Parliament but the general conviction that religions are not 
barriers of iron, which separate forever the members of. the human families, 
but are barriers of ice which melt at the first glance of the sun of love. 
These are the words which the Armenian Patriarch at Constantinople 
answered to the words of union from the Patriarch of the Roman Catholic 
Armenians: "The union must be by acts and not bywords. Send into 
my churches your preachers and I will send into your churches my preach- 
ers; let them preach freely, but do not share their doctrines, and let the peo- 

*This address belongs chronologically to the ninth day. 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 



pie follow freely the teachings that they think best/' The Armenian Catholic 
Patriarch found this scheme too bold to be accepted, but the prelate of the 
old Armenian Church has now at the last given example of a tolerance which 
deserves to be thought of. 

Ladies and gentlemen, the memorable speakers to which we have lis- 
tened in this presence, as well as those which we shall hear to-day and until 
the end of this Parliament, will serve to reinforce, even by the antagonism 
of the religious systems, the desire for absolute tolerance. Humanity in our 
East, as well as in your West, prays for peace and love. It does not want a 
religion which teaches of a Creator who hates his creatures. It does not 
want a God who prefers an involuntary worship to one which freely flows 
from the depths of the human soul. It will bless some day the Council of 
Chicago, even should this council proclaim for its creed nothing but this one 
word " tolerance. " 



You desire me to give you freely my opinion about the Koran. 

I shall not speak of its holiness, lest I profane it, and besides I am not 
an Imam. I shall only show you that the Koran is tolerant, humane and 
moral. I shall merely quote to you some of its verses, and leave you to judge 
of its divine precepts. 

' Surely those who believe, and the Jews and the Christians and the 
Sabians, whoever believeth in God and the Last Day, and doeth that which 
is right* they shall have their reward with their Lord. There shall come no 
fear on them, neither shall they be grieved." Ch. ii : 59. 

I am then not wrong in saying that the Koran is tolerant. Now as to 
its being moral : 

44 Good and evil shall not be held equal. Turn away evil for that which 
is better, and behold, the man between whom and thyself there was enmity 
shall become, as it were, thy warmest friend. M Ch. Ixi : 33. 

"A fair speech and to forgive is better than alms followed by mischief." 
Ch, ii : 265. 

Observe how humane Mohammed was : " They shall ask thee what 
they shall bestow in alms. Answer, The good which ye bestow, let it be 
given to parents and kindred and orphans and the poor and the strangers. 
Whatever good ye do, God knoweth it." Ch. ii : 21 1. 

Concerning Hospitality. "If any of the idolaters shall demand protec- 
tipn of thee, grant him protection, that he may hear the word of God, and 
afterwards let him reach the place of security/' Ch. ix : 6. 

Mercy toward Slaves. " Unto such of your slaves as desire a written 






instrument allowing them to redeem themselves on paying a certain sum, 
write one, if you know good in them, and give them of the riches of God 
which he hath given thee." Ch. xxiv : 33. 

Encouragement of Learning. Mohammed said : " Learned men are 
the heirs of prophets/ 1 "Learning is a divine precept that every Mussul- 
man must fulfill." "Acquire knowledge, even if it were in China." " Expect 
no good from a man who is neither learned nor student." Moslem writers 
have said much on this subject. 

77te Koran* s Praise of Women. " Happy and fortunate is the man who 
has only one wife, pious and virtuous." " 1 love three things in your world, 
woman, perfume and prayer." " The greatest bliss of man after that of his 
being a faithful believer in God, is his having a pious wife who delights him 
when he looks at her, obeys him when he commands her, and preserves his 
honor and his property when he is far from her." " Respect those who have 
borne you." " If you feel that you cannot act e(juitably toward many wives, 
marry one only." 

Divorce. The Apostle says that even if a man has given his wife a tal- 
ent, if he divorces her, he has no right to take back anything from her. 


Feelings which come unbidden from the influence of our surroundings 
tend to produce in us the willing acceptance of anything to which we are 
accustomed. The present becomes the instructive measure of the future. 
This tendency is much more influential than may be supposed in the settle- 
ment of many of the great problems of life, and it forms the only justifica- 
tion for the opposition still felt by very excellent persons to the presence 
and the wise, helpful teaching of capable women in the Christian pulpit. 
Serious arguments against feminine preaching were answered long ago. 
Wherever any of the fairly acceptable women preachers are heard and known 
long enough to make their speaking and their good work familiar and 
appreciated, there it is already accepted that the sex of the worker is not a 
bar to good work. 

Women are taking an active, increasing share in the education, the 
thought and the investigations of the ge, and are passing into almost 
every field of work, certainly to no obvious disadvantage to any worthy 
interest. This great Parliament of Religions is in evidence that narrow 
conservatism is rapidly decreasing, and that our conception of the religious 
pulpit must widen until it can take in all faiths, all tongues which strive to 
enforce the living spirit of love to God and man. 


If Christianity had fully decided the modern status of society, there 
would have been neither male nor female in church, or state, or education, 
or property, or influence, or work, or honor. Choice and capacity would 
have established all questions of usefulness. Is God, who is no respecter of 
persons, a respecter of sex ? Paul's exposition of practical Christianity is : 
"In honor preferring one another." 

Under barbarism, when no child could inherit except from the mother, 
personal property and power were as yet but partially separate from the 
community interests. The tribe, or clan, was a social unit for offense, 
defense and ownership. Their gods were tutelary, household, and tribal 
gods. Like other property safest around the hearthstones, they or their 
symbols were given into the safe keeping oi women. In that condition of 
morals, women could only safely bequeath wealth or chieftainship to sons 
of their own lineage. That social order was an accepted fact, and, mis- 
erable as it was, it kept its women and its meu side by side, equals in the 
onward march toward a better future. 

When property and power were gained by some of the stronger males, 
naturally they desired to be'queath these to their own children. From that 
time female chastity began to be enforced as the leading virtue for the 
legal wives and daughters. The legal adoption of heirs to share with or 
supersede children born in wedlock was an accepted custom. The futile 
schemes for securing virtuous wives and legitimate children without entirely 
discontinuing a wide license for husbands, fathers and sons, had not arisen 
for these simpler heathen folk. 

The later enforced civil inferiority of women sprang from the same 
baneful root. And woman's long exclusion from the pulpit, from the most 
consecrated place which Christianity has kept for its supposed best and 
noblest, is the outgrowth of the same basal iniquity. 

The highest code of morals is not elastic, but both men and women 
must look aloft before they can cordially appreciate its teachings. To be 
hedged about by conventions is not to learn a self-reliant rectitude. Was 
there ever a reason why capable women should not have continued to be 
expounders of the highest truth to which their era could attain ? 

There is no impropriety in proclaiming truth from the highest house- 
top. The most consecrated pulpit is less sacred than any living principle. 
If reverent lips proclaim holiness and truth, the gaze of the thousands who 
listen can brush no down from the cheek of maidenhood or wifehood. The 
fitness of the primary educators of the race to be moral and religious 
teachers has easily demonstrated itself. It was inevitable. 

In 1853 an orthodox Congregational Church called a council and 
ordained its woman pastor ; who had been already settled among them for 
six or eight months. In 1859 two were ordained by the Adventists. In 
1863 two women were ordained by the Universalist Church. In that 
second decade, so far as yet ascertained, three other women received ordi- 


nation only five in all. In the third decade thirty or forty were ordained, 
and in the fourth decade more than two hundred have received ordination 
from many denominations. 

Numbers of our most earnest religious speakers have not chosen to 
seek ordination. Most of these women are, or have been, stated preachers 
or pastors of churches, and are believed to have proved themselves to be 
successful above the average in promoting the religious welfare of the 
church and community. 

Women are needed in the pulpit as imperatively and for the same rea- 
son that they are needed in the world because they are women. Women 
have become or when the ingrained habit of unconscious imitation has 
been superseded, they will become indispensable to the religious evolution 
of the human race. 



From the first Judaism proclaimed the dignity and duty of labor by 
postulating God, the Creator, at work, and setting forth the divine example 
unto all men for imitation, in the command, "Six days shall thou labor and 
do all thy work." Industry is thus hallowed by religion, and religion in 
turn is made to receive the homage of industry in the fulfillment of the 
ordinance of Sabbath rest. 

Against the iniquity of self-seeking, Judaism has ever protested most 
loudly, and none the less so against the errors and evils of an unjust self- 
sacrifice. "Love thyself/' she says. This is axiomatic. Egoism as an 
exclusive motive is entirely false, but altruism is not therefore exclusively 
and always right. In the reciprocal relation between the responsibility of 
the individual for society and of society for the individual lies one of Juda- 
ism's prime characteristics. She has pointed the ideal in the conflict of 
social principles by her golden precept "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
thyself; I am God." According to this precept she has so arranged the 
inner affairs of the family that the purity, the sweetness and the tenderness 
of the homes of her children have become proverbial. 

With her sublime maxim, "Love thy neighbor as thyself ; I am God," 
Judaism set up the highest ideal of society, as a human brotherhood under 
the care of a Divine Fatherhood. According to this ideal Judaism has 
sought, passing beyond the environments of the family, to regulate the affairs 
of human society at large, " This is the book of the generations of men," 
was the caption of Genesis (v. i), indicating, as the Rabbins taught, that all 
men are entitled to equal rights, as being equally the children of one Cre 


ator. The freedom of the individual was the prime necessary consequence 
of this precept. Slavery stood forever condemned when Israel went forth 
from the bondage of Egypt. 

Judaism has calmly met the wild outbursts of extremists of the Anti- 
poverty and Nihilistic types with the simple confession of the fact: "The 
needy will not be wanting in the land." The brotherly care of the needy 
is the common solicitude of the Jewish legislators in every age. 

The freedom of the individual was recognized as involving the devel- 
opment of unlike capacities. From this freedom all progress springs. But 
all progress must be made, not for the selfish advantage of the individual 
alone, but for the common welfare "that thy brother with thee may live," 
Therefore, private property in hind or other possessions was regarded as 
only a trust, because everything is God's, the Father's, to be acquired by 
industry and perseverance by the individual, but to be held by him only to 
the advantage of all. To this end were established all the laws and institu- 
tions of trade, of industry and of the system of inheritance ; the code of ren- 
tals ; the Jubilee year that every fiftieth year brought back the land which 
had been sold, into the original patrimony ; the seventh or Sabbatical year 
in which the lands were fallow, all produce free to the consumer ; the tith- 
ings of field and flock; the loans to the brother in need without usury, and 
the magnificent system of obligatory charities which still holds the germ of 
the wisdom of all modern scientific charity : " Let the poor glean in the 
fields," and gather through his own efforts what he needs ; i. e., give to each 
one, not support, but the opportunity to secure his own support. 

A careful study of these Mosaic-Talmudic institutions and laws is of 
untold worth to the present in the solution of the social question. True, these 
codes were adapted to the needs of a peculiar people, living under conditions 
which do not now exist in exactly the same order anywhere. We can not 
use the statutes, but their aim and spirit, their motive and method we must 
adopt in the solution of the social problem even to-day. 

The cry of woe which is ringing in our ears now was never heard in 
Judea. In all the annals of Jewish history there are no records of the revolts 
of slaves such as those which afflicted the world's greatest empire ; no upris- 
ing like those of the Plebeians of Rome, the Demoi of Athens, or the Helots 
of Sparta ; no wild scenes like those of the Paris Commune ; no processions 
of hungry men, women and children crying for bread, like those of London, 
Chicago and Denver. Pauperism never haunted the ancient land of Judea. 
Tramps were not known there. We have here the pattern of what was the 
most successful social system that the world has ever known. 

The hotly contested social questions of our civilization are to be settled 
according to the ideas neither of the capitalist, the communist, the anarch- 
ist, nor the nihilist, but simply and only according to the eternal laws of 
morality, of which Sinai is the loftiest symbol. 




By right of discovery and possession, dating back almost nine hundred 
years, America is Christian. 

The books, pamphlets, lectures and articles, written on this Columbian 
anniversary, prove beyond a candid doubt that the discovery of America 
was eminently a religious enterprise ; and that the desire to spread Chris- 
tianity was, 1 will not say the only, but the principal motive that prompted 
the leaders engaged in that memorable venture. Before you can strip the 
discovery of its religious character, you must unchristen the admiral's flag- 
ship, and tear from her bulwarks the painting of the patroness under whose 
auspices the'gallant craft plowed her way through the terrors of the unknown 

The inspiration that gave the old world a new continent was also 
the cause of its colonization and civilization. When I say that religion 
was the primary motive in the making of the American nations, I make 
all due allowance for subsidiary and lower motives, for greed and cru- 
elty, and all the baser passions which in all things human, alas, accompany 
and follow the nobler virtues and higher intentions, and seem, when they 
alone are looked at, to overshadow and damn Christian civilization. 
Yet, granting all this, it is true to say that religion often originated, 
always "upheld and blessed the colonization of this continent and the found- 
ing of the great commonwealths that to-day make America the admiration 
of the world, and to-morrow may make it the world's master. 

In the North our missionaries softened the nature and manners of the 
aborigines and prepared them for the civili/ation, into the possession of 
which the United States is leading them slowly but surely. I do not deny 
the evils which Christians, untrue to their religious creed, have inflicted on 
the native races, but I do say that on the whole those races have been bene- 
fited by Christianity, and that the government of this country intends, and 
steadily seeks, their greater good in spite of the obstacles that contending 
churches, and still more contending politicians, raise against its benign 
desires and efforts. The improvement of a race, like the improvement of a 
man, is always at the cost of cruel experience ; such is the price of evo- 

Copyright, 1893* by }. H. B. 


In South America Christianity has swept away pagan civilizations fair 
in appearance, but reeking with slavery and human sacrifices, and has fash- 
ioned to Christian life the millions of natives who compose in very great part 
the republics of that half of our continent. There are disorders there, I 
confess, in state and church, which we in the North have happily escaped ; 
disorders in the state which are the strivings after that purer and bolider 
democracy which was our dower from the cradle, and was sealed to us as an 
heirloom once for all by the blood shed in the first successful assertion of 
our independence; disorders in the church which are the fatal outcome of a 
civilization not yet perfected, and above all of a union with the state which 
hampers the* free and natural working of the church. Yet, despite all this, 
we may safely predict that there, as here, as in our mother land, Europe, in 
past ages, Christianity, if you but give her time, will beget a perfect civil- 
ization, and that the republics of the South will move up to the first rank 
in the grand march of humanity to the goal of Christian progress. Thus, 
by her action on the native races of the new world, an action which may be 
said to begin only and cannot be judged tairly at this stage of its working, 
Christianity has made large additions to the family of civilized man, and 
has given birth to communities that may yet play an important part in the 
future history of the world. 

But the field of my study is not so much all this continent as that por- 
tion of it which we inhabit, and which is allowed by common consent on 
account of its superiority in all that makes civilization to be called par 
excellence America. In what relation does this republic stand to Christian- 
ity? That is the question before us. 

It was religion that wafted the first colonists to our shores. They came 
to seek liberty of worship, and some of them, while finding that boon for 
themselves, refused it to others. But there came to Maryland a band of 
emigrants who, by the original design of their founder, Lord Baltimore, and 
later by their own legislative enactment in colonial assembly, erected into 
law within their province civil and religious liberty for all Christians. The 
first Marylanders were Catholics, and to them belongs the glory of enact- 
ing the freedom of religion, When the Colonies entered into federation 
and formed the United States, the Maryland enactment became part of our 
constitution. Thus Religious equality came to us as the natural and neces- 
sary result of political development. This is secured by two provisions in 
the Constitution. " No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification 
to any office or public trust under the United States. " This excludes the 
establishment of any particular church by doing away with the religious 
tests which had been required in the colonies for the holding of office. 
" Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof." This enactment constitutes a bill of 
rights, guarantees to all churches full liberty, and forbids Congress ever to 
abridge that liberty. It is a denial on the part of the federal government 



of control over religion, an acknowledgment that it is incompetent in the 
matter. The line marked out by those two provisions was the only one left 
open to the fathers of the republic. The necessities of the situation imposed 
this relation, and emphasized to the world the providential destiny of the 
United States, which is to be a home to emigrants of all nations and all 

American Christianity, therefore, is a self-supporting, self-governing 
religion in independent but friendly relation to the civil power. Both are 
equally necessary to constitute an organic nation as soul and body to con- 
stitute man ; both meet on questions of public morality without which there 
is no society. The church gives stability and strength to the foundations of 
the state, the state protects the church in her property, legislation and 

We may truly say that with us separation of church and state is not 
separation of the nation from religion. The American conception is that 
the religious character of the nation consists mainly in the religious belief 
of the individual citizen and the conformity of conduct to that belief. Let 
me enumerate some evidences of the influence of Christianity on individ- 
uals and domestic society, and through them on the organic nation, or the 
state. Respect for the clergy and voluntary support generously given 
them ; multiplication and maintenance of churches, private schools, Sunday 
schools, Y. M. C. A. Associations, benevolent and charitable societies, relig- 
ious associations for the relief of every misery, physical and spiritual, to 
which humanity is liable ; cooperation of men, irrespective of creeds, in 
issues of public morality, reform or charity, and the consequent softening of 
sectarian prejudices; observance of Sunday, not only by rest from ordinary 
work, but by attendance at public worship ; labors and contributions for 
missions, especially for the Christianizing of our African and Indian neigh- 
bors ; zeal and practical work for temperance and social purity ; respect for 
woman and the opening to her of new avenues and fields of occupation, the 
giving to her a vote in questions that come close to her as wife and mother, 
such as temperance and education ; the movement to make the punishment 
of crime reformatory ; finally the general interest taken in the development 
of religion, the evolution of its teaching, the interior life of its churches, and 
the connection of all social and philanthropic progress with religion. 

Such a wide and deep Christian life in the component parts of {he 
state cannot but influence the state itself; and of what I should call the 
state's Christianity, I give the following evidences : 

1. Not only does the federal government make Sunday a legal day of 
rest for all its officials, but the states have Sunday laws, which do not 
enforce any specific worship, but do guard the day's restfulness. Moreover, 
certain religious holidays are made legal holidays. 

2. Presidents and governors in official documents recognize the depend- 
ence of the nation on God and the duty of gratitude to him. As notable 





examples I will cite Washington's first and last addresses, Lincoln's second 
inaugural and Gettysburg speech, and Cleveland's second inaugural. 

3. Our courts decide questions of church discipline and property that 
cqme before them according to the charter and the constitution of the church 
in litigation. 

4. The action of Congress in regard to Mormonism is an upholding of 
Christian marriage, and in all the states bigamy is a crime. Immorality is 
not allowed by the civil power to flaunt itself in public, but is driven to con- 
cealment, and the decalogue, inasmuch as it relates to the social relations 
of man, is enforced. 

5. Celebrations of a public and official character, sessions of state legis- 
latures and Congress are opened with prayer. Chaplains are appointed at 
public expense for Congress, the army, the navy, the military and naval 
academies, the state legislatuies and institutions. 

6. More than once it has been decided by courts that we are a Christian 
people, and that Christianity is part of our unwritten law, as it is part of the 
common law of England. 

Such briefly is the relation of Christianity to the American republic, 
when we consider only its internal life. 

And now a few words as to the religious character of the external life of 
the republic, by which I mean the relations of this nation with other nations. 

As early as 1832 the Senate of Massachusetts adopted resolutions 
expressing " that some mode should be established for the amicable and 
final adjustment of all international disputes instead of a resort to war." 
Various other legislatures gave expression to the same sentiment, and the 
sentiment grew apace on the nation. In 1874 a resolution in favor of gen- 
eral arbitration was passed by the House of Representatives. The move- 
ment spread to other countries. In 1888 two hundred and thirty-three mem- 
bers of the British Parliament sent a communication to the President and 
Congress urging a treaty between England and the United States which 
should stipulate " that any differences or disputes arising between the two 
governments, which cannot be adjusted by diplomatic agency, shall be 
referred to arbitration." In the same year the government of Switzerland 
proposed to the United States the conclusion of a convention for thirty 
years, binding the contracting parties to submit their mutual differences to 
arbitration. The settlement of the Alabama claims showed that the magni- 
tude of a controversy and the heat of public feeling were not an insuperable 
barrier to a peaceful- settlement by arbitration. The best known, as it is the 
latest, arbitration treaty, is the one formulated by the International American 
Conference under the secretaryship of Mr, Elaine, whereby the republics of 
North, Central and South America adopt arbitration as a principle of Amer- 
ican .international law for the settlement of disputes that may arise between 
two or more of them. They characterize this in the preamble of the pro- 
posed treaty as the only Christian and rational procedure as between mdi- 


viduals so also between nations. Since the establishment of our government 
the United States has entered into forty-eight agreements for international 
arbitration, has acted seven times as arbitrator between other governments, 
has erected thirteen tribunals under its own laws to determine the validity 
of international claims. Most of the questions thus arbitrated involved 
national rights and honor and might have been considered as just and 
necessary causes of war. 

From our review of the relations between religion and the republic, we 
may conclude that this is not an irreligious nation ; we are encouraged to 
hope for its steady progress in all that is noble and elevating and to predict 
for it the grandest future reserved to any race of the present day. 




The world will ultimately believe in the religion that produces the 
highest type of government and the best average man. All religions must 
submit to that criterion. By their fruits ye shall know them. 

Ours is distinctly a Christian nation. The history of America gives 
proof on every page that the Gospel of the crucified Nazarene is interwoven 
with our entire national fabric. 

We trace the hand of Providence in the discovery of this land. The 
star of its nativity was the star of Bethlehem. The light of its earliest 
morning, glowing westward from bleak Plymouth, was the luminous shadow 
of the cross. The land thus opened up for the development of a new nation 
lies within what is familiarly known as " the belt of power/' that is, between 
the thirtieth and fiftieth parallels of north latitude. It is significant that 
within these limits have dwelt nearly all the great historic peoples, and there 
are those who fancy that America may be added to the imposing procession 
which has passed through chronicles along this magic zone. 

The hand of Providence is further traced in the settlement of the coun- 
try, and in the development of our American life and character. In glanc- 
ing at the successive migrations hitherward, one is reminded of that old- 
time Pentecost, when strangers came from everywhere. The place of honor 
is accorded to the Puritans, the Huguenots, and the Beggars of Holland, 
all of whom were fugitives from civil and religious oppression. The 
influence of their sturdy devotion to truth and righteousness has ever been 
a potent influence among us. 

The people of America are a distinct people ; a conglomerate, formed 
of the superflux of the older lands. If ever it was proper to characterize 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 


this people as English or Anglo-Saxon, it is certainly no longer so. The 
Anglo-Saxon element in our population is relatively slight. The mingling 
of many bloods has produced a new ethnic product which can be aptly des- 
ignated only as American. The process of assimilation still goes on. The 
seas are dotted with ships from every quarter of the globe, bringing the poor 
and weary and disappointed, eager to renew their hopes, and rebuild their 
fortunes in a land which gives an ungrudging welcome to the oppressed of 
all nations. And surely this is not without the gracious ken and purpose of 

It is a fact of prime importance, furnishing, perhaps, a key to the prob- 
lem, that, with scarcely an exception, the dominant races ot history have 
been of mixed blood, such as the Germans, the Romans and the Anglo- 
Saxons. Proceeding from this fact, Herbert Spencer has ventured to express 
the hope that out of our conglomerate population may be evolved, in process 
of time, the ultimate, ideal man. If so, however, it must be brought about 
through the assimilating power of that principle of human equality which 
has its reason in our filial relation with God. In other words, religion fur- 
nishes the only guaranty of our national welfare and perpetuity. 

The life-blood of popular government is equality. In this lies the 
rationale of individual and civil freedom. But equality is only another name 
for the brotherhood of man ; and the brotherhood of man is an empty phrase 
unless it find its original ground and premise in the Fatherhood of God. 

The earliest formulation of this principle is in the preamble of our Dec- 
laration of Independence, which declares that all men are born free and 
equal and with certain inalienable rights. Between the lines of that virile 
pronouncement one may easily read Paul's manifesto to the Athenian phil- 
osophers, "God hath made of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell 
upon the face of the earth." God, the All-Father, revealing his impartial love 
in the cross, becomes the great Levcler of caste. 

Among the relics of our early struggle for freedom is the bell inscribed 
with the legend, " Proclaim liberty throughout all the earth unto all the 
inhabitants thereof." Our fathers deliberated long and anxiously over the 
truth which that bell rang forth. The truth thus formulated was, however, 
not made operative for almost a hundred years. The curse of human bond- 
age was among us. Here was a curious anomaly, involving an irrepressible 
conflict. A free people, claiming equality as their birthright, held four 
millions of their fellows in chains. But Godreigneth; and the hearts of 
nations are in his hand as the rivers ot water. In 1862 the President 
signed the Emancipation Proclamation ; and the people of America were 
" free and equal " at last. 

This truth, conceived in our Revolutionary war and born out of the 
travail pains of the great Rebellion, finds its ultimate expression in the bal- 
lot. Our elective franchise rests in the fundamental truth of equality. One 
man is as good as another. One man, one vote ; by eternal rjght no more 


and no less. There is no primogeniture in the great family. We are free 
and equal because we are all divinely born. This is distinctly a religious 
principle. Wherever a constitutional government has ignored its birthright, 
to wit : the Fatherhood of God, expressing itself in the brotherhood of man, 
through the Gospel of that Only-begotten Son who is Brother of all, it has had 
but a brief and troubled life. Republicanism is anarchy, with a latent reign 
of terror in it, unless this truth is at its center, shining like God's face 
through the mists and darkness of chaos. A common birth is the sure 
ground of mutual respect. All adventitious conditions go for naught. 

If we turn now to the distinctive institutions of our country, we shall 
find them with scarcely an exception bearing the sign-manual of Christ. 

First, the American home. Where all men are sovereigns, all houses 
are palaces. The hut becomes a cottage, where there is no feudal man- 
sion. There are lands where homes are merely dormitories and refectories, 
where social clubs and gardens supplant the higher functions of domestic 
life. But the American lives at his home. It is his castle and his paradise. 
The humblest toiler, when his day's \\ork is over, makes this his Eldorado. 
The heart of domestic life is the sanctity of wedlock as a divine ordinance. 
It may be noted, that in lands where God and the Bible are reverenced, 
"wife 1 ' and "mother" and " home" are sacred words. The influence of 
religion may be but an imperceptible factor in the peace and happiness of 
many households ; yet the Gospel is their roof-tree, and their purest happi- 
ness is but a breath from the garden before that home at Nazareth where 
the mother of all mothers ministered to her Divine Child. 

The next of our American institutions which finds its sanction in relig- 
ion is the public school. The distinctive feature of our national system of 
education is civil control. This is in the necessity of the cnse. As every 
American child is a sovereign in his own right, born to his apportionatc 
share of the government, it is primarily important that he should be edu- 
cated for his place. It was in wise apprehension of this danger that our 
Puritan forefathers required every fifty families to hire a pedagogue and 
every hundred to build a school-house. The teaching of religion was com- 
pulsory in these early schools, but as a rule under such conditions as obvi- 
ated all danger of denominational bias. There were no " godless schools." 
Indeed, it may be seriously questioned whether, at this stage of Christian 
civilization, there can be any such thing as a godless school. 

Still another of our institutions having distinctive features and borrow- 
ing them from the sanctions of the Christian religion, is the workshop. We 
have no caste, no titled orders, no aristocracy save that of brains and indus- 
try. The American toiler is the peer of all his fellow citizens. The high- 
est places of honor and emolument are wide open before him. What a man 
is and does, not what his father was and owned before him, is the criterion 
of popular regard. Whether this could be the case in any other than a 
Christian land is greatly to be doubted. It never has been ; it remains to 
be proved that it could be. 


A just recognition of the dignity of labor is a necessary inference from 
the life and teachings of the Carpenter of Nazareth. That "best of men 
that e'er wore flesh about him " toiled in the shop, with chips and shavings 
about his feet and the implements of his trade on his bench before him, so 
entering into sympathy with the cares and struggles of workingmen. That 
sympathy is the most potent though oft unrecognized factor in the adjust- 
ment of the industrial problems of our time. Me taught fair wages for 
honest toil. His "golden rule " is the effective remedy for strikes and lock- 
outs. Wherever the mind that was in Christ Jesus prevails the man and his 
master are bound to see face to face and eye to eye. And nowhere, as we 
believe, has that consummation been more nearly reached than in the indus- 
trial conditions of the new world. Indeed, "man" and "master" are here 
invidious terms. The man is his own master. There is no employer in the 
land who dare strike or wantonly affront his humblest employ^. A common 
birthright of the Great Father blots out all mastership ; and a fellow feeling 
toward the Elder Brother has made us wondrous kind. 

Not that all things are as they should be. The millennium is still a 
good way off. There are wrongs to be righted and middle walls of separa- 
tion to be broken down. But so long as the leaven is in the meal there is 
hope that the lump may be leavened. And however the American work- 
man may at times complain of his lot toil being ever a burden and the 
want of it a greater he would not for a moment consent to an exchange of 
place with any other workman on the earth. He owns himself ; as a rule 
he owns his home-- and he still owns, in fee simple, one-seventh of his time. 

It remains in thus briefly canvassing our national indebtedness to 
religion to speak of the establishment. If other nations have their way of 
expressing the religious preference of the people, we more. A national 
church, indeed, we have not but we have that which is deemed incompar- 
ably better, religious freedom. This is the American establishment, 
freedom of heart and conscience, freedom to believe what we will respecting 
the great problems of the endless life, freedom to consult our personal con- 
victions as to whether or where or how we will worship God. This involves 
an absolute divorcement of church and state. At this point the unanimity 
of sentiment within the church is as entire as without it. We want no 
national church we want no clergy feeding at the public crib. Our experi- 
ment has been tried for a hundred years and is fully vindicated. 

Observe, however, it is not proposed to alienate religion from national 
affairs. Oft the contrary, by their mutual interdependence the wise and 
effective influence of each upon the other must be greatly enlarged. It 
could not be otherwise. True religion is all pervasive ; it touches life at 
every point in its circumference, physically and intellectually, socially and 
politically, every way. The just attitude of the government toward all 
religious bodies whose tenets do not contravene its welfare, is impartial 
sufferance and protection. Church and state are coordinate powers, each 
supplementing and upholding the other, and both alike ordained of Godt 

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There are so many religious bodies in America that it is desirable, if 
we would get a comprehensive idea of them, to arrange them, first, in grand 
divisions ; secondly, in classes; and thirdly, in families. I would specify 
three grand divisions : I. The Christian. 2. The Jewish. 3. Miscellane- 
ous. Under the last head come the Chinese Buddhists, the Theosophists, 
the Ethical Culturists, some communistic societies and Pagan Indians. The 
Jewish division embraces simply the Orthodox and Reformed Jews. The 
Christian division contains, of course, the great majority of denominations 
and believers, Catholics, Protestants, Latter Day Saints all bodies not 
Jewish, Pagan or anti-Christian. 

We commonly divide the Christian bodies into classes, as, Catholic and 
Protestant, Evangelical and non-Evangelical. In the Catholic class there 
are seven representatives in this country; the Roman Catholic, the United 
Greek Catholic, the Russian Orthodox, the Greek Orthodox, the Armenian, 
the Old Catholic and the Reformed Catholic. All the Catholic bodies, 
except the Roman, are small and unimportant as represented in the United 
States, ranging in numbers of communicants from 100 to less than 14,000. 

No denomination of Protestantism has thus far proved to be too small 
for division. Denominations appear in the census returns with as few as 
twenty-five members. I was reluctantly compelled to exclude one with 
twenty-one members. 

We count in all 143 denominations in the United States, besides 150 or 
more congregations which are independent, or unassociated with any church. 
Of the 143 separate denominational bodies six are Adventist, thirteen Bap- 
tist, three (River) Brethren, four (Plymouth) Brethren, seven Catholic, two 
Christian Connection, nine Communistic, four Dunkard, four Quaker, two Jew- 
ish, two 'Mormon, sixteen Lutheran, twelve Mennonite, seventeen Methodist, 
twelve Presbyterian, two Episcopalian, three Reformed, and two United 
Brethren, with twenty-three single denominations, such as the Congregation- 
alists, Moravians, Disciples of Christ, Christadelphians, Christian Scientists 
and Salvation Army. Many of the 143 separate bodies are very small and 
unimportant. We can pick out ninety-seven, of which no one has as many 
as 25,000 communicants ; seventy-five have less than 10,000 communicants 
each ; fifty-four less than 2,500, and thirty-two less than 1,000, ranging 
between 20 and 937. Of bodies having 25,000 and upwards there are only 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B, 



forty-six, or about one-third of the whole number. The other two-thirds is 
made up of denominations having from 20 to 25,000. It is the little bodies, 
therefore, that give religion in the United States such a divided aspect. If 
most of them were blotted out we should lose little that is very valuable, but 
much that is queer in belief and practice. What is it has caused these 
numerous divisions ? Among the Methodists ten of the seventeen divisions 
were due to the race or the slavery question, and six to controversies over 
practical questions. The other was imported. Of the twelve Presbyterian 
bodies all are consistently Calvinistic but two, the Cumberland and the Cum- 
berland colored, which hold to a modified Calvinism. All use the Presby- 
terian system of government with little variation. What, then, is it that 
divides them ? Slavery divided the Northern and Southern, the race question 
the two Cumberland bodies. One branch is Welsh and the rest are kept 
apart largely by Scotch obstinacy. They have close points of agreement, 
but they differ on questions that seem to others utterly insignificant. We 
may, I think, sum up the causes of division under four heads : (i) Contro- 
versies over doctrine; (2) controversies over administration or discipline ; 
(3) controversies over moral questions ; (4) ambitious and disputatious persons. 

The last census, that of 1890, embraced all religious bodies among its 
greatly extended inquiries, and we have, therefore, for the first time, com- 
plete returns for all forms of religion represented in the United States. 
These returns show how many ministers, organizations or congregations, 
church edifices and communicants each denomination has, together with the 
seating capacity of its edifices and their value ; also how they are distributed 
among the counties, states and territories. 

The Roman Catholic is now the largest of the churches in number of 
communicants, having, in round numbers, 6,231,000, A hundred years ago 
it had only about 25,000 ; fifty years ago it had about 1,200,000. According 
to this it has increased, in the last half century, five-fold. This enormous 
growth is due chiefly to immigration. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
comes second, with more than 2,240,000 ; the Regular Baptists (colored) 
third with 1,362,000; the Regular Baptists (South) fourth, with 1,308,000; 
and the Methodist Episcopal (South) fifth, with 1,210,000. 

Taking value of church property as our next item, that is, the value of 
houses of worship, their furnishings and the lots on which they stand, we 
find that the Catholic Church is first again, its property being valued at 
$118,000,000. The Methodist Episcopal Church is second, reporting $97,- 
000,000; the Protestant Episcopal third, $81,000,000; the Northern Presby- 
terian fourth, $74,000,000; and the Southern Baptists fifth, $49,000,000. 
Two of these denominations, the Episcopal and the Presbyterian, are not 
among the five I have just mentioned as having the largest number of com- 
municants. They stand third and fourth, respectively, in the table of church 
property, showing that they are much more wealthy in proportion to com- 
municants than the other denominations. 


In number of organizations, or congregations, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church comes first, with 25,861, and the Roman Catholic last, with 10,231. 
The Southern Baptists are second, with 16,450; the Southern Methodists 
third, with 15,000; and the Colored Baptists fourth, vvitk 12,650. The rea- 
son the Catholic congregations only number two-fifths as many as the Meth- 
odist Episcopal, is because their parishes are so much larger and more pop- 
ulous. In some cases a Catholic parish embraces from 12,000 to 16,000 
communicants, all using the same edifice. It is a common thing in the cities 
for Catholic churches to have five and six different congregations every 

To recapitulate, the Roman Catholic Church is first in the number of 
communicants and value of house property, and fifth in number of organiza- 
tions and houses of worship ; the Methodist Episcopal Church is first in the 
number of organizations and houses of worship, and second in the number 
of communicants and value of church property. 

Let us now see how the five leading denominational families, or groups, 
stand. The Catholics, embracing seven branches, come first as to commu- 
nicants, with 6,258,000 ; the Methodists, embracing seventeen branches, 
come second, with 4,589,000 ; the Baptists, thirteen branches, are third, with 
3,743,000; the Presbyterians, twelve branches, are fourth, with 1,278,000; 
and the Lutherans, sixteen branches, are fifth, with 1,231,000. It will be 
observed that the combined Methodist branches have about 1,600,000 fewer 
communicants than the combined Catholic branches. As to value of church 
property, the MetHodist family is first, the figures being $132,000,000. The 
Catholic family is second, $i 18,000,000 ; the Presbyterian third, $95,000,- 
ooo; the Episcopalians fourth, $82,835,000; the Baptists fifth, $82,680,000. 
As to organizations, or congregations, the Methodists are first, with 51,500; 
the Baptists second, with 43,000; the Presbyterians third, with 13,500; the 
Catholics fourth, with 10,270 ; and the Lutherans fifth, with 8,595. 

Thus, among denominational families, the Catholics are first in the 
number of communicants, second in value of church property, and fourth in 
number of organizations and houses of worship. The Methodists are first 
in the number of organizations and houses of worship, and value of church 
property. These figures are for the five leading denominations, and the five 
chief denominational families. The grand totals for all denominations, 
Christian and non-Christian, are as follows : Ministers, 111,000 ; organiza- 
tions, 165,250; houses of worship, 142,600; value of church property, 
$680,000,000 ; communicants, 20,643,000. According to these figures, nearly 
one person in every three of our entire population is a member or communi- 
cant of one or another of the 143 denominations. This cannot, I should 
say, be regarded as an unfavorable showing for the churches. It indicates 
a religious population of 57,720,000. That is, the communicants, with all 
adherents added, constitute 57,720,000, leaving about 5,000,000 to compose 
the non-religious and anti-religious classes, including freethinkers and 


Of the 165,250 organizations, all are Christian but 1,855, or a little 
more than one per cent, and all are Protestant, except 12,131, or a little 
over seven per cent. That is, Christian organizations form nearly ninety-nine 
per cent, of the total, and Protestant organizations about ninety-three per 
cent. Of the 20,643,000 members all are Christian except 347,623, and all 
are Protestant except 6,605,494. That is, Christian members form ninety- 
seven ajid one-quarter per cent, of the total, and Protestant members sixty- 
eight percent. The Catholic percentage is about thirty and one-half and 
the Jewish and miscellaneous only one and a half. 

I call your attention to the fact that of the 153,122 Protestant organiza- 
tions all but 747 are evangelical, and of the 14,037,417 Protestant members 
all but 128,568 are evangelical. That is, counting the Universalists with 
the evangelical class, where I think they really belong, ninety-five per cent, 
of Protestant organizations are evangelical ; and over ninety-nine per cent, 
of Protestant communicants belong to evangelical denominations. 

In the last ten years the net increase in our population was a little less 
than twenty-five per cent. A comparison of the returns of churches repre- 
senting 16,500,000 members, shows that in the same period their net increase 
was about thirty-five per cent., or ten per cent, greater than the increase of 
the population. The largest percentage of gain was sixty-eight, which 
belongs to the Lutheran family ; the next was fifty-seven per cent, by the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South ; the third, forty-eight per cent., by the 
Protestant Episcopal Church ; the fourth, thirty-nine pci cent., by the Pres- 
byterian family ; the fifth, thirty-seven per cent., by the Regular Baptists, 
North, South, and Colored ; the sixth, thirty-three per cent., by the Congre- 
gationalists, and the seventh, thirty per cent., by the Methodist Episcopal 

We must, of course, remember that all the houses of worship have been 
built byvoluntary contributions. They are valued at $680,000,000, and fur- 
nish sitting accommodations for 43,500,000 persons. They have been pro- 
vided by private gifts, but are offered to the public for free use. The 
government has not given a dollar to provide them, nor does it appropriate 
a dollar for their support. 


Christianity is a fighting religion. Christ came not to send peace but 
a sword not the sword of a Mohammed, but the sword of the Spirit, which 
is the word of God. Christianity recognizes the absolute freedom of the 
human will and conscience. It condemns all violence in its conflict with 
other religions, appealing only to the inteligence, the conscience and the 
heart of men, by the Word of God with the Holy Ghost sent down from 
heaven. It is not intolerant of other religions, except as light is intolerant 
of darkness, but will in no case compromise with error, or enter into fellow- 
ship with any religious system or philosophy that is not built on the Rock 
of Ages. 

Paul went forth into the Greek and Roman classical world, not only to 
preach the Gospel, but to challenge the claims of any and all religions with 
which the Gospel came in conflict. To the Romans he wrote : " I am not 
ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God with salvation to 
every one that believeth." 

In respect of the conquest of the world, or what remains of it, we 
occupy much the same stand-point as did Paul. We are not ashamed of the 
Gospel of Christ, and are ready to preach it and vindicate it in the face of 
all the world. In this regard it is a great privilege for us Christians to 
meet face to face in this Parliament the representatives of many ancient 
religions and equally ancient philosophies ; to give to them a reason for the 
faith and hope that is in us, and show them the grounds upon which we 
base our contention that Christianity is the only possible universal religion, 
as it is certainly the only complete and God-given revelation. 

The power of the Gospel is the power of God, and so is greater than 
all possible opposing powers. All power has been given into the hands of 
Jesus Christ for the propagation and defence of his Gospel, and to give 
eternal life to as many as believe on him. 

I. We are not ashamed of its antiquity. Some of the religions of the 
Roman Empire boasted great antiquity. Indeed, they based their religions 
on myths whose fancied existence antedated history. To antedate history 
is an easy way to secure antiquity for any faith. There are those among 
us to-day who will tell you that, as compared with their faiths, Christianity 
is but an infant of days. 

We are ofteti charged by Orientals with being the propagators of a 
modern faith, because by our own claims Jesus Christ did not appear until the 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H< B. 



comparatively recent time of two millenniums ago. The Hindu faith was 
then already hoary with age. But Christianity does not date from the birth 
of Christ. Christ incarnate, crucified and raised from the dead two thousand 
years ago was only the culmination in time, and to our sense, of a revela- 
tion already ages old. Abraham believed in Christ and rejoiced to see his 
day approaching. Christ was believed on in the wilderness when Moses 
was bringing the children of Israel out of Egypt; for " the Gospel was 
preached to them as well as to us." 

We claim no revelation given before the age of our race, and put forth 
no myth which antedates the history of earth and man. But as far back as 
history goes the records of our faith are found. Every turn of the arch- 
eologist's spade confirms the truth of them. In this respect we are not 
ashamed of the Gospel. Its historical antiquity stands unrivaled among the 
religions of the world. 

2. We are not ashamed of its prophetic character. Christ's appearance in 
this world nineteen centuries ago was not an unexpected event. For 
centuries, even from the beginning of man's spiritual need, he has been 
looked and longed for. The heroes of the world's religions have been 
either myths or unlooked-for men springing up from among their fellows, 
for whom their disciples neither looked nor were prepared. Who prophe- 
sied the coming of Confucius, or Zoroaster, or Krishna, or the Buddha, Or 
Mohammed ? Moreover, none of these heroes or leaders of men were in any 
sense saviours. They were at best teachers, throwing their followers back 
upon themselves to work out their own salvation as best they might. , 

3. We are not ashamed of the Divine Author of Christianity. Whether 
we consider the character of Jehovah-God of the Old Testament, or of 
the Jesus-God of the New Testament, there is nothing in either that suffers 
by the highest ethical criticism which may be applied to them. In the Old 
Testament from the beginning God proclaims himself in love, holiness, right- 
eousness, truth and mercy. Jesus stands without a peer among men or gods. 
The moral glory of his character lifts him head and shoulders above that of 
all men or beings, ideal or real, with which we are acquainted. Nineteen 
centuries of study has only served to increase his glory and confirm and deepen 
his divine-human influence over men. Even his worst enemies are among 
the first to lay at his feet a tribute to his greatness, goodness and glory. He 
is, indeed, in the language of a distinguished Hindu gentleman and scholar, 
uttered in my presence in the old city of Poona, and before an audience of 
a thousand of his Brahmanical fellows, " The Peerless Christ" To compare 
him with any of the gods worshiped by the Hindus is to mock them and 
insult him. It is the moral glory of Christ's character which compelled 
Renan to say : " Whatever may be the surprises of the future, Jesus will never 
be surpassed. His worship will grow young without ceasing. All ages will 
proclaim that among the sons of men, there is none born greater than Jesus." 
Goethe, the father of the mbdern school of high culture, in one of his last 


utterances, expresses the conviction, " that the human mind, no matter how 
much it may advance in intellectual culture and the extent and depth of the 
knowledge of nature, will never transcend the high moral culture of Christianity 
as it shines and glows in the Canonical Gospels." Napoleon the great 
declared : " I search in vain in history to find one equal to Jesus Christ, or 
anything which can approach the Gospel, Neither history, nor humanity, nor 
the ages, nor nature afford me anything with which I am able to compare or 
by which to explain it." 

4. We are not ashamed of the ethical basis of the Gospel. Without deny- 
ing that there is to be found ethical teaching of great beauty in the non- 
Christian religions of the world, it is still true that these religions lay their 
stress upon their cults, rather than upon moral culture. Among most of them 
there is a striking divorce between religion and morals ; if indeed these are 
ever found joined together. But in the Gospel we find that the final test of 
Christianity is in its power to regenerate and sanctify man. The moral basis 
of Christianity may be found throughout the Scriptures, but for the sake of 
brevity we take only two examples. The first is that code of righteousness 
revealed by God to Moses and which we commonly speak of as the Ten 
Commandments. It is strikingly significant that this wonderful moral law 
was communicated at a period when ethical truth among the then existing 
nations was at its lowest point, and the morals of the people lower than the 
teaching. Where did Moses get these words ? Not from Egypt, nor from 
the desert where for forty years he lived ; not from the land toward which he 
was journeying. It would require a stretch of the imagination beyond any- 
thing we know to suggest that he himself was the author of them. They 
were written by the finger of God, and given to him. But let them come from 
where they may have come, our point is that in contending for the faith of 
the Gospel we are not ashamed of the ancient ethic basis of out religion. 

Passing from the Old Testament to the New, we have only to call atten- 
tion to the sermon on the mount. These words of Jesus, spoken to his dis- 
ciples, are but the transfiguration of the ten words given by God to Moses. 
Who ever assumed to revise the sermon on the mount in order to eliminate 
that which is not good or add to it that which it lacked? 

It has been said that the Golden Rule was borrowed by Jesus from his 
religious predecessors. But even a casual comparison of the sayings of 
Christ with those of other teachers will show a vast difference. Instance 
that of Hilliel, " Do not to thy neighbor what is hateful to thyself"; or that 
of Isocrates, " What stirs the anger when done to thee by others that do not 
to others "; or that of Aristotle, when asked how we should bear ourselves 
toward our friends, " As we would desire that they should bear themselves 
toward us"; or that of Confucius, "What you do not want done to yourself 
do not do to others "; or a maxim mentioned by Seneca, " Expect from others 
what you do to others," These are all fore-gleams from the sun which 
shines in its fullness in the perfect law of Chri^, " All things whatsoever ye 





would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them." This is posi- 
tive and exhaustive* All the others are partial and negative, if not merely 
prudential, not to say selfish. How is it that in the Orient to-day it is the 
rule of Jesus and not those of their own sages that is quoted by the Orientals 
themselves ? Is it not because the one class of maxims contains but partial 
or half truths, while the sayings of Jesus are the truth, and that Jesus has 
embodied and illustrated them in his own life ? 

Hut beyond the ethical teachings of Christ, which are without question 
far in advance of all statements which the world had ever had, and which 
stand to-day upon the outermost confines of possible statement, Jesus has 
brought to us a revelation of (iod himself, not only as to the fact of his 
being, but as to his nature and the love and grace of his purpose toward 
man. Moreover, he has shown us what we are ourselves ; from whence we 
are fallen and unto what the purpose of God designs to lift us. * 

5. We are not ashamed of its dottrines of salvation. Let me briefly 
summarize these : 

(l) The Incarnation. 

By the Incarnation, roughly speaking, we mean that revelation which 
God made of himself in Jesus Christ. In this declaration we see (a) God 
was in Christ seeking after man. All natural religions and philosophies 
show us man seeking after God if haply he may find him. Here only do we 
see God seeking after man. "God is a spirit, and he seeketh such to woi- 
ship him." When preaching to the educated Knglish-speakitig gentlemen of 
India, I was often confronted with the statement that: "The gods and 
heroes of India wrought more and greater miracles than Jesus. They, too, 
fed the multitudes, opened the eyes of the blind and healed the sick.' 1 When 
I asked for the proof they had none to give except the Puranic stories. 
When they in turn challenged me for proof, 1 simply said, "Gentlemen, look 
around you, even here in India. The reported miracles of your gods and 
heroes stand only in stories, but each miracle of Christ was a living seed of 
power and love planted in human nature, and has sprung up and flourished, 
Again bringing forth after its kind wherever the Gospel is preached. Who 
Cares for the lepers ? who for the sick and the blind, the deaf and the 

maimed? Till Christ came to India these were left to die without care or 


help, but now every miracle of Christ is perpetuated in some hospital 
devoted to the care and cure of those who are in like case with the sufferers 
whom Christ healecjL" This is the difference between the fables of thg 
ancients and the living wonders wrought by the living Christ. He, himself, 
the embodiment of righteousness, love, pity, tenderness, gentleness, patience 
and all heavenly helpfulness, being the greatest miracle of all. Jesus 
among men as we see him in the Gospel is God's image restored to us, and 
through him acting in grace toward man. 

" Sir," said an old, gray-haired Brahman to me one day, " I am an 
Hindu and always shall be, but I cannot help loving him ; the world never 


knew the like of him before when I think of him I am ashamed of our 
gods." Truly, the Incarnation of Christ is the revelation of God ; he that 
hath seen him hath seen the Father. * 

(2) The Doctrine of Atonement. 

In this doctrine we see the solution of one of the oldest and most stress- 
ful questions of the human mind : How God may still "be just and yet the 
justifier of the ungodly"; how in forgiving transgression, iniquity and sin 
he establishes and magnifies the law. 

On the basis of Christ's great sacrifice God can and does declare the 
forgiveness of our sins, and justifies us " from all things from which we 
could not be justified by the law of Moses " that law standing alone. 

(3) The Doctrine of the New Birth. 

In connection with this righteousness for us by Jesus Christ there is a 
righteousness /;/ us by regeneration, wrought by the Holy Ghost ; so that 
every saved man becomes a new creature in Christ. Thus, with righteous- 
ness imputed freely by grace, and righteousness imparted freely through 
faith by the Holy Spirit of God, man stands free from sin and its penalties, 
arid is panoplied with a new spiritual nature. He is enabled not only to 
conceive an idea! character of holiness, but to attain to such a character 
through the further sanctitication of the spirit and belief of the truth. 

(4) The Doctrine of Immortality. 

The resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead has solved the problem 
of immortality, not by argument, but by demonstration^ and has guar- 
anteed to us a like immortality, not of the soul only, but of the whole man 
spirit, soul and body ; for even these bodies of ours, now humiliated and 
dishonored by sin, and too often yielding themselves instruments of unright- 
eousness unto sin, shall be changed and fashioned like unto his glorious 
body, according to the working of that mighty power that worketh in us by 
Jesus Christ. 

6 We are not ashamed of the terms npon which this salvation is offered. 
It is unto all who believe. It ib no aristocratic privilege which is reserved for 
the rich, the learned and the mighty. It indeed makes place for these, for 
they also are sinful men, but it extends all its unspeakable privileges to the 
poor, to the ignorant, to the outcast and to the most degraded. It pro- 
claims, "Whosoever will, let him come." Jesus himself set the note of 
invitation when he said, " CoiAe unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden and 1 will give you rest." 

7 We are not ashamed of the way in which .it deals with the great prob- 
lems lying just beyond the lines on which we discuss individual salvation. 
The unity of God, and of the race, and the consequent brotherhood of man, 
as suggested in Paul's great speech on Mars Hill, is a statement that causes 
us no blush or shame. And 1 may say that it is a teaching unique with 
Christianity. It is not found in the Hindu or Buddhistic Bibles. 

These are soroe of many reasons why with the great apostle, in the 


presence of this Parliament of Religions, we are emboldened to say we are 
not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ. 

Where are the religions of Greece and Rome with their Pantheon full 
of gods? They are but a historical memory. Like Dagon before the Ark, 
they have .fallen before the cross of Christ. Overwhelmed at times by vast 
hordes of barbarians, the Christian Church has, through the Gospel, converted 
its conquerors, and made Christians out of savages. Chained and fettered 
to the state in false and unholy alliance, the Gospel has burst forth with new 
power and freedom in the free churches of Christ, and gone on its conquer- 
ing and saving way. 

And now the stream of life issuing forth in the Gospel is flooding back 
to the Orient whence it took its rise in this world, and will ere long heal all 
those wonderlands and bring salvation to the great and gentle people of the 
East who have ever been the most eager in their search after God. 




The present is a time of transition throughout India. A struggle is 
going on between old customs and new ideas, such as the world has not 
seen since the break-up of the Roman Empire. On the one hand the old 
Hinduism the masses of the people under the dominion of the priesthood, 
all sunk in the grossest superstition. On the other hand, there is "Young 
India," the new thought and feeling of the country reflected in the men 
trained at colleges in the highest western thought. Withal there are the 
indigenous scholars, versed in Sanskrit lore, and still exerting a consider- 
able, though dwindling influence. The student-class is annually increased 
by thousands graduating from the secular government colleges, and from the 
missionary institutions, and impressible alike by western truth and western 
skepticism. A danger incident to this class is that of general license and 
demoralization. There is a tendency among them to lose all religion, and 
become absorbed in worldliness. Caste and custom still bind them out- 
wardly to Hinduism; but "they outwardly conform to rites that they 
inwardly despise. " Their condition is that of religious unsettlement. As 
Sir Alfred Lyall, in his "Asiatic Studies, 11 has observed, "The sketch given 
in Gibbon's second chapter of the state of religion in the Roman Empire 
during the second century of the Christian era might be adopted to describe 
in rapid outline the state of Hinduism at the present day* .... Seven- 
teen centuries ago the outcome was Christianity ; but history does not repeat 
Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 


itself on so vast a scale It is quite possible that more difficult 

and dangerous experiences than wholesale religious conversion are before 
India." A leading Hindu paper, recognizing that errors and superstitions 
in existing Hinduism must give way before advancing education, declares 
that this by no means implies that Christianity is going to be substituted. 

What, then, is to take the place of modern and idolatrous Hinduism ? 
That this is a thing of the past for the educated classes, there cannot be the 
shadow of a doubt. It can no more live in the light that western knowl- 
edge is shedding across the land than witchcraft can live in modern England. 
The temples of Vishnu and Siva will be deserted as surely as have been the 
temples of Jupiter and Apollo. 

The awakening of India from the sleep of ages is due to Christian 
influence the incessant preaching of the Gospel, mainly in Christian schools 
and colleges. The cry now is for a judicious repair of Hinduism, by elim- 
ination and assimilation. Men are nvvTreading Christianity into Hinduism^ 
explaining the Vedas by the Bible to find the same truths in both. These 
reformers urge that there is a faith older than polytheistic and Puranic Hin- 
duism. Vedic and monotheistic Hinduism the Arya faith is the true 
religion of the country ; and to this they propose to return. Between the 
two extremes of a materialistic skepticism, and an earnest approach to 
Christ, there is observable, during the last decade, this strong undercurrent 
flowing back in the direction of Vedic Hinduism. The Indian Renaissance 
a revival not so much of religion as of philosophy, a part of the wave of 
revived Buddhism that has been sweeping over Ceylon was set on foot by 
the Arya-Somaj of North India, founded by Dyananda Sarasvati, who died 
in 1883, and encouraged by the pride of Indian nationality that is stirring; 
and stimulated by the zeal of the Theosophical Society ; and, above all, 
provoked by the advancing power of Christianity. It holds that when puri- 
fied from error Hinduism can hold its own against every other form of faith. 
It stands for Indian theism as against foreign theism, and enlists on its side 
the patriotic preference for Indian literature and thought. It has, without 
doubt, checked for a time the extension of the Christian Church, coming 
between Christ and the awakened conscience of the Hindus. But there is 
much in the movement to excite our sympathy. Those of us who gladly 
recognize India's p$tst contribution to the religious thought of the world may 
welcome the attempt to discern between the false and the true, and to utilize 
whatever of good the past has bequeathed to the present ; since it is out of 
the old that the new and the better are evolved. 

This movement, far more popular, because more really Indian, than 
Brahmoism, has been bitterly opposed to organized Christianity, though 
assigning a place of eminence to Christ. The Theosophical Society from 
the first a distinctively anti-Christian force in India has been largely 
responsible for this. The opposition, and to some extent, the Hindu revival 
itself, have been a forced growth ; and now that the theosophical glamor is 
quietly fading away, the opposition is declining too. 


There are few signs of vitality in this Hindu renaissance. There is a 
revival of interest in Hindu philosophy and literature, but no real revival of 
religion. What India needs is not a resuscitated metaphysics, but a new 
moral life, the result of getting into right relation with God, which is relig- 
ion. While our Hindu brethren will do well to understand what their faith 
taught in the purest days, with regard to the burden of sin and the problems 
of existence, it is hopeless to hark back to a past that cannot be recovered 
to put back the hands on the dial of human progress. The Hindu 
revival, though it has probably passed its highest point, will no doubt con- 
tinue for a time, as a phase of educated thought. Christian ideas are in the 
air and are absorbed even by those who intend to resist them. And scieti- 
titic ideas, which have done much to purify mediaeval Christianity, are taking 
hold of the Indian mind. As there are two Buddhisms now in Ceylon, and 
two Islams in India, so there are two Hinduisms, the one holding to the 
traditions of the past, the other living in the present and shaped by outside 
influences. The advanced movement is likely to include the fundamental 
conceptions of natural theism belief in one God and in a future life, purity in 
thought ami action, and charity in social relations. This is the most marked 
transformation that has come over the educated mind of India, its truer con- 
ception of God and of prayer. In the midst of the pantheism and poly- 
theism of ages, has penetrated the idea of a personal and holy God the 
foundation truth of real religion. In ail modern religious reforms, the Vedic 
idea has been modified by Biblical theism, thus drawing the East and the 
West to a closer spiritual fellowship. 

This leads us to speak of the organized Theistic Church of India 
the Brahmo-Somaj, the highest and most interesting development of relig- 
ious thought in the present century outside of the Christian Church. Like 
its younger brother, the Arya-Somaj, it started with the Vedas, but has grad- 
ually been approaching Christianity. 

It has certainly familiarized India with the name of Christ, and the 
voices that once blasphemed him are now silent. It has brought Christ 
nearer to the people ; and India cannot see him without discovering new 
beauties in his character, and new depths in his teaching and life. Chris- 
tians are thus indebted to it as being an, interpreter to India of the Chris- 
tianity of the West, and an interpreter to the West of the best religious 
aspirations of the East. 

In the south of India, however, one receives the impression that Brah- 
moism is declining, or, at any rate, overshadowed by the influence of ihe 
Arya-Somaj. It has no leadership, and among a caste and custom-bound 
people, leadership is essential to any reforming movement. It is nowhere 
conspicuous as a compact body, marching with a well-defined and deter- 
mined purpose ; but seems rather a tendency of a few unsettled, yet earnest 
minds, journeying, let us hope, to some better land. May it not be, that its 
worthy elements prayer, repentance, moral struggle, self-effacing consecra- 




tion to God, active philanthropy, and far-reaching social and domestic 
reforms, being essentially Christian, can flourish only in out-and-out Chris- 
tian soil, and that, therefore, what is best in Brahmoism will be gradually 
absorbed by Christianity ? Mr. Mozoomdar once said that " pure Theism " 
could never become a national religion, and added, " before India could 
have that, she must listen to the voices of God's prophets, among whom 
Christ held a solitary preeminence. " And, further, since the movement 
has owed much of its success and not a little of its vigor to its contrast with 
a distorted Christianity, as may be seen from the caricatures of Christian 
doctrine that still disfigure some Brahmic organs, may we not believe, that, 
as a scientific and rational Christianity that of Christ rather than of churches 
and theologies becomes better understood, the raison d' fare of Brahmoism 
will largely disappear ? 

If the position occupied by Babu B. C. Banerjia, a Bengali Brahman, 
and a member of the Church of the " New Dispensation, " founded by 
Chunder Sen, fairly represents that of his co-religionists, then they are cer- 
tainly preparing the way for a true Eastern Church, and a wide acceptance 
of Christ by the Hindu nation. In starting a new journal, called 77te Har- 
mony, the object of which was to harmonize Brahmoism and Christianity, 
he penned the remarkable *words . " We mean to preach the reconciliation 
of all religions in Christ, whom we believe to be perfectly divine and per- 
fectly human." 

Here, then, our Bra'imist brethren may almost join hands with their 
fellow Christians, or with that section of them, known as the undenomina- 
tional " Christo-Somaj; " * and, later on, it may be, with the best spirits of 
the Arya-Somaj ; and we have rising before us the vision of an indigenous 
and united Indian Church, with form of government and worship adapted 
to the conditions of national thought and life ; presenting many a departure 
from some of the traditions, ecclesiastical and theological, of the churches of 
the West; and affording scope for the varied and distinctive elements the 
gifts, talents, graces which the Indian mind and character can so well 
supply : the simplicity of the peasant, the independence of the aborigines, 
the learning of the pundit, the speculations of the mystic, the self-sacrifice 
of the devotee : a true Eastern Church, which, while making valuable con- 
tributions to the thought and reunion of Christendom, would be the means 
of consolidating a great Indian nation. 

Writing to Mr. Mozoomdar a few years ago with reference to siich a 
church, he replied in words that sufficiently confirm the view just outlined : 
" You do not know what a deep chord in my heart you touch when you 
speak of an Eastern Church of Christ. I behold it already arisen in the 
Brahmo-Somaj. You cannot fail to perceive that the^great secret underly- 
ing the manifold utterances of Keshab Chunder Sen was to prepare his land 
and nation for the reception of the Son of GodS\ 

* Its home is Calcutta, AH that is required for membership is the name of Christian, a 
belief of the Apostles' Creed, and a consistent Christian life. 


The great need of India is Indian Christian scholars, of Eastern fervor 
and individuality, who, not content with respecting the shibboleths of the 
West, and transplanting to the East all the historic and dogmatic types of 
Christianity, shall* be able, with sanctified power and insight, to guide for- 
ward such a movement, and foster the growth of a natural Christianity, such 
as India, with the pure Word of God and his Spirit, may work out for her- 
self. We want our Krishna Mohan Banerjeis, and Nehemiah Gorehs, and 
Narayan Sheshadris, multiplied a hundred fold. 

But, it .may be said, this forecast embraces only the higher minds. 
What of the great masses of the people ? As already described, these are 
still sunk in the grossest superstition ; but no religious outlook would be 
complete without a reference to the remarkable awakening taking place in 
many parts of the country among the depressed and non-caste classes, in 
favor of Christianity. Victims for ages of sore oppression and injustice, 
this movement is largely a social one ; and there can be little doubt that in 
a few years there will be such an ingathering from this class of the popula- 
tion as to tax to the utmost the shepherding and training resources of the 
Christian Church. 

Another promising field for the extension of Christianity, where a simi 
lar harvest will probably be reaped, is among the millions of animistic hill 
tribes and aborigines and the dwellers in the jungles of Central India ; though 
Jiere an active Hindu propaganda, attracting little attention from the outer 
world, is being carried on by the Yogi and Sannyasi the ascetic souls of 
India, and the survivors of its ancient Brahmanism. 

It does not fall within the province of this paper to sketch the present 
position numerical and social and the prospects of the native Christian 
community proper, the facts relating to which are pretty generally known. 
It is sufficient to say that, though still deficient in worldly prestige and in 
self-reliance, it numbers now 560,000, being an increase of 142,000 since the 
census of 1881 ; and that it is advancing at an accelerating ratio. What is 
of greater importance, it possesses many bright adorners of Christian faith 
and practice, and is growing every year in culture, power, and influence, and 
in a sense of its spiritual responsibilities. Both the Roman Catholic Church 
(which claims over 1,250,000) and the Protestant are strongest in the 
south of India ; and the Director of Public Instruction in Madras has 
recently stated, that " There can be no question, if this community pursues 
with steadiness the present policy of its teachers, that, with the immense 
advantages it possesses in the way of educational institutions and the 
absence of caste restrictions, in the course of a generation it will have 
secured a preponderating position in all the great professions, and possibly 
too in the industrial enterprise of the country." 

Thus in course of time, a nominal Christianity will doubtless be pro- 
fessed by the less cultured and poorer races of the land, as a multiplied band 
of evangelists from the West bear forward " the Everlasting Gospel," the 


great social lever of the world. Probably, too, at a still more distant day, 
the conversion may be crowned by the higher and wealthier classes, drawn 
by the growing bands of loyalty and political concessions, if by nothing 
higher, to accept the religion of their rulers. Modern Hinduism for these 
classes can mean little more than caste and custom ; and as these fetters 
yield, sooner or later in the Zenanas which are opening to receive the Gos- 
pel, and through increasing intercourse with the West, the Brahmans and 
other castes must find themselves face to face with a Christianity that has 
come to stay, or with the old historic and ultimate foe of all religion a 
rationalistic and materialistic infidelity. For the final struggle in India is 
not likely to tic between Christianity and any purified Hinduism or Islam, 
but, as in all other lands, between Christ and unbelief. 

Even now enlightened Hindus are coming more and more to regard 
the religion of Christ as the commanding factor in whatever is best in the 
character and progress of persons and of states, and to concede, with John 
Stuart Mill, that "Whatever is excellent in either may be brought within 
the sayings of Christ." 

Then, far in advance of these, there is a growing band of secret dis- 
ciples, who recognize Christ's light to their allegiance, but who, because ot 
the social disgrace that it would bring, shrink from an open profession. On 
their behalf let us plead for greater toleration -freedom to worship God 
according to their conscience. * 

Happily, the religious nature of the Hindus, the national genius for fer- 
vor and devotion, the instinctive passion for transcendental ideas, and the 
ceaseless searching after the Divine Essence, point to a religious future for 
the nation generally not merely formal, but rich and deep. And that the 
heart of India will yet respond to Christ, though it may decline to learn the 
systematic theology of the schools ; that, when touched by his grace, it will 
produce a type of saintliness as yet unseen ; that there are notes of sweetest 
music, hitherto unheard, waiting to be struck by Hindu Christianity and to 
rise from n great Eastern Church, we cannot doubt. The best thought ot 
India is not toward Hinduism, but toward Christ. He is still the test of 
souls, the touchstone of nations, and all that is best in Hindu humanity ; all 
who are weary of their sin and are yearning for a something that Hinduism 
cannot give, will be surely drawn to him as steel to the magnet, as the 
magnet to the pole. 




Whoever takes a comprehensive survey of the state of religious thought 
and sentiment during the nineteenth century with a view to ascertain their 
prevailing tendency, cannot fail to be impressed with certain portentous 
changes which, in obedience to some hidden law; are taking place. So far 
as Protestant communities are concerned at least, there has been an enor- 
mous increase in missionary activity. In fact, Protestant missions on any 
scale, which even in outlook was at all commensurate with the earth's area, 
may fairly be said to have been born with the century. The Reformation 
was a civil war within the church, aiid as in political matters so in religion, 
internal strife withdrew men's thoughts and energies from "foreign affairs." 
It stood for purification and for intensification, not for expansion. For at 
least a century and a half this was a prime characteristic of the reformed 
churches. But, with the dawn of the century now near its close, there 
flamed forth as from an inner furnace of spiritual fervor the splendid 
enthusiasm which has given to the church such hero names as Moffat, Liv- 
ingstone, Carey, Martin, Bowen, Gordon, Morrison, Burns and Hannington. 
The movement has lost some of its early romance, not because the fire of its 
zeal has abated, but because it is settling down to steadfast purpose and 
practical, wisely calculated aim. It has yet to reach its culminating point. 

The Roman Catholic section of Christendom presented the same phe- 
nomena, but at an earlier date. The Reformation which kept the reformers 
busy at reconstruction made the ancient church missionary. Perhaps it 
would hardly be too much to say that the magnificent successes of the prop- 
aganda during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries did much to save the 
Papacy from extinction. Exploits like those of Xavier and Ricci have lent 
a luster to Catholicism brighter and more lasting than all the august grand- 
eur of the popes, and which cannot be dimmed by comparison with Protest- 
ant annals. Nor can it be fairly said, though Protestant missions have been 
to the front, that during the present century there has been any abatement 
of missionary ardor on the part of the older community. 

Side by side with this movement there has grown up a strong and 

Copyright, 1893, by J. H. B. 

_ "79 


general aspiration for religious union. So far it can hardly be described as 
more than an aspiration, though in two or three instances it has reached, 
and with the happiest result, the point of organic amalgamation. But the 
force of the sentiment may be partly measured by the fact that all which has 
been accomplished, either in the fuller toleration and more friendly attitude 
of church to church or in such actual union as has been already brought 
about, utterly fails to satisfy its keen demand. It is a growing hunger of 
man's spiritual nature which will never rest, but will become more ravenous 
until it is fed. Historic generalization is always dangerous and often uncon- 
vincing, because it can always be confronted with the adverse facts, the 
value of which has only to be somewhat magnified tcT&how the xonclusion 
wrong. Still one may venture the assertion that the tide of tendency which 
has been flowing since the Greek and Roman communion separated from 
each other's fellowship, and which has issued in the myriad divisions of 
Christendom, has already spent its strength, that the set of the current is 
now towaid union, and that men no longer care to separate from each other's 
communion to witness for some particular phase of truth, but are^ at least 
earnestly longing to find the "rftore excellent way" which reconciles fellow- 
ship of spirit with liberty of thought. This is not a down-grade, but an 
up-grade movement. 

While the tendency is one, it manifests itself in various ways. Its 
widest exhibition is in the almost universal admission of the political right 
of freedom of conscience. It is not confined to Protestants, for though 
Rome, boasting of her unchangeableness, maintains in theory the right to 
persecute, and Protestants, for the sake of argument, affect to think that her 
will, where she has the power, is as good as ever, there is no real ground to 
doubt that the public sentiment of Romanists themselves would be outraged 
by the revival of such horrors as those of St. Bartholomew or the Inquisition. 
In the various denominations of Protestantism men are already feeling that 
their differences are rather matters to be apologized for than to be proud of. 
There is a growing disposition to substitute a spiritual test for the intellectual 
one, conversion for orthodoxy. There is an increasing tendency to recog- 
nize the commonwealth of Christian life. More and more stress is being 
laid upon what the various churches have in common', less and less emphasis 
is being given to their distinctive -differences. Here and there one marks 
the signs of the capacity to learn from one atiother. There is a wide spread 
unity of sentiment and of spiritual aim. There is an irrepressible desire for 
organic union. w In some few minds, still to be considered extreme and too 
far in advance of the common, sentiment to powerfully affect the mass, the 
idea is dimly entertained of some common bond of union which shall give 
visible expression to the catholic sentiment of one common Christendom. - 
v Without the ranks of professing Christians the same spirit is 'at work, 
but in an apparently hostile direction. A strong sentiment of the value of 
those* spiritual and ethical impulses which make the very heart and life of 


Christianity accompanies a peremptory rejection of specific theological doc- 
trines. An undisguised contempt for and impatience with the divisions and 
differences of Christians is coupled with a wide and sympathetic study of 
the non-Christian religions of the world. By the new pathway of compar- 
ative religion, men are finding their way to the belief in the common pos- 
session of a spiritual nature on the part of all the members of the human 

Not less notable, as a mark of change, is the growth of the cosmopoli- 
tan and humanitarian spirit, which is breaking the barriers of national pre- 
judice ; the democratic spirit, which asserts the right to a share of political 
power on the part of the humblest member of the state; the socialistic spirit, 
which is fast abolishing the merciless distinctions of caste and of class, and 
claiming for all a place in society and a share of the necessaries and rfeason- 
able comforts of life. 

Can we trace these Various movements to a common cause ? Different 
and disconnected as they appear in external aspect, can we ascribe them to 
one originating force ? We believe that we can. They are the results of 
the action of the essential spirit of Christianity in human life, upheavals of 
the surface of society subject to the permeating influence of Gospel leaven, 
phases of the age-long but age-victorious process by which the kingdom of 
heaven is being established on earth. They indicate the Gospel in practice, 
the fulfillment of the great command, " Go ye into all the world and preach 
the Gospel to every creature ; " the realization of the Saviour's prayer " that 
they all may be one as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also 
may be one in us ; " the dawning consciousness of the Saviour's care for all 
the spiritual in all climes and ages, " Other sheep have I which are not of 
this fold, them also must I bring ; " the application of that practical Gospel 
apostolically taught, " Whoso hath this world's goods and seeth his brother 
have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, howdwelleth 
the love of God in him ? " They mark and define the epoch as one in 
which the best ideals "of our holy faith have held practical sway, in which 
Christians are nobly striving to make Christ king everywhere and over the 
whole of life. The Chicago Parliament of Religions will stand a red-letter 
event in the calendar of religious history, the grandest visible embodiment 
yet reached yf these magnificent aspirations. 

The cause of Christian missions and that of religious unity are so inti- 
mately related to each other that they need to be considered together, as 
each promotes the other, and whatever tends to advance either will benefit 
both. One of the questions we often ask ourselves in the present day is: 
Why is missionary work on the whole attended with so little success ? And' 
undoubtedly a partial answer is supplied in the statement that it is carried 
on with divided and sometimes rival forces. On the other hand, if we ask 
ourselves what has been the secret of the unhappy divisions which have rent 
X^hristendom into countless sects, the answer is equally pertinent because 



the energy, the aggressiveness, the battle-spirit which should have occupied 
themselves in combatting sin and darkness and subduing the powers of 
superstition and evil without the church, have been pent up within her 

It was to the united church that the grace of Pentecost was given; 
it was to equip her for the conquest of the world that she was clothed with 
its inspiration. It is idle to bemoan the past, but it is the part of wisdom to 
learn its lessons, and surely one of the, lessons God, is loudly teaching us 
to-day is that to have larger measures of missionary success we must have 
increased Christian unity. In the very nature of things these two must go 
together. In the family, in business, in the management of the state, we do 
not hesitate to recognize the principle that domestic harmony and outward 
prosperity are linked inseparably to each other. Can we imagine then that 
in religion alone, which ought to be its grandest expression, the law is 
relaxed ? Is a religion universal in its empire but disordered and dispar- 
ate in its fellowship so much as conceivable ? The world conquered by a 
divided church ? Never ! 

It would be an interesting subject of inquiry, though far beyond our 
range, to discover how far the sentiment in favor of Christian union has been 
the direct outcome of the increase in missionary zeal and enterprise. 
Reports of Gospel conquests among men of various races and of all grades 
in the scale of civilization ; the record of how savagery has been tamed, 
cannibalism diminished, and nameless cruelties abated, peaceful industries 
established and the useful arts cultivated among those lower races of Africa, 
Madagascar, Fiji and other islands of Polynesia, whom German writers style 
the nature peoples, together with such partial successes as have been 
achieved amongst the followers of the great non-Christian creeds on the 
great continent of Asia the Hindu, the Chinaman and the Japanese, leav- 
ing the metaphysical subtleties of Brahm; the grotesque idols of Buddhism, 
and the cold abstractions of that Confucianism which is neither a religion 
nor a philosophy, and the believers in Mohammed, turning from the Prophet 
of Arabia to find in Christ an eternal Saviour, a new light and a fresh hope, 
cannot have failed to impress men's imaginations and set them asking the 
question, Is not this better far than rivaling one another at home and giving 
almost exclusive attention to the minor issues which lie between^ us? More- 
over, in proportion as attention is directed to any particular subject it is 
withdrawn from other matters of controversy. Automatically, therefore, 
missions promote union. 

But whatever has been the force of the missionary sentiment hitherto 
in promoting Christian Unity, there is no question that its influence might 
be enormously ihcreased. Christian union is a gigantic problem which the 
wisest leaders of the churches do not at all see their way to solve But if 
there is one thing clear about the subject, it is that we must have a common 
ground to unite upon and pne that we can all accept with enthusiasm. 






Unity is not uniformity. What we want is not so much an army the stature 
of whose soldiers agrees with the standard, and whose uniforms are accord- 
ing to regulation patterns, as an army in which every heart burns true with the 
common fire of purpose and which moves with unswerving directness to a 
common end. So far as we cn see, the gieat object of the conversion of the 
world, and this object alone, supplies the want. Just as all ProtestaTnt 
Christians hold to the Bible and say: "This is the great source of our relig- 
$on, whatever our difference, we cling to the inspired page, we meet in our 
common reverence for the Word of God,' 1 so ought they to say, so let us 
hope they will one day say : "The world as the subject of redemption, this 
is the great object of our religion, round this one cause we may cluster our- 
selves, sink our differences in the one end in view and link ourselves in a 
new and sweeter brotherhood as we go unitedly to possess it. 1 " 

Consider only some of the advantages to the work of Christian missions, 
which may be expected to accrue as a spirit of union prevails among the 
different sections of the church. The union of parent churches will mean 
very substantial economy in church expenditure at home, and set free very 
considerable funds for the spread of the Gospel abroad. Fancy the 
$ 10,000,000 the present cost of the Christian army in the greater crusade, 
being changed into $20,000,000 ! * 

Union would result in a much more systematic mapping out of mission- 
ary fields and in much more complete cooperation amongst individual 
missionaries than exist at present. 

The moral effect of a united front is more difficult to estimate, but that 
its influences on those to whom the Gospel message is carried would be 
immense, no one can seriously tleny. It is the more difficult to speak on 
this topic, as the wildest nonsense has passed current on the subject among 
the unsympathetic critics of missions. The picture of an unsophisticated 
pagan bewildered by the confusion of tongues arising from jarrjog sects, 
tossed hopelessly to and fro as he pursues his anxious inquiries, from Epis- 
copalian to Presbyterian, from Calvinist to Armenian, from Churchman to 
.Methodist, from Trinitarian to Unitarian, and finally giving up in despair 
"the vain attempt to ascertain what Christianity is, and impartially inviting 
them all to join his own tolerant and catholic communion " More better 
r you come Joss pidgin side" is too delicious for criticism. Nothing could 
be more supremely absurd. The whole thing is woven out of the cobwebs 
.ol the critic's imagination. It involves not only the densest ignorance of 
the missionary; but a still more hopeless state of darkness as to the mental 
attitude of the neophyte. The simple reply to it is, that anxong^ Protestant 
missions nineteen members out of twenty could give no account t whatever 
of the difference between one mission and another. 

It is when we look to the future that we tremble for the moral influence 
of sectarian divisions. As the foundations with which we are now so busy 
become firmly laid ; as an enthusiasm for the study of Christianity spreads ; 


as large and influential native churches become formed, then more minute 
study and more discriminating discussion of the faith will show the deep 
lines of hate and wrath which have cleft asunder the followers of Jesus ; then 
attempts may be made to perpetuate differences amongst those who have 
had no part in producing them ; then, in the face of the great heathen 
faiths which the Gospel is destined to replace, ail the ugly features of intol- 
erance and bigotry will show themselves, and we tremble for the issue, as 
we think how long they may actually delay the coming of the kingdom of 
God with power. In India and in Japan, missions are in a stage far in 
advance of what they have reached in China, and in them the evil effects of 
division are already exhibiting the principle that the advance of missionary 
success makes the demand for union more urgent. 

The view here taken of religious union does not~regard it as a mechan- 
ical combination, but as a guiding principle and an animating spirit The 
manner of its embodiment must be left to time. The problem is too com- 
plex for men to sit down and draw up a scheme and say : " Go to now, let 
us accept the constitution and forthwith become a Universal Church. 7 ' It 
must be a growth, not a manufacture ; must be realized by a process of edu- 
cation rather than one of agitation. The ideal must mature in the Christian 
consciousness before it can emerge as a realization in practice. - It must 
result from the catholic development of Christian thought. Any attempt to 
force it would but retard its advent. It can only hope to include all by 
learning to give comprehensive expression to what is precious in each. 
The great thing is that each and all of us should keep the ideal unswerv- 
ingly in view, seek by all legitimate means to promote its realization, and 
by patience, tolerance, sympathetic study of one another, in a larger love, a 
more embracing wisdom, a stronger faith, move toward the goal. Could we 
but think that half the zeal, the intensity of purpose, the genius, the learn- 
ing, the power of, argument and persuasion, the loyalty to conviction, the 
sacrifice for conscience sake, the heroism of effort in themselves such noble 
things which in the past Have been employed in the cause of division,/ 
would in the future be enlisted in the service of union, we should have no 
fear that the widest breach will be healed, the strongest barrier shattered, 
and the followers of Christ made one. 

Christian union is but a part of the wider question of religious union. 
Contemporaneously with the desire that all the citizens of the spiritual 
Kingdom of our Divine King should stand to the outer world on terms of 
mutual recognition and fellowship, there has grown up an almost equally 
imperious longing to approach the non-Christian religions in a spirit of love 
and not of antagonism, to understand and justly rate their value as expres- 
sions of the religious principle in man, to replace indiscriminate condemna- 
tion by reverential study, and to obtain conquest, not by crushing resistance, 
but by winning allegiance. And because this is a subject on which much 



confusion of thought and misunderstanding prevail it becomes us to speak 
with all possible explicitness. 

It appears to us then that all religion whatever in any age or country is 
in its essential spring good and not evil. It has been at the root of all moral- 
ity that ever made society possible, has been the spring of every philosophy, 
the incentive to every science yet born, has formed the nucleus and animat- 
ing soul of every civilized nation the sun ever shone on, has been the uplifting 
force of whatever progress the world or any part of the world has ever made. 
Religion has been spoken of as " the great divider," it is in fact, the great, 
the only adequate and permanent uniting power. Burdened with never so 
much error, with never so much superstition, it is yet better, immeasurably 
better, than the error and superstition without the religion, and they would be 
there in undisturbed exercise if it were not there. Define it in what abstract 
terms you will, as dependence on a higher power, as a consciousness of the 
reality of the invisible, as the mysterious feeling of the sacredness of con- 
science, as a sense of the divine in human life, religion is the one thing that 
has made union, heroism, nobleness, greatness, possible to men. Held in 
connection with what amount of falsehood you like, it is the beginning of 
all truth. Everything worth having in life is founded on belief ; nothing 
worth having is founded on unbelief. India may be as bad as. you please 
under the reign of Brahmanism ; China, Thibet and Corea as degraded as you 
choose under that of Buddhism and Confucianism ; Arabia and Turkey as 
cruel and lustful as you can imagine under Mohammedanism ; Africa as sav- 
age as you care to suppose with its dumb, dark fetichisms ; all would be worse 
without these. Superstition, lust, cruelty, selfishness, savagery, wrong, hate, 
rage, can get on without religion of any kind ; they reign in uninterrupted 
devilishness where it has never entered. Lucifer and Beelzebub have no 
creed, hell has no religion. Dim, dim and cold as yellow changeful moons, as 
twinkling, distant, cloud-obscured stars, as momentary falling meteors in the 
dark, dread night of humanity, yet are they farther removed ffom the utter 
darkness, the gloom and terror and despair which are the death of the soul 
than from the crimson and gold of the dawning sky, the splendor of the noon- 
day sun which we behold in Jesus Christ. 

The- one insurmountable obstacle which prevents many of the wisest and 
best of men from seeing this, is the almost ineradicable tendency to ascribe 
to the religious beliefs of those we call heathen, the abuses we find in heathen 
society. No religion, Christianity any more than others, can stand that test. 
It is the proper argument of infidelity. Apply it fairly and you make a 
clean sweep. All the divine things which Jesus brought into the world go by 
the board. The careful, impartial student of the working of beliefs on the 
human mind cannot help seeing that the gigantic evils of society which exist 
in Christendom and heathendom alike are due to an original corruption of 
human nature against which religion is always, in a degree which is the test 
of its value, a protest The true root of sin everywhere and always is irre- 


ligion. Religion wherever we find it makes its appeal to the human con- 
science, addresses itself to the faculty of worship and makes a stand, effective 
pr ineffective, against evil. However ineffective, to make the attempt at all 
is better than to let the flood roll irresistibly. China is better than Africa 
because she has better religions. China without Confucius, would have been 
immeasurably worse than China with Confucius. 

If we regard the question in the light of the distinction between sub- 
jective and objective, we may say that\he subjective qualities in the nature 
of man which are exercised in religion, are the same in kind, though differ- 
ing in degree in all religious systems, and always, however exercised, are to 
be treated with reverence; and the proud, vast claim we make for the Chris- 
tian faith is, that it alone furnishes those spiritual objects which can give 
full development and perfect expression to the spiritual nature of all man- 
kind. It alone has certitude strong enough, life spiritual enough, hope high 
enough, love wide enough, to make summer in the world's heart. Because it 
has gone to the center it can reach to the circumference. Its mission to the 
non-Christian systems is one not of condemnation, but of interpretation. 
On the same darkness into which their glinting rays have feebly struck, it 
sheds its heaven kindled, clear-burning, all-diffusive light. It holds the 
keys of all spiritual mysteries. To us the non-Christian religions are little 
other than archaic forms, however valid and fresh they may seem to their 
followers. They are crude attempts at theology which have gathered round 
the personality of men, who, in their own spheres, to their own times and 
races, were spiritual kings. Each presents a problem the Gospel is bound 
to solve. It has to explain them* to themselves. But in doing so it must 
not disregard the fundamental law of teaching. It must proceed from the 
known to the unknown, frpm the acknowledged to the unacknowledged, 
from the truth partially perceived to the truth full-orbed and clear. Every 
ray of truth, every spark of holy feeling, every feeble impulse of pure desire, 
every noble deed, every act of sacrifice, every sign of tenderness and love, 
which in them have made them dear to their believers, will be an open door 
for its entrance, and its right to supplant will rest finally on its power to 

We have a magnificent example of missionary polemics in the Epistle to 
the Hebrews. Christianity had to replace Judaism, but before it could do 
so their true relation h$d to be shoyn. That mightiest controversialist of 
the apostolic church took the whole complicated system of sacrifice, priest- 
hood, Sabbaths, purification, traced their intricate lines till they ran into the 
great redeeming plan, 8ung over ttiem all the crimson mantle of Christ and 
struck their foreshadowings through and through with the light that never 
fades. From that hour Judaism was a lost cause* The bridge was thrown 
across the gulf by which men might pass out of the narrow, exclusive limits 
of a national religion to the large liberty of that new faith, whose aim was 
to renew and reunite the universal family of man. Henceforth Moses must 


* i 

be included in Christ, and instead of Christians becoming Jews* Jews must 
become Christians. It is true that Judaism was in a peculiar manner a 
preparation for Christianity, yet there is a modified sense in which all relig- 
ion whatever is a * preparation for Christianity and this earliest polemic of 
the church is a model for the Christian missionary in dealing with the relig- 
ions of every country and of every era. 

To sum up what has already been advanced : Christianity, in the con* 
ception of her Divine Founder, and according to her best traditions in every 
century, is a religion for the whole world. To bring all mankind into fel- 
lowship with Christ is her chief mission. That was the grand master 
purpose which gave to the apostolic age its fervor, its inspiration, its resist- 
less sway over men's hearts. But, alas, through centuries darkened by 
selfishness, by pride, by love of power, by intolerant bigotry, by intestine 
strife, she has gone far to forget her errand to the world. Yet again, in 
our own times, this great thought of a love for all men, wide, tender, toler- 
ant as that of Christ himself, is being born in men's hearts. For the first 
time in the history of modern Christianity, shall we say for the first time 
in the history of the world, the idea has been conceived of bringing 
together, face tp face, not only representatives of the many branches of 
Christendom, but also leaders of the great historic faiths of the world. 
Surely this in itself indicates that great movements are^preparing beneath 
the surface, full of hope and promise for the future. The splendid courage 
which has undertaken such a task will not be lost. Everything is calling 
loudly for a radical change of attitude on the part of Christian men. Our 
denominational distinctions have for the most part become anachronisms, 
They rest on certain hopeless arguments whioji can never be settled one way 
or another. Our divisions are strangling us. Much of the world's best 
literature and the world's best science are already without our borders. The 
leaders of social reform look upon us wkh suspicion and distrust. Our atti- 
tude toward the * non-Christian world is stiff and unbending in the extreme. 
Meanwhile material changes and civilizing influences are flinging the 
nations into each other's arms. The great world which does not understand 
the mystery of its sin and misery is left Without its Saviour, and he yet 
waits to possess the world he bought with his blood. The federation of 
Christian men and the prosecution in a spirit of loving sympathy of her 
evangel throughout the world, are the great ideals which in the past have 
made the church illustrious, which in the future must be her salvation. 

Is all this distant, far out of reach and impracticable ? Doubtless like 
the millennium and we might almost say it will he the millennium it is by 
no means at our doors. These ate only ideals, and men sneer at ideals, 
Already sarcasm has been at work on the aims' of this great Congress. It 
has been " weighed in the balances " of a present-day prudence and fyas been' 
"found wanting. 11 Now, in the nature of things, what is to be attempted by 
this assembly must be provisional, tentative, and not immediately realizable, 














It must deal with miniatured schemes and unripe issues. Else how is 
beginning to be made ? Men of hard and unimaginative minds are sure to 
stigmatize its hopes as visionary. But we are not afraid of a word, and if 
we were, this is not a word to be afraid of. The world is led by its idealsl 
It is the golden age to come that cheers us 'through the dark and dreary 
winter of present experience. It is Canaan with its "milk and honey" 
that makes the wilderness of our wanderings endurable. Every great cause 
for which heroes have bled and brave souls have toiled and sorrowed has 
been once an idea, a dream, a hope, and, on coward tongues, an impossi- 
bility. It has been the peculiar business of religion to furnish those illumin- 
ating and inspiring ambitions which have been as "songs in the night " of 
humanity's upward march. Speaking humanly, religion is the strongest 
force, and it always will be, because it has always enlisted imagination in 
its service. 

Will you hear a parable from the political history of China ? China, 
great and ancient, we are accustomed to think and speak of her as one wide 
empire dwelling apart from the nations, unchanged by the course of millen- 
niums, well nigh impervious to the tooth of time. While other nations have 
come and gone, while empires have risen and fallen, in the misty past and 
in the clearer present alike, seemingly unaffected by the changes that have 
convulsed the outer world, China has been China still. But this is partly 
delusive. China has been one through all the ages of history because we 
had only one name for her, and our ignorance of her internal state prevented 
us from knowing otherwise. The truth is that not only once in her history, 
but many times, China has been a loose aggregation of petty kingdoms, dif- 
ferent races, different laws, different languages, different customs, and 
waging war on each other as remorseless as the internecine struggles of the 
Saxon Heptarchy. 

Yet notwithstanding this, she has displayed one characteristic seen 
nowhere else, a phenomenon absolutely unique in history. Elsewhere we 
have seen kingdoms fall and others rise in their place, but nowhere have we 
seen the resurrection of a ruined empire. Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, 
Greece, Rome, all fell, " never to rise again." Here only we see the broken 
empire rising from its own ruins, and after being rent by faction, crushed by 
conspiracy, torn into countless fragments by contending despots, at the next 
turn of the wheel of destiny pnge more coalescing into a harmonious whole, 
and standing one and impregnable still, the most populous, the most homo- 
geneous nation on earth. 

And the secret of this strange power has been an ideal. Down the 
long, almost unnumbered, line of her rulers, through every change of her 
many dynasties, in times of order ^nd confusion alik^, the ideal with which 
Confucianism furnishes her, the very goal and ultimate aim of the cult, the 
ideal of a united and peaceful empire, "fling T^ien hsia" * 4 to pacify all 
under heaven," was never for a moment lost sight of. Rivers of blood 


might drench but could not submerge it, treachery and despotism and licen- 
tiousness might delay but could not avert it. The star of her darkest night, 
it has ever lured the nation on, and from every chaos has brought forth 

Like that is the infinitely greater ideal of Christianity. It, too, aspires 
in a deeper, holier, more lasting, more blessed sense to "fling T^ien hsia" 
to pacify give peace to all under heaven. Another peace than that of 
external order the peace which comes from rest of conscience, trust in 
the unseen, intimate communion through a living Saviour with a Father 
God. Not a conventional " under heaven," whose world is limited to 
Christendom as China's world is limited to China, but one that runs all 
round the equator and stretches out to both the poles. Its program lies 
still before us, shame to us that after these nineteen centuries it is unaccom- 
plished! Shame, deeper shame still, if like cravens we count the cost or 
magnify the difficulties or blench in the hour of danger! But deepest, most 
infamous, most undying shame, if in our littleness or narrowness, or love of 
forms and theologies and ecclesiasticisms and rituals, the great ideal itself 
should be lost whick angels sang that night, when the starry spaces were 
glad, and did not know how to hold their exultation because they divined 
where the message came from " Peace on earth, good-will toward men.' 1 

" Peace beginning to be 
Deep as the sleep of the sea, 
When the stars their faces glass 
In its blue tranquillity. 
Hearts of men upon earth, 
From the first to the second birth, 
To rest as the wild waters rest 
With the colors of heaven on their breast. 

" Love, which is sunlight of peace, 
Age by age to increase, 
Till anger and h4te are dead, 
And sorrow and death shall ceasfi : 
Peace on earth and good-will ; 
Souls that are gentle and still 
Hear the first music of this 
Far-off, infinite bliss." 



The reunion of Christendom presupposes an original union which has 
been marred and obstructed, but never entirely destroyed. The Church of 
Christ has been one from the beginning, and he has pledged to her his 
unbroken presence "all the days to the end of the world." The one invis- 
ible church is the soul which animates the divided visible churches. 

Let us briefly mention the prominent points of unity which underlie all 
divisions. Christians differ in dogmas and theology, but agree in the fund- 
amental articles of faith which are necessary to salvation. They are divided 
in church government and discipline, but all acknowledge and obey Christ 
as the Head of the Church and chief Shepherd of our souls. They differ 
widely in modes of worship, rites and ceremonies, but they worship the same 
God manifested in Christ, they surround the same throne of .grace, they offer 
from day to day the same petitions which the Lord has taught them, and 
can sing the satne classical hymns. There is a unity of Christian scholar- 
ship of all creeds, which aims at the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth. The English Version, in its new as well as its old form, will con- 
tinue to be the strongest bond of union among the different sections of Eng- 
lish-speaking Christendom a fact of incalculable importance for private 
devotion and public worship. Formerly, exegetical and historical studies 
were too much controlled by, and made subservient to, apologetic and pol- 
emic ends ; but now they are more and more carried on without prejudice, 
and with the sole object of ascertaining the meaning of the text and the 
facts of history upon which creeds must be built. 

Finally, we must not overlook the ethical unity of Christendom, which 
is much stronger than its dogmatic unity and has never been seriously 

The unity and harmony of the Christian Church were threatened and 
disturbed from the beginning partly by legitimate controversy, which is 
inseparable from progress, partly by ecclesiastical domination and intoler- 
ance, partly by the spirit of pride, selfishness and narrowness which tends 
to create heresy and Schism. The church had hardly existed twenty years 
when it was brought to the brink of disruption by the question of circum- 
cision as a condition of church membership and salvation. The party spirit 
which characterized the philosophical schools of Greece manifested itself in 
the congregation at Corinth, and created four divisions, calling themselves 
respectively after Paul, Apollos, Cephas, and Christ (in a sectarian sense). 

. ' ' 1*92 


i. Many schisms arose in the early ages before and after the Council of 
Nicaea. Almost every great controversy resulted in the excommunication of 
the defeated party, who organized a separate sect, if they were not extermi- 
nated by the civil power, 

^2. Iti the ninth century, the great Catholic Church itself was split in 
two on the doctrinal question of the procession of the Holy Spirit, and the 
ecclesiastical question of the prirtiacy of the Bishop of Rome. The Greek 
schism lasts to this day and seems as far from being healed as ever. 

In view of this greatest, and yet least justifiable, of all schisms, neither 
the Greek nor the Latin Church should cast a stone upon the divisions of 
Protestantism. They all share in the sin and guilt of schism, and should 
also share in a common repentance. 

3. In the sixteenth century, the Latin or Western Church was rent into 
two hostile camps, the Roman and the Protestant, in consequence of the 
evangelical reformation and the papal reaction. 

4. In England, a new era of division dates from the Toleration Act of 
1688, which secured to the orthodox dissenters Presbyterians, Independents, 
Baptists and Quakers a limited toleration/ while the Episcopal Church 
remained the established or national religion in England, and the Reformed 
or Presbyterian Church remained the national religion in Scotland. 

The principle of toleration gradually developed into that of religious 
freedom, and was extended to the Methodists, Unitarians, and Roman Cath- 

We find, therefore, the largest number of denominations in England 
and America where religious freedom is most fully enjoyed ; while on the 
continent of Europe, especially in Roman Catholic countries, freedom of 
public worship is denied or abridged, although of late it is making irresistible 

5. In the United States, all the creeds and sects of Europe meet on a 
basis of liberty and equality before the law, qnd are multiplied by native 
ingenuity and enterprise. 

The number is much too large, and a reproach to the Christian name. 
For these divisions promote jealousies, antagonisms, and interferences at 
home and on missionary fields abroad, at the expense of our common Chris- 
tianity. The evil is beginning to be felt more and more. The cure must 
begin where the disease has reached its crisi|, and where the church is most 
free to act. For the reunion of Christendom, like religion itself, cannot be 
forced, but must te free and voluntary. Christian union and Christian free* 
dom are one and inseparable. 

Before we discuss reunion, we should acknowledge the hand of Provi- 
dence in the present divisions of Christendom. There is a great difference 
between denominationalism and sectarianism. Denominationalism is a 
blessing ; sectarianism is a curse. We must remember that denominations 
are most numerous in the mpst advanced and active nations of the world. 


The historic denominations arc permanent forces, and represent various 
aspects of the Christian religion which supplement each other. The Greek 
Church is especially adapted to the East, to the Greek and Slavonic peo- 
ples ; the Roman, to the Latin races of Southern Europe and America ; the 
Protestant, to the Teutonic races of the North and West. Among the 
Protestant Churches, again, some have a special gift for the cultivation of 
Christian science and literature ; others for the practical development of 
the Christian life ; some are most successful among the higher, others among 
the middle, and still others among the lower classes. All divisions of 
Christendom will, in the providence of God, be made subservient to a 
greater harmony. Where the sin of schism has abounded, the grace of 
future reunion will much more abound. 

Taking this view of the divisions of the church, we must reject the idea 
of a negative reunion, which would destroy all denominational distinctions, 
and thus undo the work of the past. Variety in unity and unity in variety 
is the law of God in nature, in history, and in his kingdom. We must, 
therefore, expect the greatest variety in the church of the future. There are 
good Christians who believe in the ultimate triumph of their own creed, or 
form of government and worship, but they are all mistaken, and indulge in 
a vain dream. The world will never become wholly Greek, nor wholly 
Roman, nor wholly Protestant, but it will become wholly Christian, and will 
include every type and every aspect, every virtue and every grace of Chris- 
tianity an endless variety in harmonious unity, Christ being all in all. 

Every denomination which holds to Christ the Head will retain its dis- 
tinctive peculiarity, and lay it on the altar of reunion, but it will cheerfully 
recognize the excellences and merits of the other branches of God's king- 
dom. No sect has the monopoly of truth. The part is not the whole ; the 
body consists of many members, and all are necessary to each other. 

Doctrinal differences will be the most difficult to adjust. When two 
dogmas flatly contradict each other, the one denying what the other asserts, 
one or the other, or both, must be wrong. Truth excludes error and admits 
of no compromise. 

But truth is many-sided and all-sided, and is reflected in different col- 
ors. The creeds of Christendom, ps already remarked, agree in the essen- 
tial articles of faith and their differences refer either to minor points, or 
represent only various aspects of truth and supplement one another. 

Different movements within the church have already made themselves 
felt in the line of bringing together the scattered members of the one fold. 
There have been voluntary associations of individual Christians. History 
Records the Confederate Union of Churches, as realized in the Pan-Metho- 
dist and Presbyterian Councils, the International Congress of Congregation - 
alists and the meetings of the Anglican Council. The third meeting of the 
latter Council adopted a program for the union of Christendom, consisting of 
four articles, looking toward a confederation of all English-speaking Evan- 


gelical Churches, and possibly even to an organic union. As it comes from the 
largest, most conservative, and most churckly of all the Protestant com- 
munions, it is entitled to the highest respect and to serious consideration. 
It commends itself by a remarkable degree of liberality. The only serious 
difficulty is the " historic episcopate." This is the stumbling-block to all 
non-Episcopalians, and will never be conceded by them as a condition of 
church unity, if it is understood to mean the necessity of three orders of the 
ministry and of Episcopal ordination in unbroken historic succession. But 
it is to be hoped that the Episcopal Church will give the historic episcopate 
as " locally adapted," such a liberal construction as to include " the historic 
presbyterate," which dates from the apostolic age and was never interrupted, 
or will drop it altogether, as a term of reunion. In any case, we hail the 
proposal as an important step in the right direction, and as a hopeful sign 
of the future. 

We pass to the instances of organic union. 

1. An organic union between the Lutheran and German Reformed 
Churches, into which German Protestantism has been divided since the six- 
teenth century, was effected in 1817 in connection with the third centennial 
of the Reformation, under the lead of Frederick William III., king of 
Prussia and father of the first emperor of united Germany. 

2. In our country, the recent history of the Presbyterian Church fur- 
nishes an example of organic union* The Old School and the New School, 
which were divided in 1837 on doctrinal questions, were reunited by a free 
and simultaneous impulse in the year 1869 on the basis of orthodoxy and 
liberty, and have prospered all the more since their reunion, although the 
differences between conservative and progressive tendencies still remain, 
and have, within the last few years, come into collision on the questions of 
a revision of the Westminster Standards, and the historical criticism of the 

3. The four divisions of Presbyterians in Canada have forgotten their 
old family quarrels, and have been united in one organization in 1875. 

4. The Methodists in Canada, who, till 1874, were divided into five 
independent bodies, have recently united in one organization. 

If all the Protestant Churches were united by federal or organic union, 
the greater, the most difficult, and the most important part of the work 
would still remain to be accomplished ; for union must include the Greek 
and" the Roman Churches. They are the oldest, the largest, and claim 
to be the most orthodox ; the former numbering about 84,000,000 members, 
the latter 215,000,000, while all the Protestant denominations together num- 
ber only 130,000,000. 

If any one church is to be the center of unification, that honor must be 
conceded to the Greek or the Roman communion. The Protestant denomU 
nations are all descended, directly or indirectly, from the Latin Church of 
the middle ages ; while the Greek and Latin Churches trace their origin 


< , 

back to the apostolic age, the Greek to the congregation of Jerusalem, the 
Latin to the congregation at Rome. 

' JFJrst of all, the two great divisions of Catholicism should come to an 
agreement among themselves on the disputed questions about the eternal 
procession of the Holy Spirit, and the authority of the Bishop of Rome. .On 
bpth points, the Greek Church is supported by the testimony of antiquity, 
and could not yield without stultifying her whole history. Will Rome ever 
make concessions to history? We hope that she will. 

The difficulty of union with the Roman Church is apparently increased 
by the modern dogmas of papal absolutism and papal infallibility declared 
by the Vatican Council in 1870. These decrees are the logical completion 
of the papal monarchy, the apex of the pyramid of the hierarchy. But they 
can refer only to the Roman Church. The official decisions of the pope, as 
the legitimate head of the Roman Church, are final and binding upon all 
Roman Catholics, but they have no force whatever for any other Christians. 

What if the pope, in the spirit of the first Gregory and under the 
inspiration of a higher authority, should infallibly declare his own fallibility 
in all matters lying outside of his own communion, and invite Greeks and 
Protestants to a fraternal pan-Christian council in Jerusalem, where the 
mother-church of Christendom held the first council of reconciliation and 
peace ? 

The reunion of the entire Catholic Church, Greek and Roman, with the 
Protestant Churches, will require such a restatement of all the controverted 
points by both parties as shall remove misrepresentations, neutralize the 
anathemas pronounced upon imaginary heresies, and show the way to har- 
mony in a broader, higher and deeper consciousness of God'fc truth and 
God's love. 

The whole system of traditional orthodoxy, Greek, Latin and Protest- 
ant, mtist progress, or it will be left behind the age and lose its hold on 
thinking men. The church must keep pace with civilization, adjust herself 
to the modern conditions of religious and political freedom, and accept the 
established results of biblical and historical criticism, and natural science. 
God speaks in history and science as well as in the Bible and the church, 
and he cannot contradict himself. Truth is sovereign, and must and will 
prevail over all ignorance, error and prejudice. 

The history of the Bible is to a large extent a history of abuse as well 
fcs use, of imposition as well as exposition. No book has been more 
perverted. The mechanical inspiration theory of the seventeenth century, 
wiuch confounded inspiration with dictation and reduced the biblical authors 
to mete clerks, is given up by scholars for a spiritual and dynamic theory. 
^Textual criticism has purified the traditional text of the Greek Testament, 
correcting many passages and omitting later interpolations. The criticism 
of the Hebrew Bible text and the Septuagint has begun the same funda- 
mental process* Historical criticism is putting the literature of both Testa- 




ments in a new light, and makes it more real and intelligible by explaining 
its environments and organic growth until the completion of the canon. The 
Wild allegorical exegesis, which turns the .Bible into a nose of wax and makes 
it to teach anything that is pious or orthodox, has been gradually super- 
seded by an honest, grammatical and historical exegesis, which takes out 
the real meaning of the writer instead of putting in the fancies of the reader. 
Many proof texts of Protestants against popery, and of Romanists against 
Protestantism, and of both for orthodoxy or against heresy, can no longer 
ibe used for partisan purposes. 

- Church history has undergone of late a great change, partly in conse- 
quence of the discovery of lost documents and deeper research, partly on 
account of a new spirit and standpoint of the historian. The study of his- 
tory " with malice toward none, but with chanty for all" will bring the 
denominations closer together in an humble recognition of their defects and 
a grateful praise for the good which the same Spirit has wrought in them 
and through them. 

With regard to the relation of the church to natural and physical 
science, concessions will be made to modern geology and biology, when 
they have passed the stage of conjecture and reached an agreement as to 
facts. The Bible does not determine the age of the earth or man, and leaves 
a large margin for differences of opinion even on purely exegetical grounds. 
The theory of the evolution of animal life, far from contradicting the fact 
of creation, presupposes it ; for every evolution must have a beginning, and 
this can only be accounted for by an infinite intelligence and creative will. 
God's power and wisdom are even more wonderful in this gradual process. 
The theory of historical development, which corresponds to the theory of 
natural evolution and preceded it, is now adopted by every historian, and 
Is indorsed by Christ himself in the twin parables of the mustard-seed and 
the leaven. But there is another law of development no less important, 
which may be called the law of creative headships. Every important intel- 
lectual and religious movement begins with a towering personality which 
cannot be explained from antecedents, but marks a new epoch. The Bible, 
we must all acknowledge, is not, and never claimed to be, a guide of chro- 
nology, astronomy, geology, or any other science, but solely a book of relig- 
ion, a rule of faith and practice, a guide to holy living and dying. There 
is, therefore, no room for a conflict between the Bible and science, faith and 
.reason, authority and freedom, the church and civilization. 

Before the reunion of Christendom can be accomplished, we must 
expect providential events, new Pentecosts, new reformations *as great as 
any that have gone before. The twentieth century has marvelous surprises 
in store for the church and the world. Let us consider some of the moral 
means by which a similar affiliation and consolidation of the different 
churches may be hastened. 

I. The cultivation of an eirenic and evangelical-catholic spirit in the 
personal intercourse with our fellow Christians of other denominations. 


2. Cooperation in Christiait and philanthropic work draws me* together 
and promotes their mutual confidence and regard. 

3. Missionary societies should at once come to a definite agreement, 
prohibiting all mutual interference in their efforts to spread the Gospel at 
home and abroad. 

4. The study of church history has already been mentioned as an 
important means of correcting sectarian prejudices and increasing mutual 
appreciation. The study of symbolic or comparative theology is one of the 
most important branches of history in this respect, especially in our country, 
where. all the creeds of Christendom come into daily contact, and should 
become thoroughly acquainted with one another. 

5- One word suffices as regards the duty and privilege of prayer for 
Christian union, in the spirit of our Lord's sacerdotal prayer, that his dis- 
ciples may all be one in him, as he is one with the Father. 

We welcome to the reunion of Christendom all denominations which 
have followed the divine Master and have done his work. Let us forget and 
forgive their many sins and errors, and remember only their virtues and 
merits. The Greek Church is a glorious church ; for in her language have 
come down to us the oracles of God, the Septuagmt, the Gospels and Epis- 
tles ; hers are the early confessors and martyrs, the Christian fathers, bish- 
ops, patriarchs and emperors ; hers the immortal writings of Origen, 
Eusebius, Athanasius and Chrysostorn ; hers the (Ecumenical Councils and 
the Nicene Creed, which can never die. 

The Latin Church is a glorious church ; she was the Alma Mater of the 
barbarians of Europe ; she stimulated and patroni/ed the Renaissance, the 
printing press and the discovery of a new world ; she still stands, like an 
immovable rock, bearing witness to the fundamental truths and facts of our 
holy religibn, and to the catholicity, unity, unbroken continuity, and inde- 
pendence of the church ; and she is as zealous as ever in missionary enter- 
prise and self-denying works of Christian charity. 

We hail the Reformation which redeemed us from the yoke of spiritual 
despotism, and secured us religious liberty the most precious of all liber- 
ties and made the Bible in every language a book for all classes and con- 
ditions of men. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, the first-born daughter 
of the reformation, is a glorious church : for she set the word of God above 
the traditions of men, and bore witness to the comforting truth of justifica- 
tion by faith ; she struck the keynote to thousands of sweet hymns in praise 
of the Redeemer; she is boldly and reverently investigating the problems 
of faith and philosophy, and is constantly making valuable additions to 
theological lore. The Evangelical Reformed Church is a glorious church : 
for she carried the reformation from the Alps and lakes of Switzerland "to 
the end of the West ; " she is rich in learning and good works of faith ; she 
keeps pace with all true progress ; she grapples with the problems and evils 
of modern society ; and she sends the Gospel to the ends of the earth. 


The Episcopal Church of England, the most churchly of the reformed 
family, is a glorious church: for she gave to the English-speaking world 
the best version of the Holy Scriptures and the best prayer-book ; she pre- 
served the ofder and dignity of the ministry and public worship; she 
nursed the knowledge and love of antiquity, and enriched the treasury of 
Christian literature. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland is a glorious 
church : for she turned a barren country into a garden, and raised a poor 
and semi-barbarous people to a level with the richest and most intelligent 
nations ; she diffused the knowledge of the Bible and a love of the kirk in 
the huts of the peasant as well as the palaces of the nobleman; she has 
always stood up for church order and discipline, for the rights of the laity, 
and first and last for the crown-rights of King Jesus, which are above all 
earthly crowns, even that of the proudest monarch in whose dominion the 
sun never sets. The Congregational Church is a glorious church : for she 
has taught the principle, and proved the capacity, of congregational inde- 
pendence and self-government based upon